Presentation on theme: "The worlds libraries. Connected. Enduring Change Cataloging, Judgment, and Imagination Competencies and Education for a Career in Cataloging Interest Group."— Presentation transcript:
The worlds libraries. Connected. Enduring Change Cataloging, Judgment, and Imagination Competencies and Education for a Career in Cataloging Interest Group ALA Annual, Anaheim, California 2012 June 22 Jay Weitz Senior Consulting Database Specialist WorldCat Quality Management Division OCLC
The worlds libraries. Connected. Conversations with Catalogers in the 21 st Century Helen Buhler Halvard (Hal) Cain J. McRee (Mac) Elrod Jennifer Marie Eustis Bernhard Eversberg Lynnette M. Fields Jon Gorman Michael Gorman Sylvia D. Hall-Ellis Janet Swan Hill Sheila S. Intner Ed Jones Susan S. Lazinger John F. Myers Scott Piepenburg Elaine R. Sanchez Christine Schwartz James Weinheimer Martha M. Yee Jay Weitz
The worlds libraries. Connected. From ICPSR to Playaways: Evolving Standards for the Cataloging of Electronic Resources
The worlds libraries. Connected. Resilience Patience Skills Judgment Imagination Competence Education The Rushing River of Revision
The worlds libraries. Connected. Welcome to the Catalogers Madhouse
The worlds libraries. Connected. Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR) Machine-Readable Cataloging (MARC) AACR and MARC
The worlds libraries. Connected. AACR1, 1967 Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR1), 1967 No mention of computers. No mention of Machine- Readable Data Files. No apparent awareness that the world was soon going to change.
The worlds libraries. Connected. CCRC Subcommittee on Rules for Cataloging Machine-Readable Data Files 1970: American Library Association, Resources and Technical Services Division, Cataloging and Classification Section, Descriptive Cataloging Committee created a Subcommittee on Rules for Cataloging Machine-Readable Data Files. Subcommittee was transferred to the Catalog Code Revision Committee, which was already looking toward AACR2. Final report issued in January 1976.
The worlds libraries. Connected. CCRC Subcommittee on Rules for Cataloging Machine-Readable Data Files Some Perennial Issues Raised by Subcommittee: Frequent absence, inadequacy, or ambiguity of a chief source of information. Medium Designation (later, General Material Designation or GMD): Machine-readable data file. Emphasizing edition statements that reflect changes in content rather than changes in physical format.
The worlds libraries. Connected. Advances in the cataloging world: 1971: ISBD(M). 1973: Non-Book Materials Cataloguing Rules (AACR1, British Text, Revised Chapters 10-15). 1974: AACR1 Revised Chapter 6, Separately Published Monographs (North American Text). 1975: AACR1 Revised Chapter 12, Audiovisual Media and Special Instructional Materials (North American Text). 1976: AACR1 Revised Chapter 14, Sound Recordings (North American Text). Evolving Standards
The worlds libraries. Connected. Advances in the computer world: 1970: First Random Access Memory (RAM) chip. 1971: First microprocessor (Intel 4004 chip). 1971: First floppy disk (8 inch). 1973: Ethernet networking : First computer kits for consumers (including the Mark- 8 and Altair 8800); and the first portable computer, the IBM Meanwhile, Back in the Real World, Part I
The worlds libraries. Connected. Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition, 1978, Chapter 9: Machine-Readable Data Files Includes files stored on: Magnetic tape. Punched cards (with or without a magnetic tape strip). Aperture cards. Punched paper tapes. Disk packs. Mark sensed cards. Optical character recognition font documents. Embraces: Data stored in machine-readable form. Programs used to process that data. AACR2, 1978
The worlds libraries. Connected. AACR2, 1978 Chief source of information: internal user label. A machine-readable identifier containing alphabetic and/or numeric characters providing information about the file. If information is not available from the chief source, use the following sources in order of preference: Documentation issued by the creator of the file. Other published descriptions of the file. Other sources (including the container of the file and its labels).
