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Computer-Mediated Communication How is it actually being used in the classroom? Randall Sadler.

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1 Computer-Mediated Communication How is it actually being used in the classroom? Randall Sadler

2 Why is this important? Some might argue that an increased use of CMC might lead to greater communicative competence, thus avoiding things like this…….. Clearly, a respectable hotel! But what about people who WANT to leave their values in the car?????

3 CALL versus CMC CALL self-contained, programmed applications (e.g., tutorials, drill, simulations, instructional games, standardized tests, such as TOEFL, TSE) [e.g. Rosetta Stone] CMC a different kind of CALL –computers connected in local or global networks –human-to-human communication is the focus (K&W:1) computer as tutor computer as tool (Crook, 1994)

4 Why use CMC? Experiential & Social Learning (Dewey, 1916), (Kilpatrick, 1918) Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky, 1934) Constructivist Theory (Piaget, 1967) Interaction Hypothesis (Long & Robinson,1998) Negotiation Model (Doughty, 2000)

5 Also... extends interaction possibilities beyond classroom walls; time constraints; and the usual limited type of interlocutors of classroom pair and group work (Belcher,99) Allows learners to engage in playful interaction (Belz & Reinhardt, 2004) enhances opportunities and motivation for authentic interaction and meaning negotiation (Kern, 1995)

6 And don t forget … reduces anxiety and produces more talk (Fanderclai, 1995; Harris, 1995; Kern, 1992; Reid, 1994, Smith 2003) improves linguistic proficiency and increases self-confidence (Beauvois & Eledge, 1996; Gebhard & Nagamine, 2005). Simulations... [allow] students to be immersed and actively involved in an environment that is not otherwise accessible (Gonz á lez-Lloret, 2003, citing 3 others)

7 CMC is …. Cutting edge technology New Groundbreaking …will change the world. OF THE 1970s! (yes, I made up the quotesbut Im sure somebody said that!)

8 PLATO Notes, 1973, one of the 1 st online message boards. By 1976, included: –Personal Notes (e-mail), –Talkomatic (chat rooms), –Term-Talk (instant messaging), –monitor mode (remote screen sharing) –and emoticons.

9 Online (interterminal) games70s & 80s, –Empire (multiplayer Star Trek game), –Airfight ( just like Microsoft Flight Simulator), –dnd and Rogue. Moria, Dry Gulch. –Avatar (one of the first MUDs).

10 The point is … This is NOT new technology. It has matured for decades, has great potential, but … are teachers really using it?

11 Research Questions: to put it simply What CMC tools are teachers using at home? What CMC tools are they using in their teaching? How are they having their students use CMC for language learning?

12 Data Collection Stratified Sample of TESOL membership Survey mailed to 400 current members 50% U.S. 50% International Data collection ongoing …..and ongoing

13 Results: Respondents (N=95)

14 International Participants

15 Age (mean=32.8, Median=40, mode=37)

16 Males vs. Females: A breakdown

17 Highest Degree Earned

18 Years of Teaching Experience Mean=12.3

19 Current Teaching Level total = 142??

20 Computer Access Home –Computer & Equipment –Internet Access Work –Computer & Equipment –Internet Access

21 Home computers

22 Home Internet

23 Self Ratings: Home Tech (by %) I pay a hefty monthly fee to have a high speed internet connection. Where I live, the only high speed choice is through cable. No competition stinks! (US) In Cameroon only the rich can afford home internet. However those facilities are found in business places and we do use them. A few city schools have multimedia centers with these facilities.

24 Office Computers (total = 95)

25 Office Internet

26 Ratings: Office Tech (by %) We've recently been given 'tablets and wireless connection (UK) Teachers do not have offices but a staffroom for all where we can have a break between classes; so that room is not designed for any kind of work. There is however a multimedia room, with 20 computers but no internet connection. The material is used to initiate students to computers. Most of the times, there are about 3 or 4 on the same computer. Our school principal is the only one to access to the internet connection. (Mali) Many sites are blocked because they are web chat. Would love to have access to whole internet (US)

27 CMC Use 1.Teacher Personal Use 2.Teacher use for Teaching 3.How teachers have their students use CMC

28 Teacher Personal Use (%) DailyWeeklyMonthlyRarelyNever??? Word processing 72234100 Surf Net9162100 Research66294100 E-mail9531000

29 Teacher Classroom Use (%) DailyWeeklyMonthlyRarelyNever? Word processing59278240 PowerPoint12193423140 Surf Net473112730 Research403012630 E-mail542311840

30 Teacher Classroom Use (%) DailyWeeklyMonthlyRarelyNever??? Word processing 59 13%278240 PowerPoint12193423140 Surf Net47 44%3112730 Research40 26%3012630 E-mail54 43%2311840

