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Developing the modern generalist for the community setting Kay Mohanna Principal lecturer in medical education Staffordshire University Associate Dean.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing the modern generalist for the community setting Kay Mohanna Principal lecturer in medical education Staffordshire University Associate Dean."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing the modern generalist for the community setting Kay Mohanna Principal lecturer in medical education Staffordshire University Associate Dean for GP assessment West Midlands Deanery

2 The nature of generalism What is a generalist? Holism in medicine How does the new GP curriculum support training for generalists?

3 Generalism The ability to care for undifferentiated patients Maybe with vague, multiple or hidden diagnoses

4 65% of over 65 year olds have two or more conditions 60% GP presentations MUS Not unreal, or unimportant, or insensitive to medical intervention. They are simply diseases without name.

5 Franz Kafka. A Country Doctor …To write prescriptions is easy, but to come to an understanding with people is hard…

6 A high tech world Often uses algorithms Imagined diagrams of how the doctor might think, and how the doctor might make choices. They are interesting abstractions. But they do not truly reflect the complex pathways of clinical reasoning required in general practice

7 Hospital Practice General practice Increasing likelihood of pathology Breadth of focus of investigation

8 Competence GPs need expertise in excluding the presence of serious disease Specialists need expertise in confirming its presence

9 Balancing risk …Specialists aim to reduce uncertainty, explore possibility and marginalise error, [the generalist aims] to accept uncertainty, explore probability and marginalise danger… Marshall Marinker. Bayliss Lecture. RCP, 1994

10 Co-ordinator of care. Specialists: Increasingly expert in ever- diminishing areas of expertise - care can become fragmented. Barriers between sub-specialties grow, healthcare systems can become more inflexible. Generalists: increase communication between and within specialities bringing their wider perspective to the discussion of patient care

11 So what does society want from doctors?

12 Medicine is not only a science; it is also a healing art. It deals with the very processes of life, which must be understood before they may be guided. Paracelcus Born 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland -alchemist, physician, astrologer,and occultist

13 Tomorrows Doctors… Should show respect for patients and colleagues that encompasses without prejudice, diversity of background and opportunity,language, culture and way of life GMC 1993

14 Tomorrows Doctors… Must have a recognition that a blend of scientific and humanitarian approaches is required, involving a critical approach to learning, open-mindedness, compassion and concern for the dignity of the patient GMC 1993

15 In addition…..


17 The thing is… ….medicine is a difficult job

18 For my entire career I have been convinced that general practice is the hardest specialty to do well, and probably the easiest to do badly. GPs deal in uncertainty all the timethe next patient could have schizophrenia or piles, unhappiness or cardiac arrest, anything and everything, and in no particular order. So the question of which specialty needs the best training … is something of a no-brainer, as our neurology colleagues might say David Haslam BMJ Career Focus 2005;331:151-152

19 Education…. Facilitates a change in an individual so that she or he may function fully Rogers 1983

20 Healthcare professionals exercise their judgment based on skills and training, but they are also whole personalities, and quality as perceived by patients is determined by their whole approach. Holism is a two way street - the whole practitioner deals with the whole patient. Jenkins 1999

21 Domains of learning Cognitive Psychomotor Affective

22 Back to Paracelsus The universities do not teach all things, so a doctor must seek out old wives, gypsies, sorcerers, wandering tribes, old robbers, and such outlaws and take lessons from them. A doctor must be a traveller... knowledge is experience.


