Presentation on theme: "Ken Arp Industrial Hygienist Iowa OSHA Consultation and Ed."— Presentation transcript:
1 Ken Arp Industrial Hygienist Iowa OSHA Consultation and Ed. Confined Spaces&Three New Uses for the BackhoeFor theIowa Rural Water AssociationKen Arp Industrial Hygienist Iowa OSHA Consultation and Ed.DirectGeneral
2 OSHA and CONFINED SPACES Objectives Define “Confined Space”Define “Permit Required Confined Space”Explain the Hazards of Confined SpacesWhat is a “Safe” Confined Space Entry?
5 Current Confined Spaces Standard for Construction (b)(6)(i)“All employees required to enter into confined or enclosed spaces shall be instructed as to the nature of the hazards involved, the necessary precautions to be taken, and in the use of protective and emergency equipment required. The employer shall comply with any specific regulations that apply to work in dangerous or potentially dangerous areas.”
6 Current Confined Spaces Standard for Construction (b)(6)(ii)Means any space having a limited means of egress, which is subject to the accumulation of toxic or flammable contaminates or has an oxygen deficient atmosphere. … storage tanks, process vessels, bins, boilers, ventilation or exhaust ducts, sewers, underground utility vaults, tunnels, pipelines, and open top spaces more than 4 feet in depth such as pits, tubs vaults and vessels.
7 Confined Space A space that is: large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; andhas limited or restricted means for entry or exit (e.g., tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, pits); andis not designed for continuous employee occupancyStarts ELO 4.2
8 Standard Safety Requirements for Confined Spaces (ANSI Z117.1-2003) “Restricted entry and exit is a physical configuration, which requires the use of the hands or contortion of the body to enter into or exit from a confined space”.Limited - when an employee would be forced to enter or exit in a posture that might slow self-rescue or make rescue more difficult (FR 11/4/94, p ).10/27/95 – Mr. William Taylor (ELB & Associates) Q#3 under what circumstances might dikes be considered confined spaces and further when would they be permit spaces? Answer: As a contaminant structure, the design of a dike will determine whether it falls within the def. of PRCS std. A dike formed of mounded or sloped earth to a height of 4-6 ft would not normally represent a restricted means for entry or exit. Conversely, a dike formed of a vertical block or concrete wall of the same height would constitute a restricted means for entry or exit. Potential hazard of engulfment or the potential of a hazardous atm from a heavier-than-air gas or vapor would be considered.
9 Questions to AskDoes the person have to use their hands to enter or exit the space?Is the person in an awkward posture when entering or exiting the space?Is a person’s entry into or exit from the space slowed down or impeded by physical obstructions (such as pipes, ductwork, walls, holes in the floor, flanges, etc.)?Would an employee be forced to enter or exit in a posture that might slow self-rescue or make rescue more difficult?person haveSummarize limited/restricted means of entry/exit by these questions - have class write these questions in their manuals on this page.Does the person have to use their hands to enter or exit the space?Is the person in an awkward posture when entering or exiting the space?Is a person’s entry into or exit from the space slowed down or impeded by physical obstructions (such as pipes, ductwork, walls, holes in the floor, flanges, etc.)?Would an employee be forced to enter or exit in a posture that might slow self-rescue or make rescue more difficult?
10 CONFINED SPACE RESTRICTED ENTRY/EXIT Not designed for continuous occupancyLARGEenough to bodily enterCONFINEDSPACEConfined space triangleOK - it’s time to look at a couple of slides & using the definition of confined space, let’s determine if the following photos are confined spaces or not.RESTRICTEDENTRY/EXIT
11 What about Dry Wells or Lift Stations? Confined Space? Depends
13 Permit-required Confined Space A confined space with hazards = a PRCSHazardous Atmosphere<19.5% O2 (Oxygen Deficient)> 23.5% O2 (Oxygen Enrichment)>10% LEL for gas or vapor>100% LEL for combustible dust> IDLH> PEL + acute, serious & impairs ability to escapeTake them to the definitions of Permit Space and Hazardous Atmosphere in their standards.<19.5% (Oxygen DEFICIENT atmosphere)>23.5% (Oxygen ENRICHED atmosphere)>10% LEL> 100% LEL for combustible DUST> IDLH> PEL + acute, serious & impairs ability to escape
14 Permit Space (cont’d) ENGULFMENT ENTRAPMENT OTHER SERIOUS RECOGNIZED HAZARDSEnergy SourcesElectricalMechanicalPneumaticHydraulic, etc.SteamCorrosives, etc.ENGULFMENTENTRAPMENTOTHER SERIOUS RECOGNIZED HAZARDS- Energy SourcesElectricalMechanicalPneumaticHydraulics, etc.- Steam- Corrosives, etc.
