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Chapter 3 Managing the Information Systems Project Modern Systems Analysis and Design Sixth Edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Managing the Information Systems Project Modern Systems Analysis and Design Sixth Edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Managing the Information Systems Project Modern Systems Analysis and Design Sixth Edition

2 A Brief Case Study: Denver International Airport In 1988, Denver, Colorado embarked on a project to construct a state-of-the-art airport to replace the existing Stapleton Airport. Stapleton was viewed as incapable of expansion because of its location. The newly proposed airport would reduce costs of operation, allow for sufficient growth, and eliminate pollution and air traffic delays. The new airport, named Denver International Airport (DIA) was scheduled to open on October 31, 1993.

3 In the September 1994 issue of Scientific American, W. Wayt Gibbs chronicled the DIA as an example of a modern software crisis: "Denver's new international airport was to be the pride of the Rockies, a wonder of modern engineering. Twice the size of Manhattan, 10 times the breadth of Heathrow, the airport is big enough to land three jets simultaneously in bad weather. Even more impressive than its girth is the airport's subterranean baggage-handling system. Tearing like intelligent coal-mine cars along 21 miles of steel track, 4,000 independent "telecars" route and deliver luggage between the counters, gates and claim areas of 20 different airlines. A central nervous system of some 100 computers networked to one another and to 5,000 electric eyes, 400 radio receivers and 56 bar-code scanners orchestrates the safe and timely arrival of every valise and ski bag.

4 At least that is the plan. For nine months, this Gulliver has been held captive by Lilliputians-errors in the software that controls its automated baggage system. Scheduled for takeoff by last Halloween, the airport's grand opening was postponed until December to allow BAE Automated Systems time to flush the gremlins out of its $193-million system. December yielded to March. March slipped to May. In June the airport's planners, their bond rating demoted to junk and their budget hemorrhaging red ink at the rate of $1.1 million a day in interest and operating costs, conceded that they could not predict when the baggage system would stabilize enough for the airport to open

5 Eventually the Denver International Airport (DIA) did open, but the advanced baggage system was only partially functioning. The four delayed openings of the airport caused many residents to speculate that DIA really stood for "Do It Again," "Doesn't Include Airlines," or "Done In April". In order to finally open the terminal, the city invested $51 million to install a conventional baggage system as a work around to the high-tech system. Ironically, the conventional system was completed four weeks ahead of schedule and $3.4 million under budget. The obvious question is: why was the high-tech system so difficult to implement? Video from MSNBC

6 Success Rate for IT Projects Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6 6/13/2014Chapter 2

7 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Importance of Project Management Project management may be the most important aspect of systems development. Effective PM helps to ensure The meeting of customer expectations. The satisfying of budget and time constraints. PM skills are difficult and important to learn. 7 Chapter 3

8 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Deciding on Systems Projects System Service Request (SSR) A standard form for requesting or proposing systems development work within an organization Feasibility study A study that determines whether a requested system makes economic and operational sense for an organization 8 Chapter 3

9 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Managing the Information Systems Project Project A planned undertaking of related activities to reach an objective that has a beginning and an end Project management A controlled process of initiating, planning, executing, and closing down a project 9 Chapter 3

10 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Managing the Information Systems Project (cont.) Project manager Systems analyst with management and leadership skills responsible for leading project initiation, planning, execution, and closedown Deliverable The end product of an SDLC phase 10 Chapter 3

11 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Project Management Activities 11 Chapter 3 FIGURE 3-4 A project manager juggles numerous activities

12 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Phases of Project Management Process Phase 1: Initiation Phase 2: Planning/Controlling Phase 3: Execution/Controlling Phase 4: Closedown 12 Chapter 3

13 Planning and Control With no plan it is almost impossible to control the project Controlling involves tracking progress against a plan and modifying the plan when variances are observed James Lewis refers to planning and control as the Siamese twins of project management – codependent upon one another and inseparable

14 Controlling the Project Control is exercised by comparing where you are to where you are supposed to be so that corrective action can be taken when there is a deviation. From J. P. Lewis, Fundamentals of Project Planning

15 Planning Asks … What must be done? How will it be done? Who will do it? How long will it take? How much will it cost?

16 Strategies for Effective Planning Plan for planning Good plans arent developed on an ad hoc basis Planning sessions should be carefully planned The persons who will work the plan should participate in its development Expect to change the plan Conditions change New information is discovered Risk management should be included Understanding the purpose of the planning Accurate and clear problem statement SMART objectives How are the objectives to be achieved?

