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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Solution: D
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 19 Confidence Intervals for Proportions
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Standard Error Both of the sampling distributions weve looked at are Normal. For proportions For means
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Standard Error (cont.) When we dont know p or σ, were stuck, right? Nope. We will use sample statistics to estimate these population parameters. Whenever we estimate the standard deviation of a sampling distribution, we call it a standard error.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Standard Error (cont.) For a sample proportion, the standard error is For the sample mean, the standard error is
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide A Confidence Interval Recall that the sampling distribution model of is centered at p, with standard deviation. Since we dont know p, we cant find the true standard deviation of the sampling distribution model, so we need to find the standard error:
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide A Confidence Interval (cont.) By the % Rule, we know about 68% of all samples will have s within 1 SE of p about 95% of all samples will have s within 2 SEs of p about 99.7% of all samples will have s within 3 SEs of p We can look at this from s point of view…
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide A Confidence Interval (cont.) Consider the 95% level: Theres a 95% chance that p is no more than 2 SEs away from. So, if we reach out 2 SEs, we are 95% sure that p will be in that interval. In other words, if we reach out 2 SEs in either direction of, we can be 95% confident that this interval contains the true proportion. This is called a 95% confidence interval.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide A Confidence Interval (cont.)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide TI-Tips Finding Confidence Intervals Lets say we have a sample of 104 Cows and 54 were diseased. STAT TESTS (Our proportion is based on one sample with a Normal model) A:1-PropZInt Enter the number of success observed (x). (must be an integer) Enter the sample size (n). Specify a confidence level (usually.95) Calculate Based on my sample, I am 95% confident that between 42.3% and 61.5% of all cows will be diseased.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide What Does 95% Confidence Really Mean? Each confidence interval uses a sample statistic to estimate a population parameter. But, since samples vary, the statistics we use, and thus the confidence intervals we construct, vary as well.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide What Does 95% Confidence Really Mean? (cont.) The figure to the right shows that some of our confidence intervals (from 20 random samples) capture the true proportion (the green horizontal line), while others do not:
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide What Does 95% Confidence Really Mean? (cont.) Our confidence is in the process of constructing the interval, not in any one interval itself. Thus, we expect 95% of all 95% confidence intervals to contain the true parameter that they are estimating.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Example: On January 30-31, 2007, Fox News polled 900 registered voters nationwide. When asked Do you believe global warming exists? 82% said yes. Fox reported their margin of error to be +/- 3%. It is standard among pollsters to use a 95% confidence level unless otherwise stated. Given that, what does Fox news mean by claiming a margin of error of +/- 3% in this context?
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Margin of Error: Certainty vs. Precision We can claim, with 95% confidence, that the interval contains the true population proportion. The extent of the interval on either side of is called the margin of error (ME). In general, confidence intervals have the form estimate ± ME. The more confident we want to be, the larger our ME needs to be, making the interval wider.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Margin of Error: Certainty vs. Precision (cont.)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Margin of Error: Certainty vs. Precision (cont.) To be more confident, we wind up being less precise. We need more values in our confidence interval to be more certain. Because of this, every confidence interval is a balance between certainty and precision. The most commonly chosen confidence levels are 90%, 95%, and 99% (but any percentage can be used).
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Example: With the same Fox poll with a margin of error of +/- 3%, It is a convention among pollsters to use a 95% confidence level and to report the worst case margin or error, based on p=.5. How did Fox calculate their margin of error?
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Critical Values The 2 in (our 95% confidence interval) came from the % Rule. Using a table or technology, we find that a more exact value for our 95% confidence interval is 1.96 instead of 2. We call 1.96 the critical value and denote it z*. For any confidence level, we can find the corresponding critical value (the number of SEs that corresponds to our confidence interval level).
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Critical Values (cont.) Example: For a 90% confidence interval, the critical value is 1.645:
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Example: The Fox news poll of 900 registered voters found that 82% of the respondents believed that global warming exits. Fox reported a 95% confidence interval with a margin of +/- 3%. Using the critical value of z and the standard error based on the observed proportion, what would be the margin of error for a 90% confidence interval? Whats good and bad about this change?
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Example: If Fox wanted to be 98% confident, would their confidence interval need to be wider or narrower? Example: Foxs margin of error was about +/-3%. If they reduced it to +/-2%, would their level of confidence be higher or lower? Example If Fox News had polled more people, would the intervals margin of error have been larger or smaller?
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Assumptions and Conditions The assumptions and the corresponding conditions you must check before creating a confidence interval for a proportion are: Independence Assumption: We first need to Think about whether the Independence Assumption is plausible. Its not one you can check by looking at the data. Instead, we check two conditions to decide whether independence is reasonable. Randomization Condition: Were the data sampled at random or generated from a properly randomized experiment? Proper randomization can help ensure independence. 10% Condition: Is the sample size no more than 10% of the population?
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Assumptions and Conditions (cont.) Sample Size Assumption: The sample needs to be large enough for us to be able to use the CLT. Success/Failure Condition: We must expect at least 10 successes and at least 10 failures.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide One-Proportion z-Interval When the conditions are met, we are ready to find the confidence interval for the population proportion, p. The confidence interval is where The critical value, z*, depends on the particular confidence level, C, that you specify.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Choosing Your Sample Size To determine how large a sample to take: Choose a Margin or Error (ME) and a Confidence Interval Level. The formula requires which we dont have yet because we have not taken the sample. A good estimate for, which will yield the largest value for (and therefore for n) is Solve the formula for n. (to be safe, round up n)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Sample: The Fox poll estimated that 82% of all voters believed in global warming exists with a margin of error of +/- 3%. Suppose an environmental group planning a follow-up survey of voters opinions on global warming wants to determine a 95% confidence interval with a margin of error no more than +/-2%. How large a sample do they need? Use the Fox News estimate as the basis for your calculation.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Example: A credit card company is about to send out a mailing to test the market for anew credit card. From that sample, they want to estimate the true proportion of people who will sign up the card nationwide. A pilot study suggests that about 0.5% of the people receiving the offer will accept it. To be within a tenth of a percentage point (0.001) of the true rate with 95% confidence, how big does the test mailing have to be?
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide Homework: Pg ??
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide
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