Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Managing the Information Systems Project"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 3 Managing the Information Systems Project Modern Systems Analysis and Design Sixth EditionChapter 3Managing the Information Systems Project
2 A Brief Case Study: Denver International Airport In 1988, Denver, Colorado embarked on a project to construct a state-of-the-art airport to replace the existing Stapleton Airport. Stapleton was viewed as incapable of expansion because of its location. The newly proposed airport would reduce costs of operation, allow for sufficient growth, and eliminate pollution and air traffic delays. The new airport, named Denver International Airport (DIA) was scheduled to open on October 31, 1993.
3 In the September 1994 issue of Scientific American, W In the September 1994 issue of Scientific American, W. Wayt Gibbs chronicled the DIA as an example of a modern software crisis: "Denver's new international airport was to be the pride of the Rockies, a wonder of modern engineering. Twice the size of Manhattan, 10 times the breadth of Heathrow, the airport is big enough to land three jets simultaneously in bad weather. Even more impressive than its girth is the airport's subterranean baggage-handling system. Tearing like intelligent coal-mine cars along 21 miles of steel track, 4,000 independent "telecars" route and deliver luggage between the counters, gates and claim areas of 20 different airlines. A central nervous system of some 100 computers networked to one another and to 5,000 electric eyes, 400 radio receivers and 56 bar-code scanners orchestrates the safe and timely arrival of every valise and ski bag.
4 At least that is the plan At least that is the plan. For nine months, this Gulliver has been held captive by Lilliputians-errors in the software that controls its automated baggage system. Scheduled for takeoff by last Halloween, the airport's grand opening was postponed until December to allow BAE Automated Systems time to flush the gremlins out of its $193-million system. December yielded to March. March slipped to May. In June the airport's planners, their bond rating demoted to junk and their budget hemorrhaging red ink at the rate of $1.1 million a day in interest and operating costs, conceded that they could not predict when the baggage system would stabilize enough for the airport to open “
5 Eventually the Denver International Airport (DIA) did open, but the advanced baggage system was only partially functioning. The four delayed openings of the airport caused many residents to speculate that DIA really stood for "Do It Again," "Doesn't Include Airlines," or "Done In April". In order to finally open the terminal, the city invested $51 million to install a conventional baggage system as a work around to the high-tech system. Ironically, the conventional system was completed four weeks ahead of schedule and $3.4 million under budget.The obvious question is: why was the high-tech system so difficult to implement?Video from MSNBC
13 Planning and ControlWith no plan it is almost impossible to control the projectControlling involves tracking progress against a plan and modifying the plan when variances are observedJames Lewis refers to planning and control as the Siamese twins of project management – codependent upon one another and inseparable
14 Controlling the Project Control is exercised by comparing where you are to where you are supposed to be so that corrective action can be taken when there is a deviation.From J. P. Lewis, Fundamentals of Project Planning
15 Planning Asks … What must be done? How will it be done? Who will do it?How long will it take?How much will it cost?
16 Strategies for Effective Planning Plan for planningGood plans aren’t developed on an ad hoc basisPlanning sessions should be carefully plannedThe persons who will work the plan should participate in its developmentExpect to change the planConditions changeNew information is discoveredRisk management should be includedUnderstanding the purpose of the planningAccurate and clear problem statementSMART objectivesHow are the objectives to be achieved?
17 Components of a Project Plan Problem statementMission statementProject objectivesProject deliverablesAcceptance criteriaCommunication planWork breakdown structureScheduleBudgetResource requirementsChange and control systemRisk assessment planFrom the Project Charter
19 The Plan versus a Schedule Defines the activitiesDocuments the interaction between activitiesEstimates the duration for completing each activityAnalyzes the sequences, duration and resource requirements to crate a project scheduleThe scheduleDetermine start and finish dates for project activitiesOften must be iterated(along with processes that are the input) especially the duration estimating
20 Project Planning Techniques Provide regular status updates to stakeholdersInclude team members in planning sessions and plan preparationProvide various alternatives to managementScope constrained alternativesTime constrained alternativesResources alternativesPlan to planObtain plan approval before beginning execution
25 Task List Initial attempt to define the work to be done List can enhance brainstorming about project workNeed not be in any particular order at firstTask lists are driven by project objectives
26 High-Level Work Breakdown Structure A deliverables-oriented grouping of the full scope of work for a project.Helps confirm a common understanding of the full scope of the project.Any work not included in the WBS is not included in the scope of the project.
27 Work Breakdown Structure Developed by identifying the high-level deliverables and then successively subdividing that deliverable into increasingly detailed and manageable subsidiary deliverables or components.A WBS is not the work, but the actual deliverables required for the project
28 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Uses the task list as its basic inputOrganizes task list into a hierarchical structureMay group tasks from task list as it organizesValidate against task list and project objectivesTask ListWork BreakdownStructure
29 From Task List to WBS Task List WBS Task A Task B Task C Task D Task E Task FWBSOverall TaskSubTask 1SubTask 2Task BTask CTask ASubTask 2.1Task FTask ETask D
33 Ten Step Planning Process Identify your business requirements, objectives, and approaches.Build your WBSBrainstorm the tasks required to create deliverables.Sequence your task.Look at the relationships & dependencies.Identify resources for each task.Estimate time required for each task.Remember control is primary consideration.Convert the data into a project schedule.Review the project schedule with the project team.
42 Project Scheduling with PERT/CPM Charts Complex Task PatternsWhen various task patterns combine, you must study the facts carefully in order to understand the logical sequence of tasksA systems analyst must understand that project calculations will not be accurate unless the underlying task pattern is logically correct
43 Project Scheduling with PERT/CPM Charts The Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)Critical Path Method (CPM)The important distinctions between the two methods have disappeared over time, and today the technique is called either PERT, or CPM, or PERT/CPM
47 Effort, Duration, and Resource Allocation For example, a 750 hour effort would have a 10-week duration if 2 persons were allocated to it fulltime (assuming a fulltime week = 37.5 hours) for that periodHowever, this same effort could result in drastically different durations, with different resource allocations:40 weeks – if 50% of a person’s time is allocated to it20 weeks -- if 1 person is allocated to it fulltime15 weeks -- with1 person fulltime for 10 weeks, then 2 persons fulltime for the next 5 weeks5 weeks – with 4 persons allocated to it fulltime
52 Project Scheduling with PERT/CPM Charts Overview of PERT/CPMPERT/CPM is called a bottom-up techniqueProject tasksOnce you know the tasks, their duration, and the order in which they must be performed, you can calculate the time that it will take to complete the project
54 Project Scheduling with PERT/CPM Charts PERT/CPM Chart FormatTask boxD (task duration or time)ES (earliest start)EF (earliest finish)LF (latest finish)LS (latest start)ESTaskEFDSlack or floatLSLF
55 CPM Diagram Nodes -- Example early start(determined byearliest finishfor all precedingactivities)early finish (= 4 + 3)Task7 weeks3 weeks2 weeks6 weeks9 weeks24 weeks1Duration (Must be known)float (= 9 – 7 or = 6 – 4) (slack)3late finish (determinedby the latest start forall succeeding activities)late start(= 9 – 3)Add this type of information for each node
56 Project Scheduling with PERT/CPM Charts Critical PathSlack timeIf any task along the critical path falls behind schedule, the entire project is delayedA critical path includes all tasks that are vital to the project schedule