17 Components of a Project Plan Problem statement Mission statement Project objectives Project deliverables Acceptance criteria Communication plan Work breakdown structure Schedule Budget Resource requirements Change and control system Risk assessment plan From the Project Charter

18 SMART objectives

19 The Plan versus a Schedule The plan Defines the activities Documents the interaction between activities Estimates the duration for completing each activity Analyzes the sequences, duration and resource requirements to crate a project schedule The schedule Determine start and finish dates for project activities Often must be iterated(along with processes that are the input) especially the duration estimating

20 Project Planning Techniques Provide regular status updates to stakeholders Include team members in planning sessions and plan preparation Provide various alternatives to management Scope constrained alternatives Time constrained alternatives Resources alternatives Plan to plan Obtain plan approval before beginning execution

21 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall PM Phase 1: Project Initiation Assess size, scope and complexity, and establish procedures. Establish: Initiation team Relationship with customer Project initiation plan Management procedures Project management environment Project workbook 21 Chapter 3

22 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall PM Phase 2: Project Planning Define clear, discrete activities and the work needed to complete each activity Tasks Define project scope, alternatives, feasibility Divide project into tasks Estimate resource requirements Develop preliminary schedule Develop communication plan Determine standards and procedures Identify and assess risk Create preliminary budget Develop a statement of work Set baseline project plan 22 Chapter 3

23 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Some Components of Project Planning Statement of Work (SOW) Contract between the IS staff and the customer regarding deliverables and time estimates for a system development project The Baseline Project Plan (BPP) Contains estimates of scope, benefits, schedules, costs, risks, and resource requirements Preliminary Budget Cost-benefit analysis outlining planned expenses and revenues 23 Chapter 3

24 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Some Components of Project Planning (cont.) Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Division of project into manageable and logically ordered tasks and subtasks Scheduling Diagrams Gantt chart: horizontal bars represent task durations Network diagram: boxes and links represent task dependencies 24 Chapter 3

25 Task List Initial attempt to define the work to be done List can enhance brainstorming about project work Need not be in any particular order at first Task lists are driven by project objectives

26 High-Level Work Breakdown Structure A deliverables-oriented grouping of the full scope of work for a project. Helps confirm a common understanding of the full scope of the project. Any work not included in the WBS is not included in the scope of the project. Deliverable Level 1 Deliverable Level 2 Deliverable Level 3 Deliverable Level 2 Deliverable Level 3 Deliverable Level 2 Deliverable Level 3

27 Work Breakdown Structure Developed by identifying the high-level deliverables and then successively subdividing that deliverable into increasingly detailed and manageable subsidiary deliverables or components. A WBS is not the work, but the actual deliverables required for the project Deliverable Level 1 Deliverable Level 2 Deliverable Level 3 Deliverable Level 2 Deliverable Level 3 Deliverable Level 2 Deliverable Level 3

28 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Uses the task list as its basic input Organizes task list into a hierarchical structure May group tasks from task list as it organizes Validate against task list and project objectives Task List Work Breakdown Structure

29 From Task List to WBS Task List Task A Task B Task C Task D Task E Task F WBS Overall Task SubTask 1SubTask 2 Task B Task CTask A Task ETask D SubTask 2.1 Task F

