2 Lobes – the separate divisions that come together to form a tooth Lobes – the separate divisions that come together to form a tooth. Often in the molars, the lobes become cusps.Mamelons – three bulges on the incisal edge of the newly erupted central incisor. Mamelons normally disappear from normal wear.
3 Cusp – A pointed or rounded mound on the crown of the tooth. Cusp of Carabelli – A fifth cusp located on the mesial lingual surface of most maxillary first molars.Developmental groove – A groove formed by the uniting of lobes during development of the crown of the tooth,
4 Fissure – A developmental groove that has an imperfect union where the lobes come together. Pit – The place where the grooves come together or the fissures cross. Decay often begins in the pit.Fossa – A shallow rounded or angular depression.Cingulum – A convex area on the lingual surface of the anterior teeth, near the gingiva.
5 Buccal groove – A linear depression forming a groove that extends from the middle of the buccal surface to the occlusal surface of the tooth.Supplemental groove – Shallow, linear groove that radiates from the developmental groove. It often gives the tooth surface a wrinkled look.
6 Apical foramen – An opening in the end of the tooth through which nerve and blood vessels enter. There may be more than one opening at the end of the root.Furcation – The dividing point of a multi-rooted tooth.
7 Bifurcated – When there are two roots on one tooth, they are said to be bifurcated, or branched in two.Trifurcated – Where there are three roots coming from the main trunk of the tooth.
8 Ridge – A linear elevation of enamel found on the tooth. Marginal ridge – Elevated area of enamel that forms the mesial and distal borders of the lingual surface of the anterior teeth and the mesial and distal borders of the occlusal surface of the posterior teeth.Oblique ridge – Elevated area of enamel that extends obliquely across the occlusal of the tooth.
9 Trifurcated ridge – The union of two triangular ridges that produce a single ridge of elevation across the occlusal surface of the posterior tooth.Triangular ridge – A ridge or an elevation that descends from the cusp and widens as it runs down to the middle area of the occlusal surface.
10 Proximal contact area – the areas on the surface of the teeth where the proximal surfaces touch one another.Interproximal spaces – triangular-shaped spaces between the teeth formed by the bone on one side and the proximal surfaces and their contact area on the other side.
11 Embrasure – spaces between the teeth that are occlusal to the contact areas. They allow for the passage of food around the teeth so that food is not forced into the contact area between the teeth.Diastema – spaces between the teeth.Primate spaces – spaces that occur in primary dentition as the maxilla and mandible grow which allows for the larger permanent teeth to erupt.
12 Endentulous – without teeth or an area without the presence of teeth.