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Big Events There are many big events which happen during the coming months, such as the FA cup final at Wembley, the Premiership Rugby final at Twickenham and various music festivals in the Summer. The organisation of these events is mind-boggling when you consider the numbers involved: up to 90,000 at Wembley, 82,000 at Twickenham and 135,000 people at Glastonbury.

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Big Events For one of these events, what facilities, services and other issues would designers and organisers need to think about for people attending the event?

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Big Events You might have come up with some of the following: Security: lots of different aspects Ticket sales Toilet facilities First Aid Food and drink Entry to the event Seating Car parks Public Transport Merchandise Emergency procedures Publicity and marketing Information points ??? Litter bins Cleaning

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Big Events One of the key considerations for designers and organisers is providing enough of each facility to ensure that on the day of an event, queues dont build up too much. On the other hand, when building a venue, more facilities cost more money to provide and maintain and also take up more space.

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Toilet Facilities For a popular event at Twickenham or Wembley, how many toilet cubicles would you need? How many: Toilet cubicles for males? Toilet cubicles for females? Accessible toilets? Would they be better placed in one or two big blocks or several smaller ones?

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Toilet Facilities: Hints You might think about: How many people are there in your school and how many toilets there are How long people spend in a cubicle What proportion of people might want to use the facilities at half time or during an interval How long the break or interval is

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Entrance Queues At big events, there is usually a system for checking tickets and a security check. Checking tickets is either a manual check involving a member of staff checking each persons ticket, or an electronic check, usually with some type of turnstile where people present their tickets to a scanning device.

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Entrance Queues Each entrance at large arenas such as Wembley and Twickenham has several electronic turnstiles. How many turnstiles would be needed if very long queues are to be prevented? Wembley 90,000 people. Twickenham 82,000 people.

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Entrance Queues: hints You might think about the following: How long before an event will people be admitted? Do they all turn up at once? How long would it take each person to present their ticket? Trying out a simulation of people presenting tickets may help.

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Entrance Queues: evidence

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The photo from TripAdvisor shows the turnstiles at Wembley entrance D.TripAdvisor There are 14 such entrances, plus 4 special ones for Club members.

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Teacher notes: Big Events These problem solving activities are designed to encourage students to think about real life situations where they have little given information, but can draw upon their own experiences to come up with a reasonable estimate. They could be used with a wide range of age groups. Working in small groups, sharing approaches and discussing responses within the class is encouraged.

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Teacher notes: Big Events The emphasis with these problems is on the students reasoning and justification for their calculations rather than on obtaining the correct answer – although sensible reasoning should give answers of the right magnitude. Suggested minimum or maximum values are given together with considerations that would affect the answer. Where possible, some real life evidence is also given. The problems are presented for two of the issues toilet facilities and entrance queues, but any of the other issues on slide 4 could also be explored. A selection of facts and figures for Wembley can be found on slide 23.

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Teacher notes: Toilet Facilities If everyone wanted to use the toilets at half time or an interval, the maximum number of toilets required is: Number of attendees ÷ (Time available (secs) ÷ no. of secs per person) A quick use including walking to the toilet door from the queue takes about 40 seconds. The half time interval at football matches is 15 minutes, at rugby matches its 10 minutes. At Wembley: 90 000 ÷ (15 x 60 ÷ 40) = 4000 toilets At Twickenham: 82 000 ÷ (10 x 60 ÷ 40) = 5466 toilets

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Accessible toilets: How many people would need to use these facilities? Number of registered disabled: 6% of children 16% of working aged adults 45% of pension aged adults But Disabled people remain significantly less likely to participate in cultural, leisure and sporting activities. http://odi.dwp.gov.uk/disability-statistics-and-research/disability-facts- and-figures.php#gd Teacher notes: Toilet Facilities

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In reality, also consider: Would everyone use the facilities at half time? probably not, perhaps 1 / 3 to ½ of attendees might wish to use them Is 40 seconds a realistic estimate for a quick use for males and females? Are there equal numbers of male and female facilities? At some venues, yes. However, if females take longer than males, theyll need more facilities. Toilets are usually found in many places around the ground so that people dont have to walk too far and queues are shorter.

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Teacher notes: Toilet Facilities There are 2618 toilets at Wembley and 147 accessible ones. Its likely that there are 147 sets of toilets, with one accessible toilet alongside each. This would mean about 20 toilets in each set of toilets – split between males and females. (Less dense areas with executive boxes etc. are likely to have far fewer in each set).

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Teacher notes: Entrance Queues Gates tend to open 2 hours before an event at Wembley and 4 hours before an event at Twickenham. Walking up to a turnstile, inserting a ticket and walking through takes a minimum of 4 seconds - could test this in the classroom. If everyone was queued up, alert and ready to go, the calculation for the absolute minimum number of turnstiles would be: Number of attendees ÷ (Time available (secs) ÷ no. of secs per person at the turnstile) At Wembley: 90 000 ÷ (2 x 60 x 60 ÷ 4) = 50 At Twickenham: 82 000 ÷ (4 x 60 x 60 ÷ 4) = 23 (22.77 rounded)

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Teacher notes: Entrance Queues In reality, also consider: Is everyone ready to go through the turnstile? – is 4 seconds a reasonable average? probably higher than this Does everyone turn up to the turnstile in a regular intervals? No, its likely that there will be something akin to a normal distribution of arrivals. People dont tend to arrive very early or very late. Those arriving at 1 minute to Kick Off, for example, wouldnt have time to get to their seats.

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Teacher notes: Entrance queues This photo from TripAdvisor shows that there are 10 turnstiles at Wembley entrance D. There are 14 such entrances, plus 4 special ones for Club members. This suggests that there are at least 140 turnstiles plus the special ones … in fact there are 168.

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Wembley Facts and figures 2,618 toilets (147 accessible ones) 47 retail units 164 turnstiles 26 lifts 30 escalators 34 bars 8 restaurants 688 food and drink service points 98 kitchens The seats are spread over three tiers: lower 34,303, middle 16,532 and upper 39,165 http://www.wembleystadium.com/Press/Presspack/Stats-and-Facts

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Acknowledgements http://www.tripadvisor.co.uk/LocationPhotoDirectLink- g186338-d1574807-i42050148-Wembley_Stadium- London_England.html#42050132 http://www.wembleystadium.com/Press/Presspack/Stats- and-Facts http://odi.dwp.gov.uk/disability-statistics-and- research/disability-facts-and-figures.php#gd All accessed 7/5/14.

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