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Gears

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A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part in order to transmit torque, in most cases with teeth on the one gear of identical shape, and often also with that shape on the other gear.

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The gears in a transmission are similar to the wheels in a pulley. An advantage of gears is that the teeth of a gear prevent slipping.

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Two meshing gears transmitting rotational motion. Note that the smaller gear is rotating faster. Although the larger gear is rotating less quickly, its torque is proportionally greater. One subtlety of this particular arrangement is that the linear speed at the pitch diameter is the same on both gears.

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Types of Gears Spur gears : are used to transmit rotary motion between parallel shafts.

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have teeth parallel to the axis of rotation and are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another, parallel, shaft. Of all types, the spur gear is the simplest and, for this reason, will be used to develop the primary kinematic relationships of the tooth form.

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Nomenclature : The terminology of spur-gear teeth is illustrated in Fig. The pitch circle is a theoretical circle upon which all calculations are usually based; its diameter is the pitch diameter. The pitch circles of a pair of mating gears are tangent to each other. A pinion is the smaller of two mating gears. The larger is often called the gear.

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The circular pitch p is the distance, measured on the pitch circle, from a point on one tooth to a corresponding point on an adjacent tooth. The module m is the ratio of the pitch diameter to the number of teeth. The diametral pitch P is the ratio of the number of teeth on the gear to the pitch diameter.

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The addendum a is the radial distance between the top land and the pitch circle. The dedendum b is the radial distance from the bottom land to the pitch circle.

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Where ; P = diametral pitch, teeth per inch. N = number of teeth. d = pitch diameter, in m = module, mm d = pitch diameter, mm p = circular pitch

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Helical gears : are used to transmit motion between parallel or nonparallel shafts.

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have teeth inclined to the axis of rotation. Helical gears can be used for the same applications as spur gears and, when so used, are not as noisy, because of the more gradual engagement of the teeth during meshing. The inclined tooth also develops thrust loads and bending couples, which are not present with spur gearing. Sometimes helical gears are used to transmit motion between nonparallel shafts.

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Bevel gears: are used to transmit rotary motion between intersecting shafts.

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Bevel & Spiral bevels Vs. Hypoid

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have teeth formed on conical surfaces and are used mostly for transmitting motion between intersecting shafts. The figure actually illustrates straight-tooth bevel gears. Spiral bevel gears are cut so the tooth is no longer straight, but forms a circular arc. Hypoid gears are quite similar to spiral bevel gears except that the shafts are offset and nonintersecting.

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Worm gearsets : are used to transmit rotary motion between nonparallel and nonintersecting shafts.

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represent the fourth basic gear type. As shown, the worm resembles a screw. The direction of rotation of the worm gear, also called the worm wheel, depends upon the direction of rotation of the worm and upon whether the worm teeth are cut right-hand or left-hand. Worm gearsets are also made so that the teeth of one or both wrap partly around the other. Such sets are called single enveloping and double- enveloping worm gearsets. Worm gearsets are mostly used when the speed ratios of the two shafts are quite high, say, 3 or more.

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Benefits : 1)Fuel economy. 2)Longevity and cost. 3) Durability. 4) Cost. 5) Lubrication. 6) Performance and control. 7) Engine braking.

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Drawbacks: 1)Complexity and learning curve. 2)Shifting speed. 3)Ease of use. 4)Stopping on hills.

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Done by : Alaa Sameer Farash (0098631)

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