Sudden Oak Death and other diseases caused by Phytophthora ramorum
Forest and/or Landscape Settings: United States California - 12 counties (urban & forest) Oregon - 9 sites over~40 acres Nursery Incidents: United States – 125 nurseries in 17 States Canada - British Columbia European Union – Belgium, Denmark France, Germany the Netherlands Poland, Slovenia Republic of Ireland Spain, Sweden United Kingdom Current P.ramorum distribution
Based on host type, climate, nursery imports Forest Survey
Proven hosts: Scientific Name (29)Common Name Acer macrophyllumBigleaf maple Aesculus californicaCalifornia buckeye Arbutus menziesiiMadrone Arctostaphylos manzanitaManzanita Camellia japonicaJapanese camellia Camellia sasanquaSasanqua camellia Hamamelis virginianaWitch hazel Heteromeles arbutifoliaToyon Lithocarpus densiflorusTanoak Lonicera hispidula California honeysuckle Pieris formosaHimalaya pieris Pieris formosa x japonicaPieris Forest Flame Pieris floribunda x japonicaPieris Brouwers Beauty Pieris japonicaJapanese pieris Pseudotsuga menziesiiPseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesiiDouglas-fir Quercus agrifoliaCoast live oak Quercus chrysolepisCanyon live oak Quercus kelloggiiCalifornia black oak Quercus parvula v. shreveiShreves oak Rhamnus californicaCalifornia coffeeberry Rhododendron sppRhododendron (including azalea) Rosa gymnocarpaWood rose Sequoia sempervirensCoast redwood Trientalis latifoliaWestern starflower Umbellularia californicaCalifornia bay laurel, pepperwood, Oregon myrtle Vaccinium ovatumEvergreen huckleberry Viburnum x bodnantenseBodnant Viburnum Viburnum plicatum var. tomentosumDoublefile Viburnum Viburnum tinusLaurustinus
Other suspected hosts: Scientific Name (31)Common Name, Date & Source of Report Abies grandisGrand fir – June 03 (1) Aesculus hippocastanumHorse-chestnut – Dec 03 (3) Arbutus unedoStrawberry tree – Dec 02 (7) Camellia reticulataCamellia – Oct 03 (3) Camellia x williamsiiCamellia – Oct 03 (3) Castanea sativaSweet Chestnut – Feb 04 (3) Corylus cornutaCalifornia hazelnut – Dec 02 (5) Fagus sylvaticaEuropean beech – Dec 03 (3) Kalmia latifoliaMountain laurel – Fall 02 (3) Leucothoe fontanesianaDrooping leucothoe - Oct 03 (3) Pieris formosa var. forrestiiChinese pieris – Oct 03 (3) Pieris formosa var. forrestii x Pieris japonicaPieris – Oct 03 (3) Pittosporum undulatumVictorian box – Dec 02 (6) Pyracantha koidzumiiFormosa firethorn – Apr 04 (9) Quercus cerrisEuropean turkey oak - Feb 04 (3) Quercus falcataSouthern red oak – Nov 03 (3) Quercus ilexHolm oak – Dec 03 (3) Quercus rubraNorthern red oak – Nov 03 (8) Rhamnus purshianaCascara – Dec 02 (4) Rubus spectabilisSalmonberry – Dec 02 (4) Syringa vulgarisLilac – 2003 (3) updated Oct 03 Taxus baccataEuropean yew – Aug 03 (3) Toxicodendron diversilobaPoison oak – Dec 02 (4) Vaccinium vitis-idaeaLingonberry – Poland, 2002 (reported by 3) Viburnum davidiiDavid Viburnum - Oct 03 (3) Viburnum farreri (=V. fragrans) Fragrant Viburnum – Oct 03 (3) Viburnum lantana Wayfaringtree Viburnum – Oct 03 (3) Viburnum opulus European cranberrybush Viburnum – Oct 03 (3) Viburnum x burkwoodii Burkwood Viburnum – Oct 03 (3) Viburnum x carlcephalum x V. utile Viburnum – Oct 03 (3) Viburnum x pragense Prague Viburnum – Oct 03 (3)
Eastern species susceptible in artificial inoculation tests: 25 species of Ericaceous ornamentals 25 species of Ericaceous ornamentals (susceptibility varied greatly) Tooley, 2002 6 oak species (white, red, chestnut, cherrybark, live and laurel oak) 6 oak species (white, red, chestnut, cherrybark, live and laurel oak)
Nursery Incidents Infected plants shipped to 125 garden centers in 17 States Infected plants shipped to 125 garden centers in 17 States States attempting to locate plants that have been sold States attempting to locate plants that have been sold Don Givens, USDA -APHIS INFECTED CAMELLIAS
P. ramorum in Europe Different mating type; more pathogenic Different mating type; more pathogenic Hundreds of nursery incidents, sanitized Hundreds of nursery incidents, sanitized Over a dozen ornamental rhododendron & Viburnum plantings ( few > one acre) Over a dozen ornamental rhododendron & Viburnum plantings ( few > one acre) One northern red oak in The Netherlands One northern red oak in The Netherlands One southern red oak in Sussex, England One southern red oak in Sussex, England Beech, horse chestnut, holm oak in Cornwall, all near infected rhododendron Beech, horse chestnut, holm oak in Cornwall, all near infected rhododendron P. ramorum on Southern Red Oak in Sussex, England
Nursery Protocol 2 meter buffer – destroy all hosts 10 meters – hold all host genera Destroy all hosts in infected block
Forest and Landscape Protocol Survey Survey Phytophthora ramorum outbreaks must be detected early for eradication to be effective. Early detection monitoring in areas with susceptible hosts is recommended. Eradication Eradication Eradication measures require removal and destruction of all all host plants and associated plant species. A regulated or quarantine area will be established around the eradication zone. Monitoring Monitoring Sites being treated for P. ramorum will continue to be monitored for two years. These vegetated areas will remain under quarantine for a minimum of two years from the date of the last pathogen detection. Restoration Restoration Take steps to stabilize soil, and to prevent off-site movement of the pathogen. Replant the site with appropriate non-host plants. Avoid planting other members of any host genera, as the host list continues to expand.
FIND those plants! Cheapest alternative Cheapest alternative Removing infected plants from landscape now will save money and ecological damage in the long run. Cooperation Cooperation States, the nursery industry, and federal agencies must form strong partnerships to achieve this goal. Public Outreach Public Outreach Homeowners who have purchased Camellias, Rhododendron, Viburnum, and Lilac in the last three years should examine them to see if they look diseased.
NETWORK! State Departments of Agriculture State Forestry Organizations Forest Service APHISCSREES University Extension Garden Centers Master Gardeners Gardening Magazines Newspapers
Forest Service National Plan Monitoring & Detection Monitoring & Detection Eradication where feasible Eradication where feasible Quarantine enforcement Quarantine enforcement (nursery stock, firewood, leaf material, soil with OM) (nursery stock, firewood, leaf material, soil with OM) Forest detection survey program Forest detection survey program Education & Outreach Education & Outreach Partnerships Partnerships