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Phytophthora ramorum: Educate to Detect (PRED) Phytophthora ramorum: Educate to Detect (PRED) USDA-Forest Service USDA-Cooperative State Research Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Phytophthora ramorum: Educate to Detect (PRED) Phytophthora ramorum: Educate to Detect (PRED) USDA-Forest Service USDA-Cooperative State Research Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phytophthora ramorum: Educate to Detect (PRED) Phytophthora ramorum: Educate to Detect (PRED) USDA-Forest Service USDA-Cooperative State Research Education & Extension Service IPM Regional Centers National Plant Diagnostic Network USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

2 Overview Introduction to PRED History of P. ramorum Symptoms and look-alikes Regulations Sample collection and handling

3 History outline Status in North American forests Status in Europe Status in North American landscapes and nurseries

4 Photo: Marin County Fire Department Marin County, CA (north of San Francisco)

5 Photo: Marin County Fire Department Marin County, CA (north of San Francisco), 2000

6 Phytophthora ramorum Photo: UC Davis & UC Berkeley Phytophthora ramorum in culture Chlamydospores Sporangia releasing zoospores

7 Phytophthora species Photo: William Fry, Cornell University

8 Photo: Joseph OBrien, USDA-Forest Service Phytophthora ramorum infection on the leaves of California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica)

9 Two sets of symptoms caused by Phytophthora ramorum Sudden Oak Death Red oak group hosts and tanoak Stem lesions beneath the bark May bleed or ooze Can kill adult plants Phytophthora ramorum Foliar Blight Non-oak hosts Spots and blotches on leaves Shoot dieback Can kill juvenile plants, occasionally mature plants

10 Photo: Mike McWilliams, ODF

11 Photo: Everett Hansen, Oregon State University

12 P. ramorum confirmations in forests Map from www.suddenoakdeath.org Kelly, UC-Berkeley

13 Map: USDA- Forest Service

14 European garden & nursery finds Photo: Hans DeGruyter, Netherlands Plant Protection Institute Phytophthora ramorum infection on rhododendron in Europe

15 Quercus rubra Infected trees in Europe Photo: DEFRA Fagus sylvatica

16 Photo: Jennifer Parke, Oregon State University

17 Trace-forward & trace-back investigations Trace forwards = to the nurseries where stock was shipped TO Trace backs = to the nursery where stock was shipped FROM

18 Phytophthora ramorum national survey Most states have started or completed their surveys Over 3000 nurseries / garden centers have been surveyed Over 50,000 samples have been taken As of October 2004, this survey has identified 15 confirmed finds in 7 states: California, Oregon, Washington, Maryland, Oklahoma, New Jersey and Virginia

19 Photo: Jonathan Jones, APHIS, PPQ

20 Map: USDA, APHIS, PPQ Distribution of infected nursery stock from individual nurseries

21 Trace-forwards and positive detections across the U.S. July 2004 Map: USDA, APHIS, PPQ

22 Symptoms & look-alikes Sudden Oak Death on oak hosts Symptoms on other hosts Screening questions at the NCIPM website (www.ncipm.org/sod): focus on recently purchased (or near recently purchased) camellia, kalmia, lilac, pieris, rhododendron, or viburnum

23 True oaks (Quercus spp.) Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) Chestnut (Castanea) [Europe only] Beech (Fagus) [Europe only] Symptoms caused by P. ramorum differ on different hosts Sudden Oak Death affects members of the oak family (Fagaceae)

24 Photo: Pavel Svihra, UC Cooperative Extension P. ramorum on coast live oak

25 Bleeding canker on tree trunk Bleeding or oozing on the bark Not associated with cracks in bark or insect holes Usually on the lower 6 ft. of tree trunks Photo: Garbelotto lab, UC Berkeley

26 Phytophthora ramorum Photos: Mike McWilliams, ODF & Bruce Moltzen, Missouri Dept. of Conservation bleeding

27 Photo: Dave Rizzo, UC Davis Cankers (in inner bark) are surrounded by a black line Phytophthora ramorum

28 outer barkinner bark Photo: Bruce Moltzen, Missouri Department of Conservation

