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The framework:structure principles basic concepts Chris Oliver for RDA Workshop June 2010 June 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "The framework:structure principles basic concepts Chris Oliver for RDA Workshop June 2010 June 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 the framework:structure principles basic concepts Chris Oliver for RDA Workshop June 2010 June 2010

2 AACR2 to RDA AACR2 deconstructed new concepts new structure new vocabulary some new instructions some changed instructions

3 Reconstruction into RDA every word has changed many instructions show visible continuity with AACR2

4 What you need to know to understand the changes? RDAs framework

5 3 important acronyms FRBR Functional Requirements model for Bibliographic Records FRAD Functional Requirements model for Authority Data ICP Statement of International Cataloguing Principles all 3 created under the auspices of IFLA

6 What you need to know to understand the changes RDA organization and structure of RDA alignment with FRBR and FRAD models principles international cataloguing principles basic concepts user tasks entities, attributes and relationships elements and core elements extensible framework

7 What you need to know to understand the changes user tasks entities, attributes, relationships FRBR/FRAD organization and structure of RDA principles ICP data elements core elements practical design extensible framework

8 Focus on the user 0.0 RDA provides a set of guidelines and instructions on formulating data to support resource discovery. The data created using RDA to describe a resource are designed to assist users performing the following tasks:

9 User tasks Bibliographic data Find Identify Select Obtain Authority data Find Identify Clarify Understand

10 Consistent focus on the user Throughout RDA: datawhy include this data? user tasks to support the user in completing one of the user tasks

11 Functional objectives RDA divided into 10 sections Each section begins with general guidelines Functional objectives and principles specific to the section Functional objectives = the data (recorded or formulated according to the instructions in that section) the user tasks

12 Example from Section 1 Section 1= Recording attributes of manifestations & items 1.2 Functional Objectives and Principles The data describing a manifestation or item should enable the user to: a)find manifestations and items that correspond to the users stated search criteria b) identify the resource described … c) select a resource that is appropriate to the users requirements with respect to the physical characteristics of the carrier and the formatting and encoding of information stored on the carrier d) obtain a resource …

13 RDA never lets you forget introduction begins with focus on user and user tasks functional objectives in each section user tasks instructions open to cataloguer judgment within the parameters of enabling the successful completion of user tasks for example, from 3.7 Applied material identification selection Record the applied material used in the resource if it is considered important for identification or selection …

14 Entities, attributes, relationships entity = the object of a users interest entities that are of interest to someone who uses bibliographic and authority data bibliographic entities entities specific to authority control

15 Bibliographic entities work expression manifestation item person family corporate body concept object event place FRBR Group 1 products of intellectual or artistic endeavor FRBR Group 2 responsible for group 1 entities FRBR Group 3 subjects (includes group 1 & 2)

16 Group 1 entities work is realized through expression is embodied in manifestation is exemplified by item FRBR 3.1.1

17 Example of Group 1 entities w = idea for Hamlet story (in Shakespeares head) is realized through e = original English text as he wrote it is embodied in m = published in Oxford by Oxford University Press in 1998 is exemplified by i = copy owned by McGill with barcode no A

18 4 entities – 1 resource an item an exemplar of the Oxford 1998 manifestation an embodiment of the original English expression a realization of the work, Hamlet

19 Group 2 & 3 entities Group 2 = entities responsible for group 1 entities person e.g. creating family e.g. owning corporate body e.g. producing Group 3 = subjects of works concept object event place + + all group 1 and 2 entities

20 Authority entities bibliographic entities name identifier controlled access point rules agency entities on which authority data is focused entities for authority control entities that determine the content and form of access points

21 Authority entities bibliographic entities are known by names and/or identifiers which are the basis for controlled access points

22 FRBR/FRAD entities in RDA bibliographic entities work expression manifestation item person family corporate body concept object event place concepts in RDA name identifier controlled access point

23 Attributes characteristics of the entity data to be recorded about the entity examples of attributes: work: form of the work (or genre), medium of performance, coordinates (map), intended audience … expression: content type (form of expression), language of the expression, type of score … manifestation: publisher, date of publication, form of carrier, extent of the carrier … item: identifier (e.g. barcode), provenance, condition …

24 Attributes examples of attributes: person: dates, titles of rank, office, etc., gender, … family: type, dates, history, … corporate body: place, dates, address, … concept object term (pending release of FRSAD) event place

25 Relationships link between one entity and another basis for navigation and support collocation primary relationships: between work, expression, manifestation and item 3 other major types of relationships: 1.between a person, family or corporate body and a resource 2.between one resource and another resource 3.between a person, family or corporate body and another person, family or corporate body

