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Phytophthora ramorum: Educate to Detect (PRED) Phytophthora ramorum: Educate to Detect (PRED) University of Illinois Extension in cooperation with USDA-Forest.

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Presentation on theme: "Phytophthora ramorum: Educate to Detect (PRED) Phytophthora ramorum: Educate to Detect (PRED) University of Illinois Extension in cooperation with USDA-Forest."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phytophthora ramorum: Educate to Detect (PRED) Phytophthora ramorum: Educate to Detect (PRED) University of Illinois Extension in cooperation with USDA-Forest Service USDA-Cooperative State Research Education & Extension Service IPM Regional Centers National Plant Diagnostic Network USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

2 Overview Introduction History of P. ramorum Symptoms and look-alikes Regulations and management Sample collection and handling Questions and answers 2

3 Illinois Task Force Co-chairs: Monica David- U of I Extension Bruce Paulsrud- U of I Extension Dave Bender- IL. Nurserymans Association Mark Cinnamon-IL. Dept of Agriculture Steve Knight- IL. Plant Health Director Dick Little- IL. Forestry Development Council Karel Jacobs- Morton Arboretum Edith Makra- Morton Arboretum Nancy Pataky- U of I Plant Clinic Dave Shiley- U of I Extension 3

4 History outline Status in North American forests Status in Europe Status in North American landscapes and nurseries 4

5 Photo: Marin County Fire Department Marin County, CA (north of San Francisco) 5

6 Photo: Marin County Fire Department Marin County, CA (north of San Francisco),

7 Phytophthora ramorum Photo: UC Davis & UC Berkeley Phytophthora ramorum in culture Chlamydospores Sporangia releasing zoospores 7

8 Photo: Joseph OBrien, USDA-Forest Service Phytophthora ramorum infection on the leaves of California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) 8

9 Two sets of symptoms caused by Phytophthora ramorum Sudden Oak Death Red oak group hosts and tanoak Stem lesions beneath the bark May bleed or ooze Can kill adult plants Phytophthora ramorum Foliar Blight Non-oak hosts Spots and blotches on leaves Shoot dieback Can kill juvenile plants, occasionally mature plants 9

10 Photo: Mike McWilliams, ODF 10

11 P. ramorum confirmations in forests Map from Kelly, UC-Berkeley 11

12 Map: USDA- Forest Service 12

13 European garden & nursery finds Photo: Hans DeGruyter, Netherlands Plant Protection Institute Phytophthora ramorum infection on rhododendron in Europe 13

14 Quercus rubra Infected trees in Europe Photo: DEFRA Fagus sylvatica 14

15 Photo: Jennifer Parke, Oregon State University 15

16 Photo: Jonathan Jones, APHIS, PPQ 16

17 Trace-forward & trace-back investigations Trace forwards = to the nurseries where stock was shipped TO Trace backs = to the nursery where stock was shipped FROM 17

18 Phytophthora ramorum national survey Most states have started or completed their surveys Over 3,000 nurseries / garden centers have been surveyed Over 50,000 samples have been taken Originally 15 positives in 7 states All samples taken in Illinois were negative 18

19 19

20 Symptoms & look-alikes Sudden Oak Death on oak hosts Symptoms on other hosts Screening questions at the NCIPM website (www.ncipm.org/sod) and in the Illinois plan:www.ncipm.org/sod focus on recently purchased (or near recently purchased) camellia, kalmia, lilac, pieris, rhododendron, or viburnum 20

21 True oaks (Quercus spp.) Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) Chestnut (Castanea) [Europe only] Beech (Fagus) [Europe only] Symptoms caused by P. ramorum differ on different hosts Sudden Oak Death affects members of the oak family (Fagaceae) 21

22 Photo: Pavel Svihra, UC Cooperative Extension P. ramorum on coast live oak 22

23 Bleeding canker on tree trunk Bleeding or oozing on the bark Not associated with cracks in bark or insect holes Usually on the lower 6 ft. of tree trunks Photo: Garbelotto lab, UC Berkeley 23

24 Phytophthora ramorum Photos: Mike McWilliams, ODF & Bruce Moltzen, Missouri Dept. of Conservation bleeding 24

25 Photo: Dave Rizzo, UC Davis Cankers (in inner bark) are surrounded by a black line Phytophthora ramorum 25

26 Phytophthora ramorum outer barkinner bark Photo: Bruce Moltzen, Missouri Department of Conservation 26

27 Bleeding canker caused by Armillaria outer barkinner bark Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum Photo: Steve Oak, USDA-Forest Service 27

