Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Managing the Information Systems Project Modern Systems Analysis and Design Sixth Edition."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 3 Managing the Information Systems Project Modern Systems Analysis and Design Sixth Edition
A Brief Case Study: Denver International Airport In 1988, Denver, Colorado embarked on a project to construct a state-of-the-art airport to replace the existing Stapleton Airport. Stapleton was viewed as incapable of expansion because of its location. The newly proposed airport would reduce costs of operation, allow for sufficient growth, and eliminate pollution and air traffic delays. The new airport, named Denver International Airport (DIA) was scheduled to open on October 31, 1993.
In the September 1994 issue of Scientific American, W. Wayt Gibbs chronicled the DIA as an example of a modern software crisis: "Denver's new international airport was to be the pride of the Rockies, a wonder of modern engineering. Twice the size of Manhattan, 10 times the breadth of Heathrow, the airport is big enough to land three jets simultaneously in bad weather. Even more impressive than its girth is the airport's subterranean baggage-handling system. Tearing like intelligent coal-mine cars along 21 miles of steel track, 4,000 independent "telecars" route and deliver luggage between the counters, gates and claim areas of 20 different airlines. A central nervous system of some 100 computers networked to one another and to 5,000 electric eyes, 400 radio receivers and 56 bar-code scanners orchestrates the safe and timely arrival of every valise and ski bag.
At least that is the plan. For nine months, this Gulliver has been held captive by Lilliputians-errors in the software that controls its automated baggage system. Scheduled for takeoff by last Halloween, the airport's grand opening was postponed until December to allow BAE Automated Systems time to flush the gremlins out of its $193-million system. December yielded to March. March slipped to May. In June the airport's planners, their bond rating demoted to junk and their budget hemorrhaging red ink at the rate of $1.1 million a day in interest and operating costs, conceded that they could not predict when the baggage system would stabilize enough for the airport to open
Eventually the Denver International Airport (DIA) did open, but the advanced baggage system was only partially functioning. The four delayed openings of the airport caused many residents to speculate that DIA really stood for "Do It Again," "Doesn't Include Airlines," or "Done In April". In order to finally open the terminal, the city invested $51 million to install a conventional baggage system as a work around to the high-tech system. Ironically, the conventional system was completed four weeks ahead of schedule and $3.4 million under budget. The obvious question is: why was the high-tech system so difficult to implement? Video from MSNBC
Planning and Control With no plan it is almost impossible to control the project Controlling involves tracking progress against a plan and modifying the plan when variances are observed James Lewis refers to planning and control as the Siamese twins of project management – codependent upon one another and inseparable
Controlling the Project Control is exercised by comparing where you are to where you are supposed to be so that corrective action can be taken when there is a deviation. From J. P. Lewis, Fundamentals of Project Planning
Planning Asks … What must be done? How will it be done? Who will do it? How long will it take? How much will it cost?
Strategies for Effective Planning Plan for planning Good plans arent developed on an ad hoc basis Planning sessions should be carefully planned The persons who will work the plan should participate in its development Expect to change the plan Conditions change New information is discovered Risk management should be included Understanding the purpose of the planning Accurate and clear problem statement SMART objectives How are the objectives to be achieved?