30 Generic Tree Structure

31 By Stage Project Management Deliverables

32 Outline 1. Initiation 1.1 Project Documentation Common Folder on Shared Drive Project Journal Issue Log 2. Kickoff 2.1 Project Charter Draft Project Purpose Project Constraints Project Organization 2.2 Kickoff Meeting Validate Leadership Roles Areas Involved 3. Scope 3.1 Project Scope Document High-level Project Schedule Objectives and Approaches 3.2 Risk Management Plan Risk Matrix Residual & Secondary Risks 3.3 Context Diagram

33 Ten Step Planning Process 1. Identify your business requirements, objectives, and approaches. 2. Build your WBS 3. Brainstorm the tasks required to create deliverables. 4. Sequence your task. 5. Look at the relationships & dependencies. 6. Identify resources for each task. 7. Estimate time required for each task. 8. Remember control is primary consideration. 9. Convert the data into a project schedule. 10. Review the project schedule with the project team.

34 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Scheduling Diagrams Gantt Chart Special-purpose project management software is available for this. 34 Chapter 3 FIGURE 3-10 Gantt chart showing project tasks, duration times for those tasks, and predecessors

35 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Scheduling Diagrams Network Diagram Special-purpose project management software is available for this. 35 Chapter 3 FIGURE 3-13 A network diagram illustrating tasks with rectangles (or ovals) and the relationships and sequences of those activities with arrows

36 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Preliminary Budget Spreadsheet software is good for this. 36 Chapter 3 FIGURE 3-15 A financial cost and benefit analysis for a systems development project More on this later

37 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall PM Phase 3: Project Execution Plans created in prior phases are put into action. Actions Execute baseline project plan Monitor progress against baseline plan Manage changes in baseline plan Maintain project workbook Communicate project status 37 Chapter 3

38 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Monitoring Progress with a Gantt Chart Red bars indicate critical path; lines through bars indicate percent complete. 38 Chapter 3 FIGURE 3-17 Gantt chart with tasks 3 and 7 completed

39 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall PM Phase 4: Project Closedown Bring the project to an end Actions Close down the project. Conduct post-project reviews. Lessons Learned Close the customer contract. 39 Chapter 3

40 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Representing and Scheduling Project Plans Gantt Charts Network Diagrams PERT Calculations Critical Path Scheduling Project Management Software 40 Chapter 3

41 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Gantt Charts vs. Network Diagrams Gantt charts Show task durations. Show time overlap. Show slack time in duration. Network diagrams Show task dependencies. Do not show time overlap, but show parallelism. Show slack time in boxes. 41 Chapter 3

42 Project Scheduling with PERT/CPM Charts Complex Task Patterns When various task patterns combine, you must study the facts carefully in order to understand the logical sequence of tasks A systems analyst must understand that project calculations will not be accurate unless the underlying task pattern is logically correct

43 Project Scheduling with PERT/CPM Charts The Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) The Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) Critical Path Method (CPM) The important distinctions between the two methods have disappeared over time, and today the technique is called either PERT, or CPM, or PERT/CPMPERT/CPM

44

45 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Estimating Task Duration PERT: Program Evaluation Review Technique Technique that uses optimistic (o), pessimistic (p), and realistic (r) time estimates to determine expected task duration Formula for Estimated Time: ET = (o + 4r + p)/6

46 Effort and Duration Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 46 6/13/2014Chapter 2 Effort defines the total required number of time units (often measured in hours) to complete a task Duration refers to the calendar time (often in days or weeks) required to complete task Effort is distributed over a duration This is done by assigning some particular number of persons to the task at various times Or, we can assign percentages of one or more persons time to the task at various times

47 Effort, Duration, and Resource Allocation For example, a 750 hour effort would have a 10-week duration if 2 persons were allocated to it fulltime (assuming a fulltime week = 37.5 hours) for that period However, this same effort could result in drastically different durations, with different resource allocations: 40 weeks – if 50% of a persons time is allocated to it 20 weeks -- if 1 person is allocated to it fulltime 15 weeks -- with1 person fulltime for 10 weeks, then 2 persons fulltime for the next 5 weeks 5 weeks – with 4 persons allocated to it fulltime

48 48 Activity Consider the following WBS (next slide) for a project (Note that tasks would have meaningful full names and not just letters in a real WBS – we use letters here to make this exercise more compact.) The numbers given in each rectangle indicate the number of days of effort estimated to be required to do the task. When a task has subtasks, the value given for the parent task is the additional number of days to coordinate/integrate the subtasks.