28 Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum outer barkinner bark Bleeding canker caused by inner-bark boring insect Photo: Steve Oak, USDA-Forest Service 28

29 Similar symptoms – submit sample outer barkinner bark Bleeding canker caused by Inonotus hispidus Photo: Steve Oak, USDA-Forest Service 29

30 Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum Scorching of foliage and vascular discoloration typical of Oak Wilt 30

31 Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum Scorching of foliage caused by Bacterial Leaf Scorch 31

32 Other common diseases & injuries Bacterial wetwood Boring insects Mechanical injury Fungi 32

33 On other plant hosts, P. ramorum causes symptoms of foliar blight Pyracantha Honeysuckle Yew Douglas-fir Grand fir Coast redwood Camellia Rhododendron Viburnum Pieris Mountain laurel Lilac 33

34 Symptoms on camellia Photos: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture & Cheryl Blomquist, CDFA 34

35 Symptoms on camellia Photo: Cheryl Blomquist, CDFA 35

36 Symptoms can be subtle Look for irregular- shaped brown lesions on the leaves Sometimes only the tips of leaves are brown Look for lower leaves that have fallen off Symptoms on camellia Photo: Cheryl Blomquist, CDFA 36

37 Sun scorch on camellia Similar symptoms – submit sample Photo: Carrie Harmon, University of Florida 37

38 Cold injury on camellia Similar symptoms – submit sample Photo: Richard Regan, Oregon State University 38

39 P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron Rhododendron macrophyllum Shoot diebackFoliar blight Photo: Everett Hansen, Oregon State University 39

40 P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron Photo: Everett Hansen, Oregon State University Rhododendron macrophyllum 40

41 P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron Photo: Bruce Moltzen, Missouri Dept. of Conservation 41

42 P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron Rhododendron Unique Photo: Jennifer Parke, Oregon State University 42

43 Photo: Paul Tooley, USDA-ARS P. ramorum symptoms on eastern native rhododendrons (inoculation trials) 43

44 Photo: Jay Pscheidt, Oregon State University Similar symptoms – submit sample Foliar blight caused by Phytophthora syringae 44

45 Photo: Mike Benson, NCSU Foliar blight caused by Phytophthora species Similar symptoms – submit sample 45

46 Phytophthora root rot - not caused by P. ramorum Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum Photo: Jay Pscheidt, Oregon State University 46

47 Sun scorch Gray blight can develop on sun scorched rhododendron leaves Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum Photo: Rich Regan, Oregon State University 47

48 Pieris japonica Photo: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture Symptoms on pieris 48

49 Pieris japonica P. ramorum symptoms on pieris Photo: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture 49

50 Photo: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture Viburnum x bodnantense Dawn P. ramorum symptoms on viburnum 50

51 Viburnum x bodnantense Dawn Photo: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture P. ramorum symptoms on viburnum 51

52 Viburnum plicatum tomentosum Mariesii P. ramorum symptoms on viburnum Photo: Jennifer Parke, Oregon State University 52

53 stem canker Photo: Sabine Werres, Institute für Pflanzenschutz im Gartenbau, Germany P. ramorum symptoms on viburnum 53

54 P. ramorum symptoms on kalmia (mountain laurel) Photo: DEFRA 54

55 Photo: Robert Linderman, USDA-ARS Similar symptoms – submit sample Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel) 55

56 Photo: Peter Angwin, USDA-Forest Service Similar symptoms – submit sample Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel) 56

57 P. ramorum symptoms on lilac Photo: Alexandra Schlenzig, Scottish Agricultural Science Agency 57

58 Photo: Jay Pscheidt, Oregon State University Bacterial blight on lilac Similar symptoms – submit sample 58

59 P. ramorum symptoms on conifers Photo: Santa Clara Co. (CA) Agriculture Dept. & Dave Rizzo, UC Davis Grand firDouglas-fir 59

60 Regulations & Management P. ramorum quarantines Federal vs. State quarantines Quarantine goals What areas are under quarantine? What is the impact of a quarantine? (Why we dont really want to find out!) P. ramorum management strategies 60

61 Federal quarantines Authorization: Plant Protection Act Prevent movement between states State quarantines Authorization in IL: IL Pest and Disease Act 505 ILCS 90 (www.ilga.gov/legislation/ilcs/ilcs.asp) Prevent introductions and movement within a state Phytophthora ramorum regulations & quarantines 61

62 Federal P. ramorum quarantine program goals Prevent the artificial spread of P. ramorum Take the least restrictive action necessary Determine status of disease, nationwide Keep the regulations current with the science and risk Identify where infected items came from and went to Clean up infested nurseries and garden centers 62