The worlds libraries. Connected. AACR2, 1978 Chapter 9 has File Description Area rather than Physical Description Area. Number of data files, program files, or object programs. Number of logical records or statements. Name of the programming language. Name and number of the machine on which file runs. 2 program files (300 statements each, COBOL). 1 object program (IBM 360/40). Any explicitly physical characteristics (such as the number and further details of tape reels or punch cards) relegated to a File Description and Physical Description note.
The worlds libraries. Connected. Machine-Readable Data Files: A MARC Format 1979: Work began on Machine-Readable Data Files: A MARC Format. October 1981: Machine-Readable Data Files: A MARC Format approved by MARBI. October 1984: OCLC implemented MRDF format.
The worlds libraries. Connected. April 1, 1976: Apple I. 1977: Apple II, Commodore PET, Radio Shack TRS : VisiCalc, the first computer spreadsheet program. 1979: WordStar, the first successful word processing software. August 21, 1981: IBM PC and its MS-DOS operating system. Meanwhile, Back in the Real World, Part II
The worlds libraries. Connected. Emphasis in 9.0B1 on the internal user label as chief source of information. Emphasis in 9.5 on the number of files and programs and the corresponding relegation of any physical description of the carrier to a note. Increasingly antiquated GMD machine-readable data file. Lack of any guidance for describing the new array of physical carriers (reels, disks, cassettes, cartridges). Need for a note on system requirements for the make and model of the computer, the amount of memory, the operating system, etc. AACR2 Chapter 9, 1978, and the Buggy Whip
The worlds libraries. Connected. Complements, rather than replaces, the rules in the original Chapter 9. Covers data files and program files coded in machine-readable form and produced in multiple copies for commercial marketing and distribution on a specific carrier intended to be used by the purchaser. Preferred source of bibliographic description remained the internal data: Explicit acknowledgement was now made that catalogers may lack means of access to internal data. Label on the storage medium itself and labels on containers move up in order of preference. Guidelines for Using AACR2 Chapter 9 for Cataloging Microcomputer Software, 1984
The worlds libraries. Connected. 1969: Earliest versions of the Internet. 1971: : FTP (file transfer protocol). Early 1990s: World Wide Web. Bad to Worse
The worlds libraries. Connected. AACR2 0.7: Some rules are designated as alternative rules or as optional additions, and some other rules or parts of rules are introduced by optionally. These provisions arise from the recognition that different solutions to a problem and differing levels of detail and specificity are appropriate in different contexts. Decide some alternatives and options as a matter of cataloguing policy for a particular catalogue or bibliographic agency and, therefore, exercise them either always or never. Exercise other alternatives and options case by case. All cataloguing agencies should distinguish between these two types of option and keep a record of their policy decisions and of the circumstances in which a particular option may be applied. AACR2s Alternatives and Options
The worlds libraries. Connected. AACR2 0.9: These rules recognize the necessity for judgement and interpretation by the cataloguer. Such judgement and interpretation may be based on the requirements of a particular catalogue or upon the use of the items being catalogued. The need for judgement is indicated in these rules by words and phrases such as if appropriate, important, and if necessary. Such words and phrases indicate recognition of the fact that uniform legislation for all types and sizes of catalogue is neither possible nor desirable, and encourage the application of individual judgement based on specific local knowledge. This statement in no way contradicts the value of standardization. Apply such judgements consistently within a particular context and record the cataloguing agencys policy. Cataloger's Judgment, or, Cataloguers Judgement
The worlds libraries. Connected. AACR2 MARC Real-World Resources Catalogers Judgment Catalogers Imagination Stated Rule Structured Format Stubborn Reality
The worlds libraries. Connected. Resource Description and Access October 1997: International Conference on the Principles & Future Development of AACR (Toronto Conference). May 1998: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report (FRBR). December 2004: Draft of AACR3, Part I. April 2005: Transition to RDA. November 2008: Full Draft of RDA. June 2010: RDA Toolkit published. October-December 2010: RDA Test. June 13, 2011: U.S. national libraries announce implementation not before January 1, June 14, 2011: Widespread panic.
