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Anabolic Steroid – Steroid hormones that increase muscle mass and also have masculinizing, or testosterone- like, properties Not to be confused with corticosteroids.

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Presentation on theme: "Anabolic Steroid – Steroid hormones that increase muscle mass and also have masculinizing, or testosterone- like, properties Not to be confused with corticosteroids."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Anabolic Steroid – Steroid hormones that increase muscle mass and also have masculinizing, or testosterone- like, properties Not to be confused with corticosteroids – anti-inflammatory

3 Anadrol (oxymetholone) Dianabol (methandrostenolone) Winstrol (stanozolol) Deca-Durabolin (nandrolone) Oxandrin (Oxandrolone) Depot-Testosterone

4 Occasionally used to help AIDS patients gain weight and to treat some types of severe anemia Used by athletes to boost performance Used by ordinary people to enhance appearance Since 1996, use in children has increased 39% among 8th graders, 67% among 10 th graders and 84% among seniors in high school 1 out of 16 high school students have used

5 They come in various forms: Pills Creams Patches Tablet or drops placed under the tongue Injectables orts/2009/05/central_fla_man_implicates _nat.html $100,000

6 All structurally similar to testosterone Were developed to help build muscle mass and enhance athletic performance Designer Steroids – enhance anabolic, minimize androgenic effects Also chemically designed to minimize 1st pass metabolism to retain adequate bioavailability

7 Soviet Union using testosterone Dr. John Ziegler – American Physician Didnt like strong androgenic effects Ciba – Dianabol – orally active compound with enhanced anabolic properties Breakfast of Champions Ziegler regretted helping to create monster

8 Mid 1980s – Steroids were reaching high school level U.S. Congress (1988 & 1990) – Anabolic Control Act of 1991 Classified 27 anabolic steroids as Schedule III Also, banned by many amateur and pro sports organizations NFL, MLB, NCAA, & International Olympic Committee

9 Endurance athlete and sprinters – low doses Bodybuilding and strength athletes – high doses May take up to 100 times more than therapeutic dose

10 Often used in patterns called cycling Cycles – typically 6-12 weeks in duration with periods of abstinence between successive cycles Use cycles (based on anecdotal information): To minimize development of tolerance Reduce occurrence of adverse side effects To maximize performance at an athletic event To avoid detection of a banned substance

11 Cycling sometimes combined with pyramiding Pyramiding – steroid dose is gradually increased until the midpoint of the cycle, then gradually decreased as the cycle is completed Thought to reduce possible withdrawal effects resulting from sudden termination

12 Simultaneous use of two or more anabolic steroids Often done by combining a short-acting oral steroid with a long-acting injectable preparation They think it enhances effectiveness, but not true

13 Mechanism of Action not fully understood Testosterone and other androgens are agonists at androgen receptor Receptor is located in the cytoplasm of cell in inactive state Androgen molecules diffuse across cell membrane, bind and activates receptor

14 Activated hormone-receptor complex translocates into cell nucleus, where it regulates the transcription of specific genes, depending on cell type Havent yet identified specific muscle cell genes that are turned on by androgens But overall effect is to increase protein synthesis and growth of the muscle

15 Testosterone converted enzymatically to two other bioactive hormones In some tissues – 5α reductase converts T to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which also has potent androgenic effects Some synthetic AS were designed to avoid this metabolic reaction because it decreases ratio of anabolic to androgenic activity Aromatase converts T to estradiol in a chemical reaction called aromatization Extremely undesirable – leads to feminizing side effects Some synthetics modified to resist aromatization

16 Recent evidence that AS treatment can induce androgen receptor expression in muscle Increasing the # of androgen receptors in the tissue would allow steroids to produce greater anabolic effects than they would in the presence of normal receptor expression At high levels, androgens act as antagonists to glucocorticoid hormones In muscle, GCCs are catabolic – produce an overall decrease in protein synthesis and an increase in protein breakdown A 2 nd M of A for AS could be their anticatabolic effects via glucocorticoid antagonism

17 Oral Steroids Liver Toxicity Which side effects occur depends on: Sex Age Type of Steroid Used (Oral or Injectable) Dose Pattern and Duration of Use muscleenhancers.com

18 For Girls: Facial hair Deep voice Increased body hair Irregular periods Increased appetite Enlarged clitoris For Boys: Breasts Shrunken testicles For Both: Severe acne Baldness Liver abnormalities and tumors Angry outbursts (roid rage) or aggressive behavior Paranoia Hallucinations Psychosis Blood clots full.pdf

19 Do steroids cause increased irritability and aggression? Do users develop dependence on anabolic steroids? utube.com/wa tch?v=DiU5- AAjb40

20 Dependence Criteria Withdrawal Symptoms DSM commonly reported signs of dependence Withdrawal when stopped Taking more than originally intended Inability to cut down or control usage despite a desire to do so Pre-occupation Continued Substance use despite problems Replacement of other activities with substance abuse Fatigue Depressed Mood Insomnia Restlessness Anorexia Decrease libido Dissatisfaction with body image Cravings

21 Absence of large-scale controlled studies hamper the evaluation of AS dependence No published reports of self- administration by animals of testosterone or any other anabolic steroids Can produce rewarding effects Positive Reinforcement – performance boosting, better body image Cravings are relatively weak

22 Dangerous physical and psychological effects Can stop growth and have voice changes After stopping, people can experience depression and moodiness Injectable steroids have an AIDS risk by sharing needles Steroids without prescriptions may be faulty or not be steroids at all

23 bodybuilding.elitefitness.com getmascular.blogspot.com

24 /8/0.1.full.pdf /8/0.1.full.pdf bodybuilding.elitefitness.com getmascular.blogspot.com orts/2009/05/central_fla_man_implicates _nat.html


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