3In 1999, a primary explosion of natural gas in an idle power boiler followed by a secondary explosion of disturbed coal dust in the facility caused six fatalities and fourteen serious injuries in a Michigan electrical power generation facility. (See Safety and Health Information Bulletin: Potential for Natural Gas and Coal Dust Explosions in Electrical Power Generating Facilities.)
4In May 2002, an explosion occurred at Rouse Polymerics International, Inc., a rubber fabricating plant, in Vicksburg, Mississippi, which injured eleven employees, five of whom later died of severe burns. The explosion occurred when highly combustible rubber dust that had been allowed to accumulate ignited.
5On January 29, 2003, an explosion and fire destroyed the West Pharmaceutical Services plant in Kinston, North Carolina, causing six deaths, dozens of injuries, and hundreds of job losses. The facility produced rubber stoppers and other products for medical use. The fuel for the explosion was a fine plastic powder, which accumulated above a suspended ceiling over a manufacturing area at the plant and ignited.
6On February 20, 2003, an explosion and fire damaged the CTA Acoustics manufacturing plant in Corbin, Kentucky, fatally injuring seven employees. The facility produced fiberglass insulation for the automotive industry. The resin involved was a phenolic binder used in producing fiberglass mats.
7On the evening of October 29, 2003, a series of explosions severely burned three employees, one fatally, and caused property damage to the Hayes Lemmerz manufacturing plant in Huntington, Indiana. One of the severely burned men subsequently died. The Hayes Lemmerz plant manufactures cast aluminum automotive wheels, and the explosions were fueled by accumulated aluminum dust, a combustible byproduct of the wheel production process.
8What are we talking about? Some terms used: Combustiblecapable of igniting and burningDeflagrationcombustion that propagates through a gas or along the surface of an explosive at a rapid rate driven by the transfer of heatSubsonic ( propagates slower than the speed of sound)No additional heat source is needed to cause reaction to continue
9Definitions: Combustible Dust A particulate (solid) which is a fire or deflagration hazard when it is airborne in air or other oxidizing medium over a range of concentrations regardless of particle size or shapeUsually refers to, but is no restricted to particles 420μm or smaller (can pass through a US #40 standard sieveUsually, the finer the dust particles, the more explosive
10Different dusts of the same chemical material will have different ignitability and explosibility characteristics,variables include particle size, shape, and moisture content.Additionally, these variables can change while the material is passing through process equipment
11Deflagration Isolation Deflagration Isolation. A method employing equipment and procedures that interrupts the propagation of a deflagration of a flame front, past a predetermined point.Deflagration Suppression. The technique of detecting and arresting combustion in a confined space while the combustion is still in its incipient stage, thus preventing the development of pressures that could result in an explosion.Detonation. Propagation of a combustion zone at a velocity that is greater than the speed of sound in the unreacted medium.Dust-ignitionproof. Equipment enclosed in a manner that excludes dusts and does not permit arcs, sparks, or heat otherwise generated or liberated inside of the enclosure to cause ignition of exterior accumulations or atmospheric suspensions of a specified dust on or in the vicinity of the enclosure.
12Dusttight. Enclosures constructed so that dust will not enter under specified test conditions. Explosion. The bursting or rupture of an enclosure or a container due to the development of internal pressure from deflagration.Minimum Explosible Concentration (MEC). The minimum concentration of combustible dust suspended in air, measured in mass per unit volume that will support a deflagration
13The following criteria must be met before a deflagration can occur: The dust has to be combustible.The dust has to be dispersed in air or another oxidant, and the concentration of this dispersed dust is at or above the minimum explosible concentration (MEC).There is an ignition source, such as an electrostatic discharge, spark, glowing ember, hot surface, friction heat, or a flame that can ignite the dispersed combustible mixture that is at or above the MEC.
14the following criteria must be met before an explosion can occur: The above criteria for deflagration must be present.The combustible mixture is dispersed within a confined enclosure (and the confined enclosure does not contain sufficient deflagration venting capacity to safely release the pressures) such as a vessel, storage bin, ductwork, room or building. It must be noted that a small deflagration can disturb and suspend the combustible dust, which could then serve as the fuel for a secondary (and often more damaging) deflagration or explosion.
15Danger signsPlant History of Fires: The plant has a history of fires involving combustible dusts.Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS): The MSDS may indicate that a particular dust is combustible and can cause explosions, deflagrations, or other fires. However, do not use MSDSs as a sole source of information because this information is often excluded from MSDSs.