29 Bleeding canker caused by Armillaria outer barkinner bark Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum Photo: Steve Oak, USDA-Forest Service

30 Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum outer barkinner bark Bleeding canker caused by inner-bark boring insect Photo: Steve Oak, USDA-Forest Service

31 Similar symptoms – submit sample outer barkinner bark Bleeding canker caused by Inonotus hispidus Photo: Steve Oak, USDA-Forest Service

32 Other common diseases & injuries Bacterial wetwood Boring insects Mechanical injury Fungi

33 On other plant hosts, P. ramorum causes symptoms of foliar blight Pyracantha Honeysuckle Yew Douglas-fir Grand fir Coast redwood Camellia Rhododendron Viburnum Pieris Mountain laurel Lilac

34 Symptoms on camellia Photos: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture & Cheryl Blomquist, CDFA

35 Symptoms on camellia Photo: Cheryl Blomquist, CDFA

36 Symptoms can be subtle Look for irregular- shaped brown lesions on the leaves Sometimes only the tips of leaves are brown Look for lower leaves that have fallen off Symptoms on camellia Photo: Cheryl Blomquist, CDFA

37 Sun scorch on camellia Similar symptoms – submit sample Photo: Carrie Harmon, University of Florida

38 Cold injury on camellia Similar symptoms – submit sample Photo: Richard Regan, Oregon State University

39 P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron Rhododendron macrophyllum Shoot diebackFoliar blight Photo: Everett Hansen, Oregon State University

40 P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron Photo: Everett Hansen, Oregon State University Rhododendron macrophyllum

41 P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron Photo: Bruce Moltzen, Missouri Dept. of Conservation

42 P. ramorum symptoms on rhododendron Rhododendron Unique Photo: Jennifer Parke, Oregon State University

43 Photo: Paul Tooley, USDA-ARS P. ramorum symptoms on eastern native rhododendrons (inoculation trials)

44 Photo: Jay Pscheidt, Oregon State University Similar symptoms – submit sample Foliar blight caused by Phytophthora syringae

45 Photo: Mike Benson, NCSU Foliar blight caused by Phytophthora species Similar symptoms – submit sample

46 Phytophthora root rot - not caused by P. ramorum Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum Photo: Jay Pscheidt, Oregon State University

47 Sun scorch Gray blight can develop on sun scorched rhododendron leaves Similar symptoms – not P. ramorum Photo: Rich Regan, Oregon State University

48 Pieris japonica Photo: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture Symptoms on pieris

49 Pieris japonica P. ramorum symptoms on pieris Photo: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture

50 Viburnum x bodnantense Dawn P. ramorum symptoms on viburnum

51 Viburnum x bodnantense Dawn Photo: Oregon Dept. of Agriculture P. ramorum symptoms on viburnum

52 Viburnum plicatum tomentosum Mariesii P. ramorum symptoms on viburnum Photo: Jennifer Parke, Oregon State University

53 stem canker Photo: Sabine Werres, Institut für Pflanzenschutz im Gartenbau, Germany P. ramorum symptoms on viburnum

54 P. ramorum symptoms on kalmia (mountain laurel) Photo: DEFRA

55 Photo: Robert Linderman, USDA-ARS Similar symptoms – submit sample Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)

56 Photo: Peter Angwin, USDA-Forest Service Similar symptoms – submit sample Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)

57 P. ramorum symptoms on lilac Photo: Alexandra Schlenzig, Scottish Agricultural Science Agency

58 Photo: Jay Pscheidt, Oregon State University Bacterial blight on lilac Similar symptoms – submit sample

59 P. ramorum symptoms on conifers Photo: Santa Clara Co. (CA) Agriculture Dept. & Dave Rizzo, UC Davis Grand firDouglas-fir

60 Regulations Federal and State quarantines Domestic Regulated Materials Federal P. ramorum quarantine program goals

61 Federal quarantines – prevent movement between states State quarantines – prevent movement within a state prevent introductions Phytophthora ramorum regulations & quarantines

