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UNICEF in Action in Child Protection - including in emergencies

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1 UNICEF in Action in Child Protection - including in emergencies
and on grave violations against children in situations of armed conflict Presentation to AusAID 31 October 2011 Lara Scott, UNICEF Child Protection Specialist, NYHQ

2 UNICEF General Child Protection Approach
Strengthening CP Systems Improving the set of laws, policies, regulations, and services needed across all social sectors – especially social welfare, justice, education and health – to support prevention and response to protection-related risks Promoting Social Change Changing attitudes and behaviors that condone violence against children, including stereotypical gender roles and discrimination and social acceptance of corporal punishment, weapons, and harmful practices, such as FGM/C and early marriage Convening and Catalyzing ------ Evidence Building & Knowledge Management Strengthening CP in Emergencies Adapting the systems and social change approaches to CP in emergencies and transition context Emphasis on preventing and responding to violence exploitation and abuse rather than on particular categories of children Complements the CCCs

3 Child Protection in Emergencies …
Situations of Armed conflict Natural disasters Both

4 Child Protection in Emergencies … Main CAAC milestones
Machel study (1996) Appointment of SRSG-CAAC (1997) and SRSG SV (2010) CAAC becomes part of the Security Council agenda (1999) 8 SCRs on CAAC: (2005),1882 (2009), 1998(2011) SCR on SV: (2009) and 1960 ( 2010) 1996 Machel report: milestone study on the impact of armed conflict on children, called for action by all actors to coordinate and respond to CAAC issues. Noted that the full extent of the impact of armed conflict is not known due to a lack of accurate, reliable and timely data and recommended the establishment of an international monitoring and reporting mechanism, in order for all actors to respond. Security Council involvement with CAAC: The Security Council has been concerned with the issue of children and armed conflict since Over time, the scope of the focus and level of accountability of perpetrators has gradually evolved as greater awareness of the impact of armed conflict on children has become known. Security Council Resolutions: Security Council resolution 1882 is the seventh Security Council resolution on children and armed conflict, which complements and strengthens the Security Council's previous children and armed conflict resolutions (1999), 1314 (2000), 1379 (2001), 1460 (2003), 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005). Hence, SCR 1882 should be read and implemented with reference to the previous resolutions and not in isolation (i.e. SCR 1882 does not replace SCR 1612, but complements and strengthens all of the previous resolutions.) SCR 1612: The Security Council unanimously adopted its ground-breaking resolution 1612 which established the Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism (MRM) is currently implemented in 15 countries and focuses on six grave violations: the recruitment or use of children by armed groups and armed forces, killing and maiming of children, rape and other sexual violence, abduction, attacks on schools and hospitals and denial of humanitarian access. SCR 1612 also established the Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict to enhance accountability of perpetrators of grave violations against children, in response to information arising from the MRM in order to prevent further violations from occurring. Broader framework linkages: The Security Council agenda also consists of two other thematic agenda items with relevance for the CAAC agenda, namely Women, Peace and Security (WPS) (including sexual violence) and the broader Protection of Civilians (PoC) agenda item. There has also been important developments in these areas, but there CAAC agenda item is looked upon as the one that has advanced the most. In relation to WPS the adoption of the SCR 1820, establishment of a reporting procedure for sexual violence and current negotiations for a new resolution that calls for the appointment of an SRSG on sexual violence. In relation to PoC an important development has been the establishment of an informal expert group on PoC that convenes in connection with mandate renewals. UNICEF’s engagement in these processes: UNICEF’s engagement in these processes entail a) monitoring of developments in the Security Council in relation to thematic areas; b) ,ensure that children’s concerns are raised in meetings, reports and other proceses; c) provide technical advice on the impact of these global developments/processes on the ground and advice on how the impact can be maximized on the field. In this respect we engage actively with fora such as the SCWG on CAAC, the Expert Group on PoC, We have informal bilateral contacts to highlight specific concerns or to provide general briefings for new incoming SC members with a CAAC portfolio. We also feed into, and in the case of CAAC – provide in many instances first drafts of the SG’s reports to the Council. The work of UNICEF on CAAC in the field and at HQ has been expanding proportionally through these different milestones