15 Take class to CPL (p.15)Question #1 “Ladders and temporary, movable, spiral, or articulated stairs will usually be considered a limited or restricted means of egress. Fixed industrial stairs that meet OSHA standards will be considered….when conditions or physical characteristics of the space…would interfere with the entrant’s ability to exit or be rescued in a hazardous situation.”Fixed industrial stairsStair strength (min. of 1,000 lbs); stair width (min of 22”); angle of stairway rise (angles to the horizontal between 30 and 50 degrees - Table D-1 gives Rise/Tread dimensions that meet this requirement); tread (reasonably slip-resistant); railings and handrails (at least one side - refer to ); vertical clearance (at least 7 ft)Show next slide….
16 He hasn’t moved in 15 minutes, should we do something? Contingency PlanGOT ONE?
17 Is this a confined space? ______ Semi-truck – not a confined space because it’s not limited or restricted (instructor will show slide of semi backed up to a loading dock).Could also talk about - designed for continuous occupancy (since people will be loading and unloading the truck).Is this a confined space? ______Why or why not? ___________________________________
18 Is this a confined space? ______ This is a water tank truck – entry is on top through a hatch. This is a confined space.Is this a confined space? ______Permit Required? ___________________________________
19 Is this a confined space? ______ Permit Required? ___________________________________
20 Is this a confined space? ______ Underground utility vault. This is not a confined space (standard industrial ladder – not considered limited or restricted)Is this a confined space? ______Why or why not? ___________________________________
21 Is this a confined space? ______ This is a pressurized vessel – entry is on top. This is a confined spaceIs this a confined space? ______Permit required? _________________________________
22 Is this house (providing this is the only exit) now a confined space? I think our means of egress has just been restricted!Is this house (providing this is the only exit) now a confined space?
23 Is this a confined space? ______ This is a mixer. Is a confined space and would be a PRCS because of the mechanical hazard (someone turning on the mixer while a worker was in it). There may be other hazards like noise, cut, struck by, etc.Is this a confined space? ______Is this a permit-required confined space? ______If yes, what hazards make this confined space a permit space? ___________________________________________
24 Is this a confined space? ______ Rusted pipes in pitChlorine pit for the swimming pool - enter to repair rusted lines; annual or semi to check the conditions of the pit area.Chlorine gas is main hazard.Yes – confined spaceYes - PRCSIs this a confined space? ______Is this a permit-required confined space? ______If yes, what hazards make this confined space a permit space? ___________________________________________
25 Is this a confined space? ______ Yes, both are confined spacesProbably PRCS, too – main hazard would be atmospheric depending on chemical being hauled (foreground: railroad tank car) or stored in the storage tanks (in background)Is this a confined space? ______Is this a permit-required confined space? ______If yes, what hazards make this confined space a permit space? ___________________________________________
26 Sanitary Sewer Manholes Respect these placesTell them what to look at and why this is important.Can a person get into this?Is it considered limited/restricted? (ladder)Is it designed for continuous human occupancy?Is this a PRCS? yesWhat are the hazards that make sanitary sewers PRCSs? Hazardous atmosphere including possible oxygen deficiency, methane, hydrogen sulfide, a multitude of toxics….. Also, possible engulfment depending on laterals….Is this a confined space? ______Is this a permit-required confined space? ______If yes, what hazards make this confined space a permit space? ___________________________________________
27 Examples of Confined Spaces Pits (e.g., elevator, escalator, pump, or valve)Manholes (e.g., sewer, electrical, or communication)Tanks (e.g., fuel, water, or other liquid/solid/ gas)BoilersTransformer vaults