Components of a Project Plan Problem statement Mission statement Project objectives Project deliverables Acceptance criteria Communication plan Work breakdown structure Schedule Budget Resource requirements Change and control system Risk assessment plan From the Project Charter
The Plan versus a Schedule The plan Defines the activities Documents the interaction between activities Estimates the duration for completing each activity Analyzes the sequences, duration and resource requirements to crate a project schedule The schedule Determine start and finish dates for project activities Often must be iterated(along with processes that are the input) especially the duration estimating
Project Planning Techniques Provide regular status updates to stakeholders Include team members in planning sessions and plan preparation Provide various alternatives to management Scope constrained alternatives Time constrained alternatives Resources alternatives Plan to plan Obtain plan approval before beginning execution
Task List Initial attempt to define the work to be done List can enhance brainstorming about project work Need not be in any particular order at first Task lists are driven by project objectives
High-Level Work Breakdown Structure A deliverables-oriented grouping of the full scope of work for a project. Helps confirm a common understanding of the full scope of the project. Any work not included in the WBS is not included in the scope of the project. Deliverable Level 1 Deliverable Level 2 Deliverable Level 3 Deliverable Level 2 Deliverable Level 3 Deliverable Level 2 Deliverable Level 3
Work Breakdown Structure Developed by identifying the high-level deliverables and then successively subdividing that deliverable into increasingly detailed and manageable subsidiary deliverables or components. A WBS is not the work, but the actual deliverables required for the project Deliverable Level 1 Deliverable Level 2 Deliverable Level 3 Deliverable Level 2 Deliverable Level 3 Deliverable Level 2 Deliverable Level 3
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Uses the task list as its basic input Organizes task list into a hierarchical structure May group tasks from task list as it organizes Validate against task list and project objectives Task List Work Breakdown Structure
From Task List to WBS Task List Task A Task B Task C Task D Task E Task F WBS Overall Task SubTask 1SubTask 2 Task B Task CTask A Task ETask D SubTask 2.1 Task F
Ten Step Planning Process 1. Identify your business requirements, objectives, and approaches. 2. Build your WBS 3. Brainstorm the tasks required to create deliverables. 4. Sequence your task. 5. Look at the relationships & dependencies. 6. Identify resources for each task. 7. Estimate time required for each task. 8. Remember control is primary consideration. 9. Convert the data into a project schedule. 10. Review the project schedule with the project team.
Project Scheduling with PERT/CPM Charts Complex Task Patterns When various task patterns combine, you must study the facts carefully in order to understand the logical sequence of tasks A systems analyst must understand that project calculations will not be accurate unless the underlying task pattern is logically correct
Project Scheduling with PERT/CPM Charts The Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) The Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) Critical Path Method (CPM) The important distinctions between the two methods have disappeared over time, and today the technique is called either PERT, or CPM, or PERT/CPMPERT/CPM
Effort, Duration, and Resource Allocation For example, a 750 hour effort would have a 10-week duration if 2 persons were allocated to it fulltime (assuming a fulltime week = 37.5 hours) for that period However, this same effort could result in drastically different durations, with different resource allocations: 40 weeks – if 50% of a persons time is allocated to it 20 weeks -- if 1 person is allocated to it fulltime 15 weeks -- with1 person fulltime for 10 weeks, then 2 persons fulltime for the next 5 weeks 5 weeks – with 4 persons allocated to it fulltime
48 Activity Consider the following WBS (next slide) for a project (Note that tasks would have meaningful full names and not just letters in a real WBS – we use letters here to make this exercise more compact.) The numbers given in each rectangle indicate the number of days of effort estimated to be required to do the task. When a task has subtasks, the value given for the parent task is the additional number of days to coordinate/integrate the subtasks.
49 Activity Project 1030 A B 70 120 1530 2040 90100 CD EF GH IJ Note: This means that E and F are subtasks of task B, etc. In using a WBS to estimate effort, we would typically estimate the lowest level tasks first, then work upward. This is called bottom-up estimating. What is the total effort estimated for the entire project? Can you say how long the project will take? Explain. What if 2 people work on the project full time (37.5 hours each per week)?
Project Scheduling with PERT/CPM Charts Overview of PERT/CPM PERT/CPM is called a bottom-up techniquebottom-up technique Project tasks Once you know the tasks, their duration, and the order in which they must be performed, you can calculate the time that it will take to complete the project
Project Scheduling with PERT/CPM Charts PERT/CPM Chart Format Task box T (task duration, or time)task durationtime ES (earliest start)earliest start EF (earliest finish) – expected project durationearliest finishexpected project duration LF (latest finish)latest finish LS (latest start)latest start
Project Scheduling with PERT/CPM Charts PERT/CPM Chart Format Task box D (task duration or time) ES (earliest start) EF (earliest finish) LF (latest finish) LS (latest start) Task EF D Slack or float LSLF ES
CPM Diagram Nodes -- Example 4 weeks Task 7 weeks 3 weeks 2 weeks 6 weeks9 weeks Add this type of information for each node Duration (Must be known) float (= 9 – 7 or = 6 – 4) (slack) early start ( determined by earliest finish for all preceding activities ) late start (= 9 – 3) early finish (= 4 + 3) late finish ( determined by the latest start for all succeeding activities ) 1 2 3
Project Scheduling with PERT/CPM Charts Critical Path Slack time If any task along the critical path falls behind schedule, the entire project is delayed A critical path includes all tasks that are vital to the project schedule