Presentation on theme: "What is Laminin? Laminin is a protein found in the "extracellular matrix or any extra substance that are within the cells tissue. These are the sheets."— Presentation transcript:
What is Laminin? Laminin is a protein found in the "extracellular matrix or any extra substance that are within the cells tissue. These are the sheets of protein that form the substrate (a substance acted upon by an enzyme) of all internal organs. It's actually made up of three separate parts, called the A, B1, and B2 chains. That gives it a total of six "ends", which accounts for a lot of its flexibility in connecting up various kinds of molecules. Laminin is also a glycoprotein which is any of a group of complex proteins, containing a carbohydrate combined with a simple protein. Basically, Laminin is extremely important because it makes sure that your overall body structures hold together.
Description of Appearance It consists of three chains, bound to each other by disulfide bonds into a cross-shaped molecule having the appearance of one long and three short arms, with globules at each end.
Discovery Laminin was discovered in 1979 by Rupert Timpl who was also responsible for the isolation and localization of the molecule. Timpl earned his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Graz in 1966, and in 1967 he became an Assistant in the Department of Immunology at the University of Vienna, Austria. He also became a Scientific Member and Director of the Department of Protein Chemistry in Rupert Timpl
Pathology There is a certain laminin that if it is dysfunctional then it can cause a form of congenital muscular dystrophy. This laminins special area of work is to the brain and muscle fibers. Or you may just fall apart in a way similar to aging, a condition called "progeria". Any abnormal lamnins can cause many problems within the body such as pitted teeth or if in the kidney filter it can cause leakage of protein in to the urine and cause nephritic syndrome. Which is kidney disease, especially marked by non-inflammatory degeneration (loss of fictional activity) of the tubular system. Pitted teeth Hana Hwang (left) has Progeria. This is aYouTube video of her making Selena a Bracelet. tch?v=N-5W64CAEEI tch?v=N-5W64CAEEI
Laminin Networks Laminins also bind to cell membranes through integrin receptors and other plasma membrane molecules, such as the Lutheran blood group glycoprotein. Through interactions such as these they not only just contribute to cell attachment and differentiation (cell separation in to different parts) but as well as cell shape and movement, maintance of tissue phenotype, and promote tissue survival. Definition of a phenotype: the appearance of an organism resulting from the interaction of the genotype (the sum total of genes transmitted from parent to offspring) and the environment.
Types of Laminin Fifteen different types of Laminin have been identified so far these types consist of making various combinations with the three chains, alpha-, beta-and gamma-chains There are five forms of alpha-chains that correspond numerically for example; LAMA1 is LAM(Laminin)A(alpha-chain) 1(first form) There are four beta-chains that are scientifically written the same way as an alpha-chain but changes to look like this; LAMB2 There are also three gamma-chains that follow the same notation as the alpha- and beta-chains but look like this; LAMC3
Newest stem cells? Some laminins have recently been proven to be able to be used to culture cells (train cells to do a different job than intended) if two laminins are mixed, specifically the laminins 511 and 521 from a human placenta. They recombine the laminins to make up the new stem cells. A placenta is an organ in most mammals, formed in the lining of the uterus by the union of the uterine mucous membrane with the membranes of the fetus, that provides for the nourishment of the fetus and the elimination of its waste products. Basically a placenta is the passage way of the nourishments that the mother eats in her food gets broken down in this organ to go to the baby and it also acts as a trash can for the babys wastes. Some protein isoforms (several different forms of the same protein) are impossible to isolate from their tissue in a pure form due to the need for a harsh extraction conditions like low pH that caused degradation. Scientists have used them to create artificial substrates for transplants.
Biblography Laminin- Wikipedia Answers.com topic Laminin Google images Laminin Video: Blog about Laminin: Dictionary.com for definitions Discovery of Laminin: When was laminin discovered? | Answerbag was laminin discovered? | Answerbag Basic information on Laminin: Louie Giglio: How Great is Our God? Tour