5 SC Resolutions 1612,1882,1998 Security Council Working Group established SG requested to implement the MRM on grave in situations on the annexes of the SG’s Annual CAAC MRM country task forces established Maintain dialogue with parties to the conflict SCR 1612 Killing and maiming, rape and sexual violence as ‘triggers’ Stronger emphasis on accountability (Action Plans, Sanctions Committees and call to bring perpetrators to justice) Stronger emphasis on responding to the violations and call on SG to seek necessary resources for response SCR 1882 SCR 1998 Attacks on schools and hospitals added as a ‘trigger’ Re-emphasised need for accountability and expanded “Action Plans” Re-emphasised need for adequate funding for CAAC programmes

6 16 MRM countries as of October 2011
Afghanistan Iraq Sudan Nepal Chad Colombia Myanmar South Sudan Yemen CAR Philippines Somalia DRC Sri Lanka Cote D’Ivoire The situations in blue indicate the formal MRM countries as of October 2011, where there are parties to the conflict listed in the SG’s annual CAAC report and where formal MRM Country Task Forces have been established. There are also other situations of concern which have elected to establish CAAC working groups to monitor and report on violations against children to the Security Council and other forums, such as oPT. In 2011, Yemen and Cote d’Ivoire (where parties were previously de-listed) were asked to establish the MRM. Parties in Burundi - highlighted in green – were de-listed and hence are no longer formally required to implement the MRM. Uganda Burundi

7 © UNICEF/HQ03-1315/ Giacomo Pirozzi
MRM - Which Violations? Killing or maiming Recruiting or using children Attacks against schools or hospitals Rape or other grave sexual violence Abduction Denial of humanitarian access © UNICEF/HQ / Giacomo Pirozzi

8 4 MARA accelerated roll out countries
South Sudan CAR DRC Cote D’Ivoire In 2010, the SG’s Policy Committee on Sexual Violence in armed conflict requested the development of a Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Arrangement (MARA). UNICEF, through UN Action, has been supporting the development of the MARA. CAR, Cote d’Ivoire, DRC and South Sudan have been selected as “accelerated roll-out countries” for the MARA. These situations are also implementing the MRM, hence UNICEF is now utilising its unique position and technical expertise at country, regional and HQ levels to address operational issues and linkages to ensure ongoing coherence and coordination for effective implementation of these mechanisms.

9 MRM countries and other emergency situations of concern
Syria Israel and oPt Afghanistan Iraq Sudan Nepal Chad Colombia Libya Myanmar South Sudan Yemen Philippines Pakistan CAR Bangladesh Haiti Somalia DRC Indonesia Cote D’Ivoire Sri Lanka This is a list of the formal MRM countries as well as some of the other emergency situations of concern. In some of these other situations of concern, UNICEF is setting up prevention systems and responding to the needs of children affected by armed conflict, such as in oPT which has established CAAC working groups to monitor, report and respond to violations. Uganda Burundi

10 AusAID’s crucial support to UNICEF’s CPiE
MRM: AusAID support to UNICEF in addressing grave violations is currently directed at oPT, Central African Republic, the Philippines and Yemen; and Afghanistan under a separate grant. The funding also supported UNICEF HQ to provide technical support . GBV: AusAID funding is also currently vital in building the capacity of the GBV area of responsibility to address gender-based violence in humanitarian settings. MRM HQ support: Eg In 2010, AusAID’s funding was crucial in supporting the development of the MRM Training Toolkit and rollout of 3 regional Training of Trainers workshops covering all 13 MRM countries and 8 other situations of concern. GBV: The project is being implemented very smoothly and UNICEF hopes to share a new joint UNICEF-UNFPA GBV Area of Responsibility proposal to AusAID soon.

