Presentation on theme: "Another Look at Tutorial CALL"— Presentation transcript:
1 Another Look at Tutorial CALL Phil Hubbard, Stanford University Claire Bradin Siskin, University of Pittsburgh
2 Overview: Introduction Myths about tutorial CALL Why has it been marginalized?Research studiesThe dichotomySuggestions for effective useConclusionDiscussion
3 Working definition:Tutorial CALL refers to the use of computer programs (disk, CD-ROM, Web-based, etc.) embodying content, activities, and feedback specifically for improving language proficiency.
4 Levy (1995): Computer-as-tutor (tutorial CALL): computer controls the learninginstructor has no rolecomputer evaluatesComputer-as-tool:instructor has central rolegreater demands on the instructorcomputer does not evaluate
5 “On the basis of our present knowledge of language learning, I believe that the only defensible role for the computer in language learning is that of tool.” (p. 127)“In learner autonomy, the key concept in modern language learning and in all humanistically oriented pedagogy, the computer as tutor cannot have a place.” (p. 128)- D. Wolff, System, 1999.
9 The problem Tutor vs. tool Old CALL: disk-based tutorial programs New CALL: computer for production, information, and interaction (CMC)Need to take another look at tutorial CALLClarify what it is and isn’tHighlight roles for teachers
11 Overview: Introduction Myths about tutorial CALL Why has it been marginalized?Research studiesThe dichotomySuggestions for effective useConclusionDiscussion
12 Myth:“Tutorial CALL software is all behaviorist.”
13 Myth:“Tutorial CALL software is all drill and practice.”
14 Myth:“Tutorial CALL isn’t useful because it isn’t communicative.”
15 Myth:“In tutorial CALL, the teacher is absent/has no role.”
16 Myth:“In tutorial CALL, the learners have no control.”
17 Myth:on a disk or CD =“tutorial”on the Internet =“not tutorial”
18 Overview: Introduction Myths about tutorial CALL Why has it been marginalized?Research studiesThe dichotomySuggestions for effective useConclusionDiscussion
19 Why has it been marginalized? Teachers believe the myths about it.It didn’t live up to expectations.It appears inconsistent with some contemporary learning theories.It is dominated by commercial interests.It isn’t new.Teacher’s role seems limited.
20 Overview: Introduction Myths about tutorial CALL Why has it been marginalized?Research studiesThe dichotomySuggestions for effective useConclusionDiscussion
21 Tutorial CALL was stigmatized Computers as “tools:”word processingauthentic websitesPowerPointTutorial CALL was stigmatized
22 Used in 3 ESL classes; each class went to the lab 3 times
23 Results of post-questionnaire: “Did the program help you improve?”Yes: 21No: 10
24 Results of post-questionnaire: “Did you use the software outside of class time?”Yes: 8No: 20
25 Tutor vs tool 2002 Review four CALL conferences in 2002 Based on abstracts, determine whether presentations involvetool usetutor usebothneither (e.g., teacher training, testing…)
26 CALICO: March Tool vs. tutor ~balanced Tool - 57 Tutor - 46 Both – 7 Neither - 17
27 TESOL: April Tool vs. tutor – tool dominates Tool - 42 Tutor - 7 Both – 11Neither – 19Commercial: tutor – 6; tool - 2
28 EUROCALL: August Tool vs. tutor ~ balanced Tool - 37 Tutor - 30 Both – 26Neither – 14
29 CALL: August Tool vs. tutor ~ tutor dominates Tool - 11 Tutor - 25 Both – 11Neither – 6
30 Tool vs tutor 2002CALL as tool has a slight edge generally, dramatic in TESOLTutorial CALL is still interestingIncreasingly, we see both- in blended environments (labs, etc.)- in blended materials
31 Overview: Introduction Myths about tutorial CALL Why has it been marginalized?Research studiesThe dichotomySuggestions for effective useConclusionDiscussion
32 The "tutor vs. tool” dichotomy Computer as tutor: tutorial CALLComputer as tool:word processingpresentation software Webspreadsheets MOOsconcordancers chatTaylor (1980), Kenning & Kenning (1983), Levy (1995 & 1997) etc.
39 Overview: Introduction Myths about tutorial CALL Why has it been marginalized?Research studiesThe dichotomySuggestions for effective useConclusionDiscussion
40 What is the role of tutorial CALL? Focus on learning rules, patterns, and itemsSupport one-way comprehensionListeningReadingPronunciation practice and feedbackHandle limited, predictable interactionsSome natural language processing
42 Become an informed consumer Experience tutorial CALL as a learnerConsider plausible uses for your learning objectives and environments
43 Train learners in effective use Give learners teacher trainingUse a cyclic approachUse collaborative debriefingsTeach strategies for setting an appropriate level of challenge
44 Encourage teachers to make their own CALL materials Support materials: handouts, tasks,Template authoring (e.g.,) Hot PotatoesOther authoring tools:QuickTime HyperStudioRevolution FlashMaxAuthor WinCalis
45 Conclusion:Instead of rejecting tutorial CALL out of hand, try to understand what it is and what it can do.
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