31 Personal Use part 2 (%) DailyWeeklyMonthlyRarelyNever??? Text Chat 27171225190 Audio Chat 12201022323 Video Chat 991123444 Forums 5162628251 MOOs, etc. 01173852 Blogs 10 1715416 Wikis 14242019 3 Soc Networking 14121819308 Vitual Worlds 31775527 Use in a lang class 21301222140 Use to improve L2 21202517160

32 Classroom Use, part 2 (%) DailyWeeklyMonthlyRarelyNever??? Text Chat 371017602 Audio Chat 227166930 Video Chat 12810753 Forums 261725463 MOOs, etc. 01454446 Blogs 161312626 Wikis 8201713384 Soc Networking 13512727 Virtual Worlds 021126817 Use in a lang class 2832168 0 Use to improve L2 16231618270

33 Teacher Classroom Use, part 2 DailyWeeklyMonthlyRarelyNever?? Text Chat 3710176041% 2 Audio Chat 2271669 37% 30 Video Chat 1281075 31% 3 Forums 2617254621% 3 MOOs, etc. 0145443% 46 Blogs 1613126221% 6 Wikis 82017133819% 4 Soc Networking 135127242% 7 Virtual Worlds 021126813% 17 Use in a lang class 283216816 2% 0 Use to improve L2 162316182711% 0 There ARE some positives! Some students would contact me in the facebook…and I think this is a good way for them to practice writing messages…. (Taiwan) I use it mainly for research in the classroom. (US) I plan to use blogs in the future. (Italy) the internet is indispensible to me in teaching. (US) The use of some of these (text chat, audio chat, forums) is typical only in my graduate classes, in which we use virtual classrooms like wiziq. This takes place once a year (1 out of 3 terms). During the term, the frequency of use has a weekly basis. (Venezuela)

34 Teacher Classroom Use, part 2 DailyWeeklyMonthlyRarelyNever?? Text Chat 37101760 41%2 Audio Chat 2271669 37%30 Video Chat 1281075 31%3 Forums 26172546 21%3 MOOs, etc. 014544 3%46 Blogs 16131262 21%6 Wikis 820171338 19%4 Soc Networking 1351272 42%7 Virtual Worlds 0211268 13%17 Use in a lang class 283216816 2%0 Use to improve L2 1623161827 11%0 And some negatives as well sometimes, we run our of computer because of constant beakdowns or lack of electricity or viruses because somme sutdents in opening their inboxes bring viruses… (Mali) Where we work, we are not supposed to e-mail students. (Peru) I would love for them to chat, but it is not possible on our system. (US) …we are only starting using computer technologies for teaching in our country and there is very few computers and computer labs…and the connections are very poor and the universities have no money to pay for different Internet programms… (Ukraine) When more technoloies are applied, I have to memorize a lot of usage process. Sometimes it is a challenge to me! (?)

35 How Ts ask Students to use (%) DailyWeeklyMonthlyRarelyNever??? Word processing 2139227110 PowerPoint3123126280 Surf Net1731351070 Research1732311550 E-mail2329279120

36 How Ts ask Students to use (%) DailyWeeklyMonthlyRarelyNever??? Text Chat 751017610 Audio Chat 47812690 Video Chat 42715720 Forums 410818565 MOOs, etc. 10564840 Blogs 48716587 Wikis 5122216417 Soc Networking 62511706 Vitual Worlds 152106715 Use in a lang class 21332114101 Use to improve L2 202321 105 Some of these things are DEFINATELY against our county policy for saftey reasons! I ask my students to use the Internet at home and then we discauu what they read or watched or studeid in class We don't allow audio, video and text chat because it slows down our system too much. We have forums on Moodle and use them a lot. I also set up a wiki for an international exchange. I have students in some classes use blogs and wikis daily for projects that might continue for several weeks, but we also go for periods of weeks not using them at all. My students do many of these, but not for language learning.

37 But what about traditional CALL? And what exactly ARE they using? DynEd Proprietary program, Efekta TOEFL Tense Buster Cambridge Exam prep other UK based programs Connected Speech BABLEFISH Transparent language Hot Potatoes Exercises specally on biology programms related to medical grounds Let's Do Business English DisYahooligans Edusoft, Connected Speech English Discoveries; Focus on Grammar

38 So, what does this mean??? In short, the teachers who participated in this survey generally place very low importance on either CALL or CMC in their classrooms …………… After all, on average 74% of them rarely or never have their students use CMC for language learning! Or do they value it after all? How important a role does CALL play in your class this year? Extremelyveryimportantsomewhatnot 516211544 How important a role does CMC play in your class this year? Extremelyveryimportantsomewhatnot 1018191736

39 Conclusions Tools with clear practical benefits (e.g. Wikis) are being used. In many locations economic challenges are preventing the use of CMC. However, in other nations CMC use is still problematic due to technical restrictions

40 Thanks!!!

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