11 Addressing grave violations against children in situations of armed conflict
Objective: reduce, prevent and alleviate grave violations against children in armed conflict UNICEF’s five pronged approach: Leadership and coordination Monitoring and reporting of grave violations Advocacy Response Prevention Leadership and Coordination: UNICEF is the designated lead agency for the global Child Protection Working Group, co-lead of the global Gender-Based Violence Area of Responsibility (with UNFPA), co-chair of the global Paris Principles Steering Group on Children Associated with Armed Forces/Groups (with Save the Children), leader of the cross-cutting Mental Health and Psychosocial Reference Group. In these capacities, UNICEF is instrumental in developing sectoral capacities, promoting coordination via a common strategic platform, and raising the profile of child protection concerns, including gender-based violence (GBV) against children and women, within the humanitarian and donor community. AusAID’s support was also vital in building capacity of the GBV Area of Responsibility to address gender-based violence in humanitarian settings. Monitoring and Reporting: UNICEF plays a key role at country, regional and HQ levels eg MRM Task Force Chair, Regional Coordination such as LRA and cross-border monitoring and response; and HQ technical guidance and capacity development, such as through the MRM Technical Reference Group at HQ with OSRSG CAAC. Advocacy: at all levels Response: it’s essential that monitoring and reporting systematically triggers an effective response. Responses are at all levels and across the different violations. Prevention: Addressing violations on an issue by issue basis is neither sustainable nor effective. Multifaceted prevention and response strategies are required that strengthens and builds child protection systems.

12 Strategies to achieve results for children
Partnership Robust evidence base Integrated cross-sectoral approaches Building back better Innovation and technology Partnership: As noted in the Graca Machel’s Study on the impact of armed conflict on children in 1996 – the impact of armed conflict on children must be everyone’s concerns and responsibility.” Everyone has their role to play. Robust evidence base: CP monitoring and evaluation is critical for assessing the scale of child protection violations, identifying vulnerable sub-groups and factors of vulnerability / root causes, and informing policy and programming at all levels. UNICEF has established systems for results based programme monitoring and evaluation. A global MRM “Good Practices” exercised is currently underway. Integrated cross-sectoral approaches: the protection of children’s rights is not just a “protection issue.” An integrated cross-sectoral approach is essential to enhance the overall protective environment for children. SCR 1998 recently adopted will particularly further require the engagement of the health and education sectors. Build back better: Even in the midst of emergencies, UNICEF strives to build capacities and strengthen child protection systems so that they are better than before the emergency began, for longer term improvement and sustainability. Innovation and technology – particularly in the development of IMS and the development of new open source mobile application and data storage system called “RapidFTR” (rapid family tracing and reunification) to help aid workers collect, sort and share info of unaccompanied and separated children in emergencies.

13 Examples of some of the results for children
MRM Task Forces established in 16 countries + other situations of concern addressing critical issues affecting children. Advocacy efforts at global, regional, country and local levels eg SG’s reports to Security Council to direct local advocacy for children’s release from armed groups / forces. 12 Action Plans with 15 parties to the conflict to date. 2008 – 2010, UNICEF supported the release of approx 20,000 boys and girls from armed forces / groups, with vast majority receiving reintegration support. Action Plans – negotiations are currently underway with another 6 parties, such as in Myanmar and CAR. Children released – In 2010 alone, 11,393 children formerly recruited or used (8,624 boys and 2,769 girls) benefitted from reintegration support across fourteen countries.

14 Child Protection in Emergencies …programmes for children
Psychosocial assistance Monitoring and reporting on grave violations Child recruitment, release and reintegration Assistance to children and women survivors GBV Assistance to unaccompanied and separated children Mine Action, Mine Risk Education, arms reduction

15 Investment in children affected by armed conflict
Opportunities: Issues related to “grave violations,” “children and armed conflict” and “sexual violence in conflict,” are now high on the political agenda of the SC and GA. MRM and emerging MARA frameworks opens the door to constructive dialogue with governments and other parties on protecting children and women, and holding warring parties to account. UNICEF’s technical leadership and strong field presence provides for a comprehensive approach. Donor investment is having a positive impact on the safety and well-being of children through support to programmes at country, regional and HQ levels. Opportunities for broad inter-agency partnership and coordination of key partners. Risk: These opportunities will only be realised if strategic vision and courage is taken by all actors, including donors, to take programming to scale and invest in children. The first point – may be of particular interest to Australia given Australia’s bid for a Security Council seat in

16 Thank you AusAID for your continued support!

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