49 49 Activity Project 1030 A B CD EF GH IJ Note: This means that E and F are subtasks of task B, etc. In using a WBS to estimate effort, we would typically estimate the lowest level tasks first, then work upward. This is called bottom-up estimating. What is the total effort estimated for the entire project? Can you say how long the project will take? Explain. What if 2 people work on the project full time (37.5 hours each per week)?

50 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Critical Path Scheduling A scheduling technique whose order and duration of a sequence of task activities directly affect the completion Critical path: the shortest time in which a project can be completed Slack time: the time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project

51 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall FIGURE 3-25 A network diagram that illustrates the activities (circles) and the sequence (arrows) of those activities Critical Path Example Network diagram shows dependencies 51 Chapter 3

52 Project Scheduling with PERT/CPM Charts Overview of PERT/CPM PERT/CPM is called a bottom-up techniquebottom-up technique Project tasks Once you know the tasks, their duration, and the order in which they must be performed, you can calculate the time that it will take to complete the project

53 Project Scheduling with PERT/CPM Charts PERT/CPM Chart Format Task box T (task duration, or time)task durationtime ES (earliest start)earliest start EF (earliest finish) – expected project durationearliest finishexpected project duration LF (latest finish)latest finish LS (latest start)latest start

54 Project Scheduling with PERT/CPM Charts PERT/CPM Chart Format Task box D (task duration or time) ES (earliest start) EF (earliest finish) LF (latest finish) LS (latest start) Task EF D Slack or float LSLF ES

55 CPM Diagram Nodes -- Example 4 weeks Task 7 weeks 3 weeks 2 weeks 6 weeks9 weeks Add this type of information for each node Duration (Must be known) float (= 9 – 7 or = 6 – 4) (slack) early start ( determined by earliest finish for all preceding activities ) late start (= 9 – 3) early finish (= 4 + 3) late finish ( determined by the latest start for all succeeding activities ) 1 2 3

56 Project Scheduling with PERT/CPM Charts Critical Path Slack time If any task along the critical path falls behind schedule, the entire project is delayed A critical path includes all tasks that are vital to the project schedule

57 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 57 6/13/2014Chapter 2

58 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 58 6/13/2014Chapter 2

59 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Using Project Management Software Many powerful software tools exist for assisting with project management. Example: Microsoft Project can help with Entering project start date. Establishing tasks and task dependencies. Viewing project information as Gantt or Network diagrams. 59 Chapter 3

60 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Project Start Date 60 Chapter 3 FIGURE 3-28 Establishing a project starting date in Microsoft Project for Windows

61 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Entering Tasks 61 Chapter 3 FIGURE 3-29 Entering tasks and assigning task relationships in Microsoft project for Windows

62 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Viewing Network Diagram Hexagon shape indicates a milestone. Red boxes and arrows indicate critical path (no slack). 62 Chapter 3 FIGURE 3-30 Viewing project information as a network diagram in Microsoft Project for Windows

63 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Viewing Gantt Chart Black line at top indicates a summary activity (composed of subtasks). Diamond shape indicates a milestone. 63 Chapter 3 FIGURE 3-31 Gantt chart showing progress of activities (right frame) versus planned activities (left frame)

64 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Summary In this chapter you learned how to: Explain the process of managing an information systems project. Describe the skills required to be an effective project manager. List and describe the skills and activities of a project manager during project initiation, project planning, project execution, and project closedown. Explain what is meant by critical path scheduling and describe the process of creating Gantt charts and network diagrams. Explain how commercial project management software packages can be used to assist in representing and managing project schedules. 64 Chapter 3


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