16Dust Accumulations: whenever a dust layer of 1/32- inch thickness accumulates over a surface area of at least 5% of the floor area of the facility or any given room. The 5% factor should not be used if the floor area exceeds 20,000 ft2, in which case a 1,000 ft2 layer of dust is the upper limit.
17Accumulations on overhead beams, joists, ducts, the tops of equipment, and other surfaces should be included when determining the dust coverage area. Even vertical surfaces should be included if the dust is adhering to them.
18on and around equipment (leaks around dust collectors and ductwork.) Likely areas of dust accumulations within a plant are:structural membersconduit and pipe rackscable traysfloorsabove ceilingon and around equipment (leaks around dust collectors and ductwork.)
19Fire / Explosion hazard areas Class I : Liquids or vaporsClass II : Combustible DustsClass III : Fibers or Flyings (often not suspended)Petroleum refineries, and gasoline storage and dispensing areas;Dry cleaning plants where vapors from cleaning fluids can be present;Spray finishing areas;Aircraft hangars and fuel servicing areas; andUtility gas plants, and operations involving storage and handling of liquified petroleum gas or natural gas.Grain elevators;Flour and feed mills;Plants that manufacture, use or store magnesium or aluminum powders;Producers of plastics, medicines and fireworks;Producers of starch or candies;Spice-grinding plants, sugar plants and cocoa plants; andCoal preparation plants and other carbon handling or processing areas.Textile mills, cotton gins;Cotton seed mills, flax processing plants; andPlants that shape, pulverize or cut wood and create sawdust or flyings.
20Class II DustsDivision 1:Ignitable quantities of dust normally are or may be in suspension, or conductive dust may be presentDivision 2:Dust not normally suspended in an ignitable concentration (but may accidentally exist). Dust layers are present.E: Metal dusts (conductive,* and explosive) F: Carbon dusts (some are conductive,* and all are explosive) G: Flour, starch, grain, combustible plastic or chemical dust (explosive)
21Class II locations. Class II locations are those that are hazardous because of the presence of combustible dust.Group E. Atmospheres containing combustible metal dusts, including aluminum, magnesium, and their commercial alloys, and other combustible dusts whose particle size, abrasiveness, and conductivity present similar hazards in the use of electrical equipment. Group F. Atmospheres containing combustible carbonaceous dusts that have more than 8 percent total entrapped volatiles or that have been sensitized by other materials so that they present an explosion hazard. Coal, carbon black, charcoal, and coke dusts are examples of carbonaceous dusts.Group G. Atmospheres containing other combustible dusts, including flour, grain, wood flour, plastic and chemicals.
22Types of Dust Organic Wood Metal Plastic Dust (additives) Sugar, Flour, Paper, Soap, Dried BloodWoodAll varieties including sawdustMetalAluminum, MagnesiumPlastic Dust (additives)Carbon Dust : Coal
23Elements of Disaster Fuel – Combustible Dust Ignition Source Friction, Heat ( conductive, convection), electrical sparks, static electric spark, heat generating activities (grinding , welding), SmolderingOxygen or other oxidizing agentDust Dispersion causing a cloud at or above the Minimal Explosible Concentration (MEC)Confinement of the dust cloudDust Collectors, Process Machinery
24Kst The deflagration index of a dust cloud Dust explosion class*Kst (bar.m/s)*Characteristic*Typical material**St 0No explosionSilicaSt 1>0 and ≤ 200Weak explosionPowdered milk, charcoal, sulfur, sugar and zincSt 2>200 and ≤ 300Strong explosionCellulose, wood flour, and poly methyl acrylateSt 3>300Very strong explosionAnthraquinone, aluminum, and magnesium
26Combustible Dust Testing NFPA 68 stipulates that if a dust sample is available, it must be tested.The standard further states that it is the responsibility of the end-user (i.e., the plant or safety engineer) to commission the required testing and report on results
27Dust Testing Obtain dust sample and send to lab Screening test – Inert vs. explosiveIf Inert - stopIf combustible:Kst (defined as the deflagration index of a dust cloud, or rate of pressure rise)Pmax (the maximum pressure in a contained explosion).Costs will range from around $600 for screening only to about $1,400 for the standard battery of ASTM explosibility tests if needed
28Places to collect dust samples "High spaces" such as roof beams, open web beams, tops of pipes and ductwork, and other horizontal surfaces located as high in the overhead as possible. Note: These are the preferred locations; however, if a means of safe access is not available, sample(s) should not be collected.Equipment and floors where dust has accumulated.The interior (i.e., bins and/or bags) of a dust collector.Within ductwork.
