Presentation on theme: "Amylase Matthew Ramos Alan Navarro. What is an Enzyme? Enzymes are a type of protein made when the DNA of a cell is transcribed into RNA and amino acids."— Presentation transcript:
What is an Enzyme? Enzymes are a type of protein made when the DNA of a cell is transcribed into RNA and amino acids come together to form a polypeptide chain, just like any other protein. All enzymes, based on their primary structure, have unique 3-D shapes that are important for the ability of the protein to carry out its tasks (the idea of form fits function)
Form Fits Function As I said, every type of enzyme has its own unique sequence of amino acids that make it up. This sequence determines the 3-D shape of the enzyme, as well as the shape of the active site. The active site is what binds with the substrate (reactants) in order to decrease activation energy. Due to their shape, each active site can only bind to a specific substrate (enzymes and substrates fit together similar to a lock and key).
Amylase It was the first enzyme to be discovered and isolated, by Anselme Payen in 1833. It has three different forms: (Alpha Amylase, Beta Amylase, Gamma Amylase) that are each found in different areas of the body. For example: Saliva, Pancreas, Digestive lining.
What does amylase do? Amylase is a digestive enzyme that acts on starch in food, breaking it down into smaller carbohydrate molecules. Carbohydrates are an important and immediate source of energy for the body. http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=2 0110918162818AAUROrt
3 Types of Amylase (Alpha)For the human body, the saliva and pancreas both contain alpha amylase, it is the major digestive enzyme in the body. Its optimal PH is around 6.7-7.0. Beta amylase is found only in the digestive tract and it has an optimal PH of 4.0-5.0. The other tissues from animals and humans do not contain Beta Amylase, due to the high acidity. Gamma Amylase has the most acidic optimal PH out of all 3 types of amylases. Its optimal and most active level is around 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amylase
Factors that Affect It Just like other enzymes, amylase is sensitive to changes in its environment; these changes can greatly affect the ability of the enzyme to function. Among the factors that influence this enzyme are: ▫Temperature ▫PH ▫Substrate Concentration ▫Inhibitors
Regulating As is common if most form of life, Amylase is regulated allosterically, meaning that an inhibitor will attach it self to a spot on the enzyme and from there will either stabilize the active or inactive form of amylase Chloride is known for being able to activate amylase enzymes in mammals http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amylase
Uses in the Real World Blood and urine tests can determine the concentration of amylase in the blood. Since it should be a low value, higher than normal values on this test can help doctors detect pancreatic diseases. Industrially, amylase is used for things like making beer by breaking down maltose. Its presence in yeast is also important for bread- making. It is even used by the clothing industry to soften starches in fabric (makes clothes softer) http://baylorbarbee.com/blog/how-to-change- the-world/
Uses in the Real World (continued) A potato is very starchy and doesn’t contain a lot of sugar. However, when you chew one it will taste sweet because Amylase is breaking down the starch and turning it into sugar. http://www.dothegreenthing.com/blog/you_say_potato_i_say_f_ing_amazing http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20110918162818AAUROrt
Without it If the body did not have amylase, then it would not be able to break down food. The body won’t get the energy it needs and will ultimately cease to function However, supplements that help maintain proper levels of amylase are available. http://www.anyvitamins.com/amylase-info.htm
Quiz!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! What is the function of Amylase in the body? Name 2 types of amylase found in the human body. Name two real world uses of Amylase.
Extra Sources http://www.enzymeessentials.com/HTML/amylase.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amylase http://www.anyvitamins.com/amylase-info.htm http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Amylase.ht ml http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Amylase.ht ml http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/functions-amylase-protease-lipase- digestive-enzymes-3325.htmlhttp://healthyeating.sfgate.com/functions-amylase-protease-lipase- digestive-enzymes-3325.html http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20110918162818AAUR Orthttp://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20110918162818AAUR Ort