63 Federal quarantine areas 14 California counties & part of an Oregon county Pest is present and being officially controlled P. ramorum is established in natural environment, but within the quarantined area. Federal regulated areas All of California, Oregon, and Washington …is subjected to phytosanitary measures Think of this as a buffer between known infested and non-infested areas Phytophthora ramorum regulations & quarantines 63

64 Impact on Federal quarantined areas: Each shipment of host or associated host plants or regulated articles must be inspected before shipping interstate – must be free of P. ramorum. Annual inspection - even in nurseries that dont contain or ship P. ramorum hosts or associated hosts. Phytophthora ramorum regulations & quarantines 64

65 Phytophthora ramorum domestic regulated articles/materials Nursery stock* Forest stock Wood Bark Soil Wreaths & greenery 65 * See for a current list of hosts and associated hosts

66 Impact on Federal regulated areas: Nurseries may not ship hosts or associated hosts until inspection proves the nursery is not infested with P. ramorum. Annual inspection - even in nurseries that dont contain or ship P. ramorum hosts or associated hosts. Phytophthora ramorum regulations & quarantines 66

67 USDA-APHIS website: 67

68 Prevention & Management Cultural tactics: Thoroughly inspect all new plants for unusual symptoms prior to introducing them into the nursery, garden center, forest, or landscape. Avoid planting P. ramorum-foliar hosts under or adjacent to oak trees. Avoid wetting the plant foliage, which will stimulate foliar diseases such as P. ramorum. Monitor host plants frequently and promptly submit a sample from any suspicious plant. 68

69 Prevention & Management Fungicides: Information now emerging: interpret with caution Two established active ingredients seem to have the most promise (and data) - mefenoxam (Subdue Maxx): Foliar infections - phosphorous acid (AGRI-FOS): Trunk cankers Regular or supplemental labels are expected soon Read the labels carefully See the IL P. ramorum Detection & Response Plan for further details. 69

70 P. ramorum procedures Review of material just presented Goal of PRED Overview of the program What to do… 70

71 Sample referral criteria Plants likely to be infected by Phytophthora ramorum (as indicated by the screening questionnaire): Affected plant is on host list and purchased since 2002 Affected plant is near a recently purchased host plant Symptoms are consistent with Phytophthora ramorum Screening questions at the NCIPM website (www.ncipm.org/sod) or the same questions modified for Illinois and found in the Illinois planwww.ncipm.org/sod 71

72 Communication Submit the suspect sample to: University of Illinois extension office near you for DDDI submission If still suspect, the sample will need to be sent to: University of Illinois Plant Clinic 1401 W. St. Marys Rd. Urbana, IL Avoid alarming behavior. Dont jump to conclusions. Wait for lab result Maintain confidentiality 72

73 If youre asked to collect a sample Collect leaves that show various stages of symptom development. Take pictures of symptoms and environment. 73

74 Packaging a sample Place sample on a paper towel. Do not wet the towel. Double bag and seal the sample in zippable bags. If shipping, use a crush proof box with seams sealed completely with tape. Be sure to include the sample submission form required by your state. 74

75 Delivering a sample Contact the Plant Clinic ( ). Samples must be fresh and in good condition. Enclose in plastic as if mailing. Label the bags. Rapid delivery is critical (no Friday shipments). 75

76 Sampling reminders The accuracy of a disease diagnosis can only be as good as the sample and information provided. Sample must be representative of symptoms and severity in the field and must contain the right material. 76

77 Sampling reminders Sanitation disposal of material containment while shipping clean tools Chain of custody restrict access to sample make sure sample collection location is retraceable 77

78 Diagnostics: laboratory tests There are three detection methods: Antibody test (ELISA) Plating on selective media DNA (PCR) Relatively expensive Time consuming ELISA Plating PCR Photo: Natalie Goldberg, New Mexico State University 78

79 Where to go for more information APHIS: California Oak Mortality Task Force: NC IPM: IL Home, Yard, & Garden Pest Newsletter: 79

80 Acknowledgments Original authors Jennifer Parke Susan Frankel Janice Alexander Carla Thomas 80 Revising authors Monica David Nancy Pataky Bruce Paulsrud Dave Bender, Mark Cinnamon, Monica David, Nancy Pataky, Bruce Paulsrud, Dave Shiley, Karel Jacobs, Edith Makra, Steve Knight, Dick Little, and Tom Wilson Illinois Sudden Oak Death Task Force Members


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