62 Phytophthora ramorum domestic regulated materials Nursery stock Forest stock Wood Bark Soil Wreaths & greenery

63 Phytophthora ramorum host list tanoakhorse-chestnutsouthern red oak canyon live oaksweet chestnutnorthern red oak coast live oakEuropean beechHolm oak California black oakdrooping leucothoewood rose Shreve oakEuropean turkey oakViburnum varieties bigleaf mapletoyonmadrone coffeeberrycascaraFormosa firethorn California buckeyecoast redwoodhuckleberry salmonberry manzanitahoneysuckle Western starflowergrand firpoison oak California hazelnutDouglas-firScotch heather mountain laurelEuropean yewwitch-hazel Pieris varietiesstrawberry treeVictorian box Camellia speciesCalifornia wood fern lilac European yewPacific yew rhododendrons/azaleas false Solomons seal winters barksweet bay laurel goat willowAndrews clintonia bead lily California bay laurel/pepperwood Current as of August 16, 2004

64 Federal P. ramorum quarantine program goals Prevent the artificial spread of P. ramorum Take the least restrictive action necessary Determine status of disease, nationwide Keep the regulations current with the science and risk Identify where infected items came from and went to Clean up infested nurseries and garden centers

65 APHIS website: www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/ispm/sod

66 P. ramorum procedures Review of material just presented Goal of PRED Overview of the program What to do…

67 Sample referral and submission In some states, only the State or federal regulatory officials will be collecting the specimens. Contact your county extension agent or supervisor to find out who is authorized to collect suspect samples in your county.

68 Sample referral criteria Plants likely to be infected by Phytophthora ramorum (as indicated by the screening questionnaire): Affected plant is on host list and purchased since 2002 Affected plant is near a recently purchased host plant Symptoms are consistent with Phytophthora ramorum Screening questions at the NCIPM website: (www.ncipm.org/sod)

69 Communication Submit the suspect sample to: County Extension Specialist/Farm Advisor Master Gardener Other state designated representative Avoid alarming behavior. Dont jump to conclusions. Wait for lab result Maintain confidentiality

70 If youre asked to collect a sample Collect leaves that show various stages of symptom development. Take pictures of symptoms and environment.

71 Packaging a sample Place sample on a paper towel. Do not wet the towel. Double bag and seal the sample in zippable bags. If shipping, use a crush proof box with seams sealed completely with tape. Be sure to include the sample submission form required by your state.

72 Delivering a sample Contact the sample recipient. Samples must be fresh and in good condition. Rapid delivery is critical (no Friday shipments).

73 Sampling reminders The accuracy of a disease diagnosis can only be as good as the sample and information provided. Sample must be representative of symptoms and severity in the field and must contain the right material.

74 Sampling reminders Sanitation disposal of material containment while shipping clean tools Chain of custody restrict access to sample make sure sample collection location is retraceable

75 Diagnostics: laboratory tests There are three detection methods: Antibody test (ELISA) Plating on selective media DNA (PCR) Relatively expensive Time consuming ELISA Plating PCR Photo: Natalie Goldberg, New Mexico State University

76 Where to go for more information APHIS: www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/ispm/sod California Oak Mortality Task Force: www.suddenoakdeath.org NCIPM: www.ncipm.org/sod

77 Acknowledgments Authors Jennifer Parke Susan Frankel Janice Alexander Carla Thomas Reviewers Kitty Caldwell Bill Hoffman Eugene Erickson Steve Oak Jonathan Jones Melodie Putnam Natalie Goldberg Susan Ratcliffe Everett Hansen David Rizzo Carrie Harmon Stacy Scott John Hartman

78 Questions??? We have assembled a group of experts to answer your questions: David Rizzo, University of California, Davis Jonathan Jones, APHIS Jennifer Parke, Oregon State University Kerry Britton, USDA-Forest Service Carla Thomas, NPDN Susan Ratcliffe, NCIPM


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