Presentation on theme: "Basic Elements of Explosion Protection in the EU Legislative Context Dr.-Ing. Uwe Klausmeyer Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig, Germany."— Presentation transcript:
Basic Elements of Explosion Protection in the EU Legislative Context Dr.-Ing. Uwe Klausmeyer Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig, Germany ATEX Symposium 22 – 24 Eylül 2011, Ankara, Türkiye
The ATEX Regulation EU Directives of the New Approach Legislative Framework, consisting of: - 94/9/EC (trade of equipment, ESRs) /92/EC (safety of workplace)
Accident in Oppau, Germany
Accident in BuncefieldUK, 2005
Accident at INEOS near Cologne, Germany 17th of March, 2008 Pipeline of Ethylene is burning Has set fire to a methylacetate tank
- Convection - Buoyancy Spread of gases Lighter than air Heavier than air
Spread of liquids, leakages Gas Gasoline
Combustible liquids 5 ml gasoline is enough to produce 200 l of explosive atmosphere, which can destroy a barrel! Formation of highly flammable vapour/ air mixture can occur when handling with even small amounts of break cleaners!
Spread of combustible dusts Dust layers with a thickness of 1 mm can be enough to produce explosive atmospheres!
Critical concentration of Flammable substances (safety characteristics)
Influence of concentration
Ignition sources – EN Ignition of an explosive atmosphere can be caused by various sources: hot surfaces flames and hot gases mechanically generated sparks electrical installations equalizing currents, cathodic corrosion protection static electricity lightning electromagnetic waves (high-frequency) optical radiation ionising radiation ultrasonics adiabatic compression and shock waves exothermal reactions
Different types of protections (safety concepts) offered by EN/IEC standards Gases/VapoursDusts Type of protection SymbolElectrical equipment Non-electrical equipment Electrical equipment Flameproof enclosured- Protection by enclosuretD-- Enclosed break devicenC-- Non-incendive componentnC-- Pressurized apparatusp Powder fillingq- Oil immersiono/k- Increased safetye-- Non-sparkingnA-- Constructive safetyc-- Encapsulationm- Hermetically sealed devicenC-- Sealed/encapsulated devicenC-- Intrinsic safetyi- Restricted breathing enclosurenR/fr Protection by control of ignition sourcesb--
Flameproof enclosure d, to mitigate an explosion hazard Explosive gas mixture Ignition device pressure transducer Special preparation: Max tolerances at all gaps Without gaskets and grease
Ignition hazards of a complex apparatus: a fork lift (electrical motor or combustion engine) Electrical apparatus Motor d, e control device d, e, i accumulator e plug and socket d lighting fixture and control lights d, e 1 Electrical installation 2 IEC/EN Mechanical apparatus 3 Brakes and oil hydraulic system/components Sparks caused by metallic parts 5 Coating with brass, bronze and stainless steel Electrostatic charge Conductable wheels conductable seat material conductable housing grounding against electrostatic charge 4 Temperature control 6 Motor control device motor hydraulic oil/system Engine 7 7
The ATEX Regime Free Trade Directive 94/9/EC in the Internal EU Market (Essential Health and Safety Requirements – ESRs, obligations of the manufacturer) Worker protection (Social) Directive 1999/92/EC (obligations of the end user) ATEX Standing Committee ATEX Notified Bodies ATEX Consultant, CENELEC, CEN, Presumption of Conformity with ESRs
Whats about this mark???? Chinese Export, Confusion Everywhere ;-)))) 1. Conformité Européenne (FR) 2. Legal mark, NOT a quality mark like TSE, VDE, UL… IECEx 3. Affixed by a manufacturer on his own responsibilty 4. may be based on an EC Type Examination Certificate by an independent ATEX Notified body, in the ATEX field only for Zone 0 and Zone 1 classified areas installation and instruction manual!!!!! 5. installation and instruction manual!!!!!