The worlds libraries. Connected. JSC. CC:DA. MARBI. LC Bibliographic Framework Transition Initiative. Taming RDA, Transforming MARC
The worlds libraries. Connected Content Type The form of communication through which a work is expressed Media Type The general type of intermediation device required to view, play, run, etc., the content of a resource Carrier Type The format of the storage medium and housing of a carrier in combination with the media type (which indicates the intermediation device required to view, play, run, etc., the content of a resource). Content, Media, Carrier 336 text ǂ 2 rdacontent 337 unmediated ǂ 2 rdamedia 338 volume ǂ 2 rdacarrier
The worlds libraries. Connected. Bibliographic Production, Publication, Distribution, Manufacture, and Copyright Notice Sound Characteristics Projection Characteristics of Moving Image Video Characteristics Digital File Characteristics Associated Language Form of Work Other Distinguishing Characteristics of Work or Expression Medium of Performance Numeric Designation of Musical Work Key Authority 046 – Special Coded Dates Content Type Other Corporate Body Attributes Associated Place Address Field of Activity Associated Group Occupation Gender Family Information Associated Language Fuller Form of Personal Name Form of work Other Distinguishing Characteristics of Work or Expression Medium of Performance Numeric Designation of Musical Work 384 – Key MARC Bibliographic and Authority
The worlds libraries. Connected. Bibliographic Indexes Access Restrictions (rs: and rs=) Date Created as MARC (dm:) Description Conventions (dx:) Entity Attributes (en:) ISSN Link (ik: and ik=) Language of Cataloging Description (ll:) Name and Title Index (nx=) National Bibliography Number (nn:) Other Class Number (ot: and ot=) Physical Description (p3:) Provenance (pv:) Authority Indexes Cartographic Data (cm:) Entity Attributes (en:) ISSN Link (ik:) Relationship (rx:) New Indexes
The worlds libraries. Connected. Entity Attributes (Bibliographic) 046k l 340a b c d e f h i j k m n o 344a b c d e f g h 345a b 346a b 347a b c e 377a l 380a 381a 382a b d p v 383a b c d e 384a Entity Attributes (Authorities) 046f g k l s t 368a b c 370a b c e f g s t 371a b c d e m s t z 372a s t 373a s t 374a s t 375ast 376a b c s t 377a l 378q 380a 381a 382a b d p v 383a b c d e 384a Entity Attributes Indexes
The worlds libraries. Connected. Publisher Location (pl:) 257 a 260 a e 261 f 262 a 264 a 533 b 752 a b c d Publisher (pb: or pb=) 260 b f 261 a b e 262 b 264 b 533 c New Elements, Existing Indexes
The worlds libraries. Connected. Material Type Index RDA Carrier Term: 338 a MARC Code for RDA Term: 338 b OCLC Material Type Index (mt: and mt=) video cartridge vcvid videocassettevfvca videodiscvdvcd videotape reelvrvid other video carriervzvid Video carriers
The worlds libraries. Connected. RDA Workforms Set a preference in the Connexion client (version 2.40) and browser. RDA Toolkit IP Authentication GLIMIR Future option. Connexion Client and Browser
The worlds libraries. Connected. Ongoing record matching changes for RDA elements. Additional validation rules to help ensure correct coding. WorldCat
The worlds libraries. Connected. OCLC Policy Statement on RDA Cataloging in WorldCat for the U.S. Testing Period and Beyond In effect since RDA publication, June Catalogers WILL NOT be required to use RDA at any time in the foreseeable future. Incorporating RDA Practices into WorldCat: A Discussion Paper Widely circulated for comments, February 15 through April 15, OCLC staff currently discussing all users' suggestion and comments. Trying to work toward a consensus about the policies that will work best both for the cataloging community and for library users. Attempting to balance the dual roles of WorldCat as a catalog and as a repository of bibliographic data. Deeply informed by the work of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging. Policy Review and Coordination
The worlds libraries. Connected. Schema.org descriptive mark-up appended to WorldCat.org pages. WorldCat.org now offers largest set of linked bibliographic data on the Web. Entire publicly available version of WorldCat is now available for use by intelligent Web crawlers, such as Google and Bing, that can make use of this metadata in search indexes and other applications. DDC 23 also available as linked data. Linked Data