26 Primary Relationships Recording Primary Relationships 17.4Recording Primary Relationships Primary relationships Primary relationships are the relationships between a work, expression, manifestation, and item that are inherent in the FRBR definitions of those entities: a) the relationship between a work and an expression through which that work is realized b) the relationship between an expression of a work and a manifestation that embodies that expression c) the relationship between a manifestation and an item that exemplifies that manifestation

27 Primary Relationships work expression manifestation item Hamlet original text London, 1603 RBD New York, 1998 MCL BIRK French trans. tr. by Gide Paris, 1946 EDUC Neuchatel, 1949 MCL tr. by Bonnefoy Paris, 1978 MACD German trans. Hamburg, 1834 MUSIC audio-book Paris, 1983 REDP

28 Examples of relationships expressiontranslation ofwork manifestation embodiment of expression work created by person expression performed byperson manifestation produced by corporate body workbased on work manifestation electronic reprod. manifestation personmember offamily familyfoundedcorporate body

29 Organization and Structure of RDA 2 main parts Recording attributessections 1-4 Recording relationshipssections 5-10 Divided into 10 sections sections are organized according to the bibliographic entities

30 Organization and Structure of RDA Section 1-4 = Recording attributes Section 1. Recording attributes of manifestation and item Section 2. Recording attributes of work and expression Section 3. Recording attributes of person, family, and corporate body Section 4. Recording attributes of concept, object, event, and place [placeholder]

31 Organization and Structure of RDA Sections 5-10 = Recording Relationships Section 5. Recording primary relationships between work, expression, manifestation, and item Section 6. Recording relationships to persons, families, and corporate bodies associated with a resource Section 7. Recording the subject of a work [placeholder] Section 8. Recording relationships between works, expressions, manifestations, and items Section 9. Recording relationships between persons, families, and corporate bodies Section 10. Recording relationships between concepts, objects, events, and places [placeholder]

32 Organization and Structure of RDA user task each chapter associated with a user task Chapter 1: General guidelines on recording attributes of manifestations and items Chapter 2: Identifying manifestations and items FRBR task = Identify Chapter 3: Describing carriers FRBR task = Select Chapter 4: Providing acquisition and access information FRBR task = Obtain

33 Organization and Structure of RDA Chapter 5: General guidelines on recording attributes of works and expressions Chapter 6: Identifying works and expressions FRBR task = Identify Chapter 7: Describing content FRBR task = Select

34 Organization and Structure of RDA scope of RDA: bibliographic dataauthority data RDA aligned with FRBR and also aligned with FRAD influence of FRAD: person, family, corporate body, place role of identifiers relationship between name + entity

35 Person in RDA definition of person influenced by FRAD: person = an individual or an identity established by an individual (either alone or in collaboration with one or more other individuals) scope of 9.0 = persons include fictitious entities for example works created by fictitious characters: Miss Piggy, Snoopy relationship of person (bibliographic identity) to person (individual) designate relationship as real identity or alternate identity

36 Name in RDA bibliographic entities work person family corporate body place name known by title known by name

37 Principles 2009 Statement of International Cataloguing Principles RDA 2009 final text of RDA including objectives & principles ICPRDA ICP and RDA developed in sync ICP informs RDA principles ICPRDA no. 1 for ICP and RDA = Responsiveness to User Needs RDA (RDA) Convenience of the User ICP (ICP)

38 RDA Objectives & Principles Objectives responsiveness to user needs cost efficiency flexibility continuity Principles differentiation sufficiency relationships representation accuracy attribution common usage or practice uniformity

39 Role of Objectives & Principles instructions must be defensible + not arbitrary real impact on the content of RDA for example objective = flexibility The data should function independently of the format, medium, or system used to store or communicate the data. They should be amenable to use in a variety of environments. content standard result = RDA is a content standard

40 RDA as a Content Standard what data should I record? RDA can be encoded using different encoding schema e.g. MARC 21, MODS, Dublin Core, etc. RDA data can be displayed using different display conventions e.g. ISBD, label display, etc.