24 To be a good doctor you have to be a compassionate chameleon, a shape shifter - a shaman. Even if your adaptation to your patients' world happens at an unconscious level you should always work within their system of ideas, never against it... Cecil Helman

25 …So how do we reach beyond the ordinary? It's when we create or laugh or are inspired. Joanna Shipley

26 Poetry has the power to remind us that we are hunters and gatherers of values. That our very solitude and distresses are creditable, in so far as they, too, are an earnest of our veritable human being. Seamus Heaney 1995

27 It is at the point where medicine and art collide, that doctors can re-attach themselves to the human race and re-feel those emotions which motivate or terrify our patients….Every contact with patients has an ethical and artistic side as well as a technical one. Fairle J. rapid response,November


29 The art of medicine is unique in that it alone seems to occupy a middle place. Medicine has to deal with human personality and human hopes, human fears and human failings, in conjunction with the material body which is liable to so many disasters in the physical environment of our existence….. so that a purely scientific education is inadequate for a profession which deals with so close a relationship between mind and matter 1945 Dr Clarke-Kennedy The Art of Medicine in relation to the progress of human thought

30 Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine There is continuing concern that medical technology, and the need to keep abreast of current scientific developments, threatens to pre-empt medicines traditional concern for human values. 1967

31 This concern extends to assessments of learning in medicine too.

32 In our over-eager embrace of the rational, scientific and technological our concept of the learning process itself has been distorted. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. Cited by David Sales former nMRCGP Convener

33 Video assessment in GP training risks leading to a gross distortion in learning the consultation process Mike Deighan Former RCGP Curriculum Fellow

34 Patient – Im bordering on serious violence Doctor – Are you still taking the hormone tablets?

35 Doctor – How are things at home? Patient – Okay - We went away for a last ditch attempt to sort things out. Doctor – So youre quite relaxed?

36 Patient (with headaches) My husband says I should come up – just in case its something different Doctor – Whats your job?

37 Doctor - Any problem? Patient – Just, Dad died Doctor – Any symptoms?

38 Patient – Im going to be redundant in June Doctor – Are you all catarrhal?

39 The most basic skill is the ability to have comfort with uncertainty, to recognise it with humility, to be open to the ever- present possibility of the surprising and the mysterious and even the holy, and meet people there Rachel Reman, oncologist (in Suburban Shaman. Oscar London.)

40 The search for meaning Living with chronic illness is not simply a physical affair.. it is our ontology, a condition of our being in the world. R.F. Murphy, The Body Silent. (New York: Henry Holt, 1987.)

41 John McCann University of Windsor, Canada Living with chronic illness: subjective contributions toward a patient- centered ethic 1999 Nothing so concentrates experience and clarifies the central conditions of living as serious illness. The study of the process by which meaning is created in illness brings us into the everyday reality of individuals like ourselves, who must deal with the exigent life circumstances created by suffering, disability, difficult loss, and the threat of death. Yes, chronic illness teaches us about death; but the process of mourning for losses is also central to healing

42 Personal loss

43 Medical Humanities We define the term "medical humanities" broadly to include an interdisciplinary field of humanities (literature, philosophy, ethics, history and religion), social science (anthropology, cultural studies, personal narrative, psychology, sociology), and the arts (literature, theatre, film, and visual arts) and their application to medical education and practice. Literature, Arts & Medicine Database

44 The healing arts centre Pennsylvania State University college of Medicine The Healing Arts Centre

45 Blooming Soul: Lynda Hoffman-Snodgrass

46 The MAP Foundation Using the creative arts to express and communicate complex and painful issues relating to serious illness and dying Picture10.jpg

47 Michele Petrone The illness stole a place and a time that should have been destined for better things.

48 This illness has invaded my life, knocked me off balance and made me feel out of control. I no longer feel the strength and direction I once had, I'm just a passive passenger, being carried whichever way these arms take me. But I still feel a need to direct my life, to feel this life of mine is still mine, so please: "carry me this way".

49 I need to know that this body is my body. And I need to know everything that is happening to my body. But most of all I need to know that you know that within my body there is me.

50 The physical illness is visible and life threatening. The emotional feelings, the electrical impulses of my soul, cannot be seen. As they are invisible it is easy to pretend that they are not really there. They don't at first seem to be as important as the cancer on the microscope slide. Yet they can be just as life threatening as the visible cancer itself.