28 Examples of Non-Permit Confined Spaces From FR 1/14/93, p. 4475:Vented vaultsMotor control cabinetsDropped ceilingsOther examples MAY include:Crawl space under buildingsAir handling units (HVAC systems)*October 27, 1995 letter to Mr. James Sharpe (Consolidated Engineers Services) - includes cooling towers, trap doors, attics, crawl spaces, soffit spaces, fan chambers, return air shafts, etc.Tab #2 (Classification), letter #10
29 Again, these can be very dangerous This is a stormwater man hole.This is a confined spaceCould be classified as a PRCS – hazards could include engulfment and oxygen deficiency.Is this a confined space? ______Is this a permit-required confined space? ______If yes, what hazards make this confined space a permit space? ___________________________________________
30 Is this a confined space? ______ Elevator PitElevator pitYes – confined spaceCould be permit-required confined space – mechanical hazardsYes – PRCS (mechanical and struck by hazards)Is this a confined space? ______Is this a permit-required confined space? ______If yes, what hazards make this confined space a permit space? ___________________________________________
31 Is this a confined space? ______ This is an example of a non-permit space.Is this a confined space? ______Is this a permit-required confined space? ______If yes, what hazards make this confined space a permit space? ___________________________________________
32 Is this a confined space? ______ This is a storage tank. You can see the hatch on top – this is a confined space.Could be permit space due to potential hazardous atmosphere (i.e., oxygen deficiency, toxics, flammables) & engulfment hazards.Is this a confined space? ______Is this a permit-required confined space? ______If yes, what hazards make this confined space a permit space? ___________________________________________
33 Permit Required? Hazards? Confined Space?Permit Required? Hazards?Actual or Potential?
34 Confined Space Incidents >60% of the fatalities resulted from hazardous atmospheres.% of fatalities are would-be rescuers.Usually entrants nor rescuers fully recognized the potential hazards associated with confined spaces.Most common hazardous atmospheres were<O2, methane, CO, H2S (in order)
37 Limitations of Air Testing Devices You need to know how to use it WELLSensitivity variesInterferencePoisoning/Shelf Life of SensorsTemp/Humidity Operating RangeSome Not Intrinsically SafeMust Be Zeroed/RecalibratedBattery LifeHazards must be known
38 Clearing the AirWhy do atmospheres account for a majority of the fatalities?
39 BAD AIR Will incapacitate YOU Quickly20,000Gas MetersOxygen DeficientHydrogen SulfideCarbon monoxideCarbon dioxideNitrogen
40 Oxygen Deficiency 21% - Normal O2 level 19.5% - Minimum permissible O2 level15-19% - Impaired coordination12-14% - Pulse up, impaired judgement10-12% - Respiration increases further, lips blue8-10% - Fainting, ashen face6-8% - 100% fatal in 8 minutes, 50% fatal in 6 minutes, 4-5 minutes recovery with treatment4-6% - Coma in 40 seconds, convulsions, death
41 The Incidents2 employees die from hydrogen sulfide at oil well – gas meters with employeesSioux City lagoon deer rescueCarbon dioxide 1 fatalityNitrogen – 2 fatalities - TankerAnhydrous Ammonia fatality
44 What is a “Safe” Atmosphere Less than 10% of lower flammable limit19.5% to 23.5% OxygenAtmosphere below the permissible exposure limitIn addition, OSHA can cite for failure to provide adequate training for employees entering confined spaces. However, OSHA policy dictates that where a standard does not prescribe specific criteria, such as is the case with , the Agency must establish that the cited employer failed to provide the instructions that a reasonably prudent employer would have given in the same circumstances.With regard to references and cross references between part 1910 and 1926 standards, please be advised that before June 30, 1993, OSHA would cite certain 1910 standards where they applied at construction sites. On June 30, OSHA incorporated the General Industry standards which have been identified as applicable to construction work into part While other part 1910 standards may be identified in the future as applicable to construction, this compendium represents all of the part 1910 standards that have presently been identified as applicable. OSHA does not cross reference general industry and construction standards.
45 Is 20% Oxygen “Safe?”How much oxygen is missing if your meter reads 20%?What’s 1% in parts per million?10,000Are there any gasses at 10,000 ppm that could harm you?HundredsCarbon Monoxide is deadly at 500ppmALWAYS TEST THE ATMOSPHERE