41 RDA as a Content Standard implement in our current library environment use in different metadata communities ready to be used in newly emerging database structures ready to be used in the future web environment

42 Role of Objectives & Principles for example principle = representation The data describing a resource should reflect the resources representation of itself. result = impact on instructions about transcription Recording Edition Statements Transcribe an edition statement as it appears on the source of information. no instruction to use abbreviations transcribe what is on the source of information

43 Role of Objectives & Principles Principle = Representation Appendix B Abbreviations B.4 Transcribed elements For transcribed elements, use only those abbreviations found in the sources of information for the element. t.p.data recorded 3rd ed. Second editionSecond edition

44 Data Elements element element = A word, character, or group of words and/or characters representing a distinct unit of bibliographic information. appears similar to AACR2 definition, minus the reference to areas actually quite different from AACR2 element element as a key part of well-formed metadata JSC documents:RDA Scope and Structure RDA Element Analysis

45 Data Elements elements elements in line with metadata conventions elements, element sub-types, sub-elements element element contains data either about: an attribute of an entity OR a relationship between entities element each element is discrete and precisely defined

46 Data Elements element each element is discrete and precisely defined not data is not embedded in long character strings

47 Data Elements for example AACR2: information embedded in a non-specific note physical video format characteristics description notefont MARC 500base and applied materials sound characteristics requires that a human interpret information in record cannot be used reliably to search or to limit a search cannot be used for automated processing cannot generate a meaningful display

48 Data Elements RDA RDA: distinct and precise elements for each kind of data video format characteristics different elementfont for each type of base material dataapplied material sound characteristics RDA: RDA: recommended controlled vocabulary for content of many elements video format characteristics: beta, betacam, betacam SP, CED, D-2 … font: large print, giant print base material: bristol board, canvas, cardboard, ceramic, glass …

49 Data Elements RDA: precise elements – only one kind of data in an element AACR2 AACR2: date of publication, distribution, etc. MARC 21 MARC 21: 260 $c RDA RDA: 4 different elements: date of production date of publication date of distribution date of copyright

50 Day 1 of Implementation implementation in MARC 21 environment continue with ambiguity many RDA elements will map to one MARC subfield potential for the future designed to be in line with metadata that can be used in the online networked environment

51 More elements - e.g. for digital resources new data elements : record carrier type for online resource; record extent: 1 online resource (1 image file) 1 online resource (75 pages) file type data file streaming video file encoding format DAISYGIFHTML audioDVD audioimageJPEGtextPDF MP3TIFFMS Word uniform resource locator

52 Data Elements element each element has the potential to be usable: to index to search to build meaningful displays of data element data in element can be used by humans and machines can be used reliably to search or to limit a search can be used for automated processing can be used to generate a meaningful display

53 Core Elements many new elements but dont have to use them all core elements core elements not a level of description core elements are a minimum a floor, not a ceiling must include any additional elements required to differentiate the resource or entity from a similar one inclusion of other elements is discretionary

54 Core Elements subset core elements support a subset of user tasks identify and select a manifestation identify works and expressions embodied in a manifestation identify the creator or creators of a work find a person, family, or corporate body associated with a resource identify a person, family, or corporate body summary of core elements in introduction: 0.6 general guidelines for each section: core elements

55 Core Elements core certain elements are flagged as core title proper designation of edition preferred name for the person core if certain elements are flagged as core if if date of distribution if date of publication not identified ifif extent if resource is complete or if the total extent is known element is core but can omit some data if first place of publication (if more than one, only the first)

56 Extensible Framework framework to describe all known resources framework that can be extended to describe resources yet to be developed

57 Extensible Framework many data elements – each precisely defined data elements can be used in any combination clear distinction between content and carrier workcontent expressioncontent manifestationcarrier itemcarrier

58 Extensible Framework room for growth with framework of attributes and relationships RDA framework can describe any content any carrier categorizing in addition, framework for categorizing resources

59 Categorization of Content & Carrier RDA/ONIX framework support needs of libraries and publishing industry help user to select appropriate resource What is the categorization framework? consists of 3 elements that can be used in multiple combinations each element has controlled vocabulary replaces the GMD

60 Categorization of Content & Carrier consists of three elements:content type media type carrier type can use as many of each type as needed media is not core because it can be inferred from carrier type to record content, media and carrier types not a display standard code all three to support better automated processing (absence of data = ambiguous data)

61 Categorization of Content & Carrier expression content typeexpressionnotated music performed music still image spoken word text manifestation media typemanifestationaudio microform unmediated manifestation carrier type manifestation audio cartridge audio disc audiocassette

62 Categorization of Content & Carrier book Content type = text Media type = unmediated Carrier type = volume music CD Content type = performed music Media type = audio Media type = computer Carrier type = audio disc Carrier type = computer disc

63 Categorization of Content & Carrier web page Content type = text Media type = computer Carrier type = online resource online video Content type = two dimensional moving image Media type = computer Carrier type = online resource

64 Categorization of Content & Carrier controlled vocabulary three elements that can be used in multiple combinations can immediately record content and carrier information consistent values in the elements that can be mapped in various ways map to icons map to terms preferred by the user group map to terms in different languages map to newly developed terms

65 What you need to know to understand the changes user tasks entities, attributes, relationships FRBR/FRAD organization and structure of RDA principles ICP data elements core elements practical design extensible framework


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