52 The GP Curriculum The six domains of core competences 1. Primary care management 2. Person-centred care 3. Specific problem-solving skills 4. A comprehensive approach 5. Community orientation 6. A holistic approach.

53 The three essential features Contextual using the context of the person, the family, the community and their culture Attitudinal based on the doctors professional capabilities, values and ethics Scientific adopting a critical and research-based approach to practice, and maintaining this through continuing learning and quality improvement The GP Curriculum

54 Architect: Shake Seigel Clerk of works: Kay Mohanna Scientific Attitudinal Contextual A holistic approach Community orientation Primary care management Person-centred care Specific problem-solving skills Comprehensive approach

55 Workplace Based Assessment Addresses the majority of the curriculum, assessing those parts that are best tested in the workplace. Twelve areas of professional competence have been extracted from the core curriculum statement Being a General Practitioner

56 12 domains of professional competence Communication and consultation skills Practising holistically Data gathering and interpretation Making a diagnosis/decisions Clinical management Managing medical complexity Primary care admin and IMT Working with colleagues and in teams Community orientation Maintaining performance, learning and teaching Maintaining an ethical approach Fitness to practise

57 Competency Area MSF PSQ COT CBDMSFCBD Communication and consultation skills Practising holistically Data gathering and interpretation Making a diagnosis/decision Clinical management Managing medical complexity Primary care admin and IMT Working with colleagues and in teams Community orientation Maintaining performance Maintaining an ethical approach Fitness to practise

58 Read this patient narrative and come prepared to discuss what you can hear Tutorial Topics

59 The disbelief, the grief, the doubt, the flung out, the anger, the banter, the bargaining, the accepting, the clenching of teeth, the sick to the teeth, the pain, the no-gain. Why me? Why me now? I'm living, I'm dying. I want to live and escape it, I want to die to escape it. I'm trapped and that's that. Get me out of it. I hate it. I hate it. I hate this illness, what it's done to me. It took away my love - my love of life, my freedom - freedom to love. It threatened my life. I want my life back. This is not me.

60 12 domains of professional competence Communication and consultation skills (Active listening, interpreting language) Practising holistically (understanding the person inside the illness) Managing medical complexity (Illness is more than just pathology) Community orientation (Isolation, social networks, flung out) Maintaining an ethical approach (First do no harm)

61 Tutorial Topics Look at this painting and tell me what you see….


63 12 domains of professional competence Communication and consultation skills Practising holistically Making diagnosis/decisions Clinical management Managing medical complexity Working with colleagues and in teams Community orientation Maintaining an ethical approach Fitness to practise

64 Tutorial Topics There are 1,200 recent studies on the health and religion/spirituality relationship. How do you feel about the prospect of modern medicine prescribing prayer? Consider the following papers and come prepared to discuss them…

65 A randomized, controlled trial of the effects of remote, intercessory prayer on outcomes in patients admitted to the coronary care unit. Arch Int Med 1999;159: 2273-8 The efficacy of "distant healing": a systematic review of randomized trials Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:903-10. Retroactive prayer: a preposterous hypothesis? BMJ 2003;327:1465-468

66 12 domains of professional competence Practising holistically Data gathering and interpreting Making diagnosis/decisions Managing medical complexity Maintaining performance, learning and teaching Maintaining an ethical approach

67 Generalism Technical competence; medical knowledge, advocacy and communication skills, critical appraisal skills Patient-centred disease-centric, recognising the diversity and vagaries of patient experience and expectation. Negotiation: distinguishing between absolute and relative risk, patients need and wants, balancing individual and society Personal growth: reflective practice, life-work balance and understanding of human nature.

68 Marinker Professionalism comes from the quality of our education, not from the quantity of our training. Training simply prepares us to solve clinical puzzles in a predicted and approved way. Education prepares us to tackle problems which the learner cannot foresee, by means which the teacher himself cannot imagine.


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