(Low Voltage Directive73/23/EEC) Machinery Directive98/37/EC ATEX (Explosion-proof equipment)94/9/EC EMC Directive89/336/EEC Pressure Equipment Directive97/23/EC R&TTE-Directive1999/5/EC Toys Directive88/378/EEC Personal Protective Equipment Directive89/686/EEC Construction Products Directive89/106/EEC Medical Devices Directive93/42/EEC (CE-Kennzeichnungs-Richtlinie93/68/EEC) Important directives of the New Approach
Relation of ATEX, CEN/CENELEC, ISO and IEC/IECEx New Practice of many ATEX Notified Bodies (IECEx ExCB) is to use the elements of IECEx (ExTRs, QAR) to issue a EC Type Examination Ccertificate and the QA Notification ATEX Notified Bodies - Nando
IEC vs. CEN/CENELEC Dresden/Vienna Agreement on Parallel Voting of documents, stand still agreement CLC/IEC EN (former edition EN EEx) is equivalent to IEC (Ex), EN/IEC d, -2 p, -5 q, -6 o, -7 e, -11 i, ….., -18 m, -26 Zone 0 …., -34 QM Production, -36, -37 (mech.) Plant operation: EN/IEC /-2, EN/IEC , -17, -19
Safety concepts for equipment – older versions of the standards
Selection and installation of equipment in accordance to EN/IEC Zone Equipment category (Directive 94/9/EG) Safety level 0 /20 II 1 G/D Even in the event of infrequent malfunctions 1/21 II 1 G/D oder II 2 G/D In the event of expected malfunctions 2/22 II 1 G/D oder II 2 G/D oder II 3 G/D Normal operation
Temperatur Class: Explosion Group II A Methan, Benzine, Methanol II B Schwefelwasserstoff II C Wasserstoff, Acetylen Maximum surface temperature Classification of equipment in accordance to EN/IEC
Explosion characteristics Methane Biogas 70 % CH 4 30 % CO 2 Petrol Propan Explosion limits /air [Vol.- %] 4, , , ,7- 10,9 Ingition Temperature [ 0 C] Relative density (air = 1) 0,55 0,85 ca. 3,2 (gas) 1,55 Flashpoint [ 0 C] < Temperaturclass T 1 T 3 Explosion group II A Max. Ex.- pressure [bar] 8,1 8,5 9,4 Hazardous substance and safety characteristics (EN/IEC )
Examples of 94/9-equipment with EC Declaration of Conformity To be installed in accordance with IEC
Classification of equipment
Minimum duties of the manufacturer Electrical equipment Category 1/M1: - EC Type Examination Cert. - QA Notification/Annex IV Category 2/M2: - EC Type Examination Cert. - QA Notification/Annex VII Category 3: - self declaration of conformity, ATEX Notified Body not required Mechanical equipment Category 1/M1: - EC Type Examination Cert. - QA Notification/Annex IV Category 2/M2: - self declaration of conformity - Deposit of product documentation at an ATEX Notified Body Category 3: - self declaration of conformity, ATEX Notified Body not required
Way to the CE marking CE – conformity marking # and EC – declaration of conformity by the manufacturer (Annex X) category 1, M1 equipment, protective systems category 2, M2 electrical equipment, combustion engines category 2, M2 non-electrical equipment category 3 equipment Unit verification (Annex IX) Production quality assurance (Annex IV) or Product verification (Annex V) Product quality assurance (Annex VII) or Conformity to type (Annex VI) EC type-examination certificate (Annex III) EC type-examination certificate (Annex III) Deposit of documentation (Article 8, 1b ii) Internal control of production (Annex VIII) Internal control of production (Annex VIII) all categories equipment, protective systems Notified Body Manufacturer Category according article 8 #: not for components according Article 8, 3 EC Declaration of Conformity EC Declaration of Conformity
Risk assessment acc. ATEX Directive 1999/92 Probability and duration of a significant amount of explosive gas or dust atmosphere (Zone classification in acc. to EN/IEC , -2) Probability and energy of ignition source scale of damages which might occur The employer has to conduct an ignition risk assessment :
EU-Directive 1999/92/EG and IEC Zone 0 A place in which an explosive atmosphere consisting of a mixture with air of flammable substances in the form of gas, vapour or mist is present continuously or for long periods or frequently. Zone 1 A place in which an explosive atmosphere consisting of a mixture with air or flammable substances in the form of gas, vapour or mist is likely to occur in normal operation occasionally. Zone 2 A place in which an explosive atmosphere consisting of a mixture with air of flammable substances in the form of gas, vapour or mist is not likely to occur in normal operation but, if it does occur, will persist for a short period only.
Directive 1999/92/EG and IEC Zone 20 A place in which an explosive atmosphere in the form of a cloud of combustable dust in air is present continously, or for long periods or frequently. Zone 21 A place in which an explosive atmosphere in the form of a cloud of combustible dust in air is likely to occur in normal operation occasionally. Zone 22 A place in which an explosive atmosphere in the form of a cloud of combustible dust in air is not likely to occur in normal operation but, if it does occur, will persist for a short period only.
Examples for zoning hazardous areas – example of IEC Stirrer
Examples of 94/9-equipment with EC Declaration of Conformity CE – EU Dir. 94/9 marked equipment is required by the users directive 1999/92
Explosion protection document: description of the plant, the process, the activities and flammable material quantities material data results of the explosion risk assessment Explosion protection measures Organizational measures (training staff, …) Directive 1999/92/EG (1) Documentation Get assistance by NAMUR.de and NAMUR recommendation xyz
Maintenance IEC and -19 Ensure expertise of the personell Training and experience must be ensured Prevent occurence of hazardous atmophere install a fire monitor if necessary Making sure before restarting that the explosion protection measures required for normal operation have been reactived clean dust deposits from installed products Directive 1999/92/EG (2) Maintenance
The ATEX Standing Committee Representatives coming from Ministries of the EU Member States, Industry Associations, ExNB Group, Standardization Bodies CENELEC and CEN, ATEX Consultant, …. the Stakeholders Interpretation of the Directives 94/9 and 1999/92 Interface to other Directives, e.g. to the Machinery Directive Meeting once a year in Brussels
ATEX Notified Body group The ATEX Notified Bodies –More than 60 ATEX Notified Bodies with similar scopes notification –but it is a national notification, not an accreditation in acc. with ISO/IEC standards –requirements for notification see annex XI of the 94/9 –general experience: no chance outside EU with such a notification, ISO/IEC and ISO Guide 65 are to be applied by internationally recognized ILAC/IAF accreditation bodies like TÜRKAK