29Tests run Percent through 40 mesh • Percent moisture content • Percent combustible material• Percent combustible dust• Metal dusts will include resistivity• Minimum explosive concentration (MEC)• Minimum ignition energy (MIE)• Class II test• Sample weight• Maximum normalized rate of pressure rise (dP/dt) – Kst Test• Minimum ignition temperature
30The following information may be gathered during the course of the inspection: Explosion prevention and mitigation controls such asthe isolation or segregation of dust-generating processes,building damage-limiting construction,explosion venting for dust-processing areas;process equipment relief process isolation andexplosion suppressionThe dimensions of the room as well as the areas of the dust accumulations of greater than 1/32-inch depth.The design information on the dust collection systems, along withmodel numbers and serial numbers (located on the side of the equipment along with the manufacturer and phone numbers).
31Warning signs or alerts on the equipment referencing combustible dust. Size (volume) of dust collectors (Note: Dust collectors are referred to as "air-material separators" in NFPA 654).Warning signs or alerts on the equipment referencing combustible dust.Any sources of ignition in the area, such as welding, fork truck traffic, etc.Information on whether the electrical equipment in the area is designed for use in a hazardous (classified) location.Note: Do not open electrical boxes or disconnect electrical cords. Opening them could cause an electrical arc, especially in an area with metal dust.)
32Even if you believe your dust is inert, it should be tested since materials (ie: glue on paper, some coating applied, etc) may change the combustible nature of the material
33If your dust is found to be even slightly combustible, you will be required to use explosion venting equipment on your dust collectorThe specific results of the explosibility testing will enable your dust collection supplier to determine whether you can use a standard explosion vent; or whether the vent size, ducting and related components will need to be specially calculated and modified to ensure compliance.Equipment must meet NFPA guidelines
34Dust Control (NFPA 654)Minimize the escape of dust from process equipment or ventilation systems;Use dust collection systems and filters;Utilize surfaces that minimize dust accumulation and facilitate cleaning;Provide access to all hidden areas to permit inspection;Inspect for dust residues in open and hidden areas, at regular intervals;Clean dust residues at regular intervals;
35Dust ControlUse cleaning methods that do not generate dust clouds, if ignition sources are present;Only use vacuum cleaners approved for dust collection;Locate relief valves away from dust hazard areas; andDevelop and implement a hazardous dust inspection, testing, housekeeping, and control program (preferably in writing with established frequency and methods).
36The OSHA ventilation standard, 29 CFR 1910 The OSHA ventilation standard, 29 CFR , contains ventilation requirements for certain types of operations (such as abrasives, blasting, grinding, or buffing) which involve dusts, including combustible dusts.29 CFR (a)(1) requires employers to keep work places and other areas clean, which includes the removal of dust accumulations
37Immediate cleaning is warranted whenever a dust layer of 1/32-inch thickness accumulates over a surface area of at least 5% of the floor area of the facility or any given room.The 5% factor should not be used if the floor area exceeds 20,000 cubic foot, in which case a 1,000 cubic foot layer of dust is the upper limit.Accumulations on overhead beams, joists, ducts, the tops of equipment, and other surfaces should be included when determining the dust coverage area. Even vertical surfaces should be included if the dust is adhering to them.1/32 inch is about the thickness of a paper clip
38Areas to look for dust• structural members • conduit and pipe racks • cable trays • floors • above ceiling • on and around equipment (leaks around dust collectors and ductwork.)
39Ignition ControlUse appropriate electrical equipment and wiring methods;Control static electricity, including bonding of equipment to ground;Control smoking, open flames, and sparks;Control mechanical sparks and friction;Use separator devices to remove foreign materials capable of igniting combustibles from process materials;.
40Separate heated surfaces from dusts; Separate heating systems from dusts;Proper use and type of industrial trucks;Proper use of cartridge activated tools; andAdequately maintain all the above equipment
41Electrical WiringWhen a dust hazard area is identified, special Class II wiring methods and equipment (such as "dust ignition-proof" and "dust-tight") must be used as required by 29 CFR and as detailed in NFPA 70 Article 500.Do not confuse Class II equipment with Class I explosion-proof equipment, as Class II addresses dust hazards, while Class I addresses gas, vapor and liquid hazards.
42Damage Control Separation of the hazard (isolate with distance); Segregation of the hazard (isolate with a barrier);Deflagration venting of a building, room, or area;Pressure relief venting for equipment;Provision of spark/ember detection and extinguishing systems;Explosion protection systems (also refer to NFPA 69, Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems);Sprinkler systems; andThe use of other specialized suppression systems.
