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Phil Hubbard, Stanford University Claire Bradin Siskin, University of Pittsburgh Another Look at Tutorial CALL.

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Presentation on theme: "Phil Hubbard, Stanford University Claire Bradin Siskin, University of Pittsburgh Another Look at Tutorial CALL."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phil Hubbard, Stanford University Claire Bradin Siskin, University of Pittsburgh Another Look at Tutorial CALL

2 Overview: Introduction Myths about tutorial CALL Why has it been marginalized? Research studies The dichotomy Suggestions for effective use ConclusionDiscussion

3 Working definition: Tutorial CALL refers to the use of computer programs (disk, CD-ROM, Web-based, etc.) embodying content, activities, and feedback specifically for improving language proficiency.

4 Levy (1995): Computer-as-tutor (tutorial CALL): computer controls the learning instructor has no role computer evaluates Computer-as-tool: instructor has central role greater demands on the instructor computer does not evaluate

5 - D. Wolff, System, D. Wolff, System, On the basis of our present knowledge of language learning, I believe that the only defensible role for the computer in language learning is that of tool. (p. 127) On the basis of our present knowledge of language learning, I believe that the only defensible role for the computer in language learning is that of tool. (p. 127) In learner autonomy, the key concept in modern language learning and in all humanistically oriented pedagogy, the computer as tutor cannot have a place. (p. 128) In learner autonomy, the key concept in modern language learning and in all humanistically oriented pedagogy, the computer as tutor cannot have a place. (p. 128)

6 Old CALL Tutorial CALL Tool CALL

7 The problem: Tutor vs. tool Old CALL: disk-based tutorial programs New CALL: computer for production, information, and interaction (CMC)

8 New CALL Tool CALL Tutorial CALL

9 The problem Tutor vs. tool Old CALL: disk-based tutorial programs New CALL: computer for production, information, and interaction (CMC) Need to take another look at tutorial CALL Clarify what it is and isnt Highlight roles for teachers

10 Future CALL? Tool CALLTutorial CALL

11 Overview: Introduction Myths about tutorial CALL Why has it been marginalized? Research studies The dichotomy Suggestions for effective use ConclusionDiscussion

12 Tutorial CALL software is all behaviorist. Myth:

13 Tutorial CALL software is all drill and practice. Myth:

14 Tutorial CALL isnt useful because it isnt communicative. Myth:

15 In tutorial CALL, the teacher is absent/has no role. Myth:

16 In tutorial CALL, the learners have no control. Myth:

17 on a disk or CD = tutorial on the Internet = not tutorial Myth:

18 Overview: Introduction Myths about tutorial CALL Why has it been marginalized? Research studies The dichotomy Suggestions for effective use ConclusionDiscussion

19 Why has it been marginalized? Teachers believe the myths about it. It didnt live up to expectations. It appears inconsistent with some contemporary learning theories. It is dominated by commercial interests. It isnt new. Teachers role seems limited.

20 Overview: Introduction Myths about tutorial CALL Why has it been marginalized? Research studies The dichotomy Suggestions for effective use ConclusionDiscussion

21 Tutorial CALL was stigmatized Tutorial CALL was stigmatized Computers as tools: word processing authentic websites authentic websites PowerPoint PowerPoint

22 Used in 3 ESL classes; each class went to the lab 3 times

23 Did the program help you improve? Yes: 21 No: 10 Results of post- questionnaire:

24 Did you use the software outside of class time? Yes: 8 No: 20 Results of post- questionnaire :

25 Tutor vs tool 2002 Review four CALL conferences in 2002 Based on abstracts, determine whether presentations involve tool use tool use tutor use tutor use both both neither (e.g., teacher training, testing…) neither (e.g., teacher training, testing…)

26 CALICO: March Tool vs. tutor ~balanced Tool - 57 Tutor -46 Both – 7 Neither - 17

27 TESOL: April Tool vs. tutor – tool dominates Tool - 42 Tutor -7 Both – 11 Neither – 19 Commercial: tutor – 6; tool - 2

28 EUROCALL: August Tool vs. tutor ~ balanced Tool - 37 Tutor -30 Both – 26 Neither – 14

29 CALL: August Tool vs. tutor ~ tutor dominates Tool - 11 Tutor -25 Both – 11 Neither – 6

30 Tool vs tutor 2002 CALL as tool has a slight edge generally, dramatic in TESOL Tutorial CALL is still interesting Increasingly, we see both - in blended environments (labs, etc.) - in blended materials

31 Overview: Introduction Myths about tutorial CALL Why has it been marginalized? Research studies The dichotomy Suggestions for effective use ConclusionDiscussion

32 The "tutor vs. tool dichotomy Computer as tutor: tutorial CALL Computer as tool: word processing presentation software Web spreadsheets MOOs concordancers chat Taylor (1980), Kenning & Kenning (1983), Levy (1995 & 1997) etc.

33 The "tutor vs. tool dichotomy may not be one.

34 These distinctions may be artificial. Tutorial CALL: Learners may in fact have a high degree of control. Learners may in fact have a high degree of control. Options: sequenceglosses hintssearch functions help screensmode of operation

35 The instructor may be involved to a high degree. Computer-as tutor:

36 Computer-as-tool: Since todays learners are increasingly proficient with software tools, the instructors role may be less than it was previously.

37 Many CALL software packages contain both tutor and tool functions. Decoo and Colpaert (1999) Decoo and Colpaert (1999) Richmond (1999) Richmond (1999) hybrid packages Levy (1999 ) hybrid packages Levy (1999 )

38 Future CALL? Tool CALLTutorial CALL (blended)

39 Overview: Introduction Myths about tutorial CALL Why has it been marginalized? Research studies The dichotomy Suggestions for effective use ConclusionDiscussion

40 What is the role of tutorial CALL? Focus on learning rules, patterns, and items Support one-way comprehension ListeningReading Pronunciation practice and feedback Handle limited, predictable interactions Some natural language processing

41 So, what can you do?

42 Become an informed consumer Experience tutorial CALL as a learner Consider plausible uses for your learning objectives and environments

43 Train learners in effective use Give learners teacher training Use a cyclic approach Use collaborative debriefings Teach strategies for setting an appropriate level of challenge

44 Encourage teachers to make their own CALL materials Support materials: handouts, tasks, Template authoring (e.g.,) Hot Potatoes Other authoring tools: QuickTimeHyperStudio RevolutionFlash MaxAuthorWinCalis

45 Conclusion: Instead of rejecting tutorial CALL out of hand, try to understand what it is and what it can do. Instead of rejecting tutorial CALL out of hand, try to understand what it is and what it can do.

46 Questions?Discussion?


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