43TrainingWorkers are the first line of defense in preventing and mitigating fires and explosions.The people closest to the source of the hazard should be trained to recognize and prevent hazards associated with combustible dust in the plant,they can be instrumental in recognizing unsafe conditionstaking preventative actionand/or alerting management.Employers with hazardous chemicals (including combustible dusts) in their workplaces are required to comply with 29 CFR , the Hazard Communication standard.
44Documents of Interesta. NFPA 654, Standard for the Prevention of Fires and DustExplosions from the Manufacturing, Processing, and Handling ofCombustible Particulate Solids.b. NFPA 484, Standard for Combustible Metals, Metal Powders, andMetal Dusts.c. NFPA 664, Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Explosions inWood Processing and Woodworking Facilities.c. NFPA 68, Guide for Venting of Deflagrations.d. NFPA 85: Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Codee. NFPA 69, Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems.f. NFPA 499, Recommended Practice for the Classification ofCombustible Dusts and of Hazardous (Classified) Locations forElectrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas.g. FM Global Safety Data pamphlet FM 7-76
45Applicable OSHA Standards HousekeepingDesign and Construction for Exit RoutesSafeguards and Features for Exit RoutesEmergency Action PlansFire Prevention PlansVentilationPersonal Protective EquipmentSpecifications for Accident Prevention Signs and TagsPermit-Required Confined SpaceFire ExtinguishersEmployee Alarm SystemsMaterial handlingPowered Industrial TrucksElectrical Power GenerationGrain Handling FacilitiesHazardous LocationsHazard Communication
46General Duty ClauseMust have a feasible means to abate the hazard in order for OSHA to cite the General Duty ClauseCompliance Officers are allowed to use the NFPA standards as evidence of feasible means of abatementNFPA standards can also be used for evidence of industry recognition of the hazard
47NFPA Publications Relevant to Combustible Dust Hazard Controls NFPA NumberTitleCurrent Edition61Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Dust Explosions in Agricultural and Food Processing Facilities200868Guide for Venting of Deflagrations200769Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems70National Electrical Code77Recommended Practice on Static Electricity85Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code86Standard for Ovens and Furnaces91Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate Solids2004484Standard for Combustible Metals2006499Recommended Practice for the Classification of Combustible Dusts and of Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas654Standard for the Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosions from the Manufacturing, Processing, and Handling of Combustible Particulate Solids655Standard for Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explosions664Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Explosions in Wood Processing and Woodworking Facilities
48http://www. osha. gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp. show_document • Old Directive Number: CPL• Title: Combustible Dust National Emphasis Program (Reissued)• Information Date: 03/11/2008
51Respirable Dustrespirable particles Mass fraction of dust (particles) that penetrates to the unciliated airways of the lung (the alveolar region).Note: This fraction is represented by a cumulative log-normal curve having a median aerodynamic diameter of 4 µm, standard deviation 2 µm
52Inhalable Dust Total Dust The EPA describes inhalable dust as that size fraction of dust which enters the body, but is trapped in the nose, throat, and upper respiratory tract. The median aerodynamic diameter of this dust is about 10 µm.Total DustTotal dust includes all airborne particles, regardless of their size or composition.
53The Health Effects Dust composition - Chemical - Mineralogical Dust concentration - On a weight basis: milligrams of dust per cubic meter of air (mg/m3) - On a quantity basis: million particles per cubic foot of air (mppcf)Particle size and shape - The particulate size distribution within the respirable range - Fiberous or sphericalExposure time
54Applicable OSHA Standards General Industry (29 CFR 1910) 1910 Subpart G, Occupational health and environmental controls, Ventilation1910 Subpart Z, Toxic and hazardous substances, Air contaminantsTable Z-1, Limits for air contaminantsTable Z-3, Mineral dustsShipyard Employment (29 CFR 1915) 1915 Subpart C, Surface preparation and preservation, Mechanical paint removers1915 Subpart Z, Toxic and hazardous substances, Air contaminantsConstruction Industry (29 CFR 1926) 1926 Subpart D, Occupational health and environmental controls, Gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mistsAppendix A Gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists, Ventilation
55PneumoconiosisCoal workers lung(also known as "black lung" or anthracosis) -AsbestosisSilicosis (also known as "grinder's disease") – silicaBauxite fibrosis - bauxiteBerylliosis – berylliumSiderosis – ironByssinosis – cottonSilicosiderosis - mixed dust containing silica and ironLabrador Lung (found in miners in Labrador , Canada) - mixed dust containing iron, silica and anthophyllite, a type of asbestosPopcorn workers lung disease – Diacetyl emissions and airborne dust from butter flavorings used in microwave popcorn production