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1 Hunters Safety All information obtained from nnessee/default.aspx nnessee/default.aspx

2 Know Your Rifles and Shotguns Stock – Supports the action and the barrel of a firearm and is made out of either wood or synthetic material. Action – Consists of a series of parts that load, fire and eject a cartridge or shot shell from a firearm. Sight – An alignment device to help aim a firearm. Styles of sights include metallic, fiber optic, peep, open, telescopic, dot and laser Barrel and Muzzle – The barrel is the tube-shaped part of a firearm through which ammunition is fired. The muzzle is located at the front end of the barrel.

3 Cont. Trigger and Trigger Guard – When squeezed, the trigger releases the firing pin to hit the primer on a firearm's cartridge, igniting the powder and sending the bullet down the barrel. The trigger guard protects the trigger. Magazine – A storage device for cartridges or shot shells featured on most firearms. Without your magazine, your rifle or shotgun will be limited to a single shot. There are two types of magazines: Box & Tubular. They are available as either a detachable or fixed part. A detachable magazine can be removed from a firearm, whereas a fixed magazine cannot.

4 Cont. 1. Stock 2. Action 3. Sight 4. Barrel and Muzzle 5. Trigger and Trigger Guard 6. Magazine

5 Actions Bolt Action – This firearm has a reputation for high accuracy. – strongest action. – operated by moving the bolt handle up and to the rear to open the action. – When the bolt is moved forward, it picks up a fresh cartridge. – With the bolt fully forward, push down on it to lock the bolt in place. – Engage the safety and you are ready to hunt. – Grasp the bolt handle after firing, lifting it up while pulling it towards you. – This will eject the spent cartridge from the chamber.

6 Bolt Action

7 Lever Action A lever-action firearm usually has a shorter barrel, is lighter to carry, and is easy to operate for follow-up shots. A popular style of action among rifles, it is a good choice if you are hunting in thick brush (remember to cover the trigger guard to protect the trigger). Most lever-actions have a loading gate where the cartridges are pushed into a tubular magazine.

8 Using a Lever Action To load a cartridge from the magazine, grasp the lever and swing it down and away from you. Make sure that the barrel is pointed in a safe direction. Next, swing the lever up and towards you. This releases a cartridge from the magazine, chambers the cartridge and closes the action. After you load, engage the safety if your lever action has one; otherwise, place the hammer at half-cock position. After firing the lever action, swing the lever down and away from you to eject the cartridge.

9 Lever Action

10 Pump or Slide Action Used in both shotguns and rifles, pump action allows a hunter to quickly eject and chamber new ammunition. It is typically loaded from the bottom into a tubular magazine.

11 Pump or Slide Action The action is opened when the forearm is pulled back to the rear of the firearm. Pushing the forearm forward moves the ammunition from the magazine into the chamber and closes the action so that the firearm is loaded and ready to be fired. On most pump-actions, a slide lever located by the trigger guard releases the action so you can inspect the chamber or unload the firearm.

12 Pump or Slide Action

13 Semiautomatic Action This type of action is used in both shotguns and rifles. Many hunters find this firearm a pleasure to shoot due to its reduced recoil.

14 Semiautomatic Action After the trigger is pulled and a round is fired, the action opens automatically, the spent ammunition is ejected, a new round is chambered, the action closes and the firearm is ready to be fired again. This sequence repeats each time the trigger is pulled. The action remains open automatically when all ammunition stored in the magazine and chamber has been fired.

15 Semiautomatic Action

16 Break or Hinge Action This firearm is available in single-barrel or double-barrel styles and is ideal for novice hunters due to the limit it places on shots per use. Most firearms with this type of action feature two barrels placed either side-by-side or in an over-and-under configuration

17 Break or Hinge Action For loading, push on the action release lever and pivot the barrels down. The chamber will then be separated from the stock and firing mechanism so ammunition can be inserted. Once you close the action and release the safety, the firearm is ready for firing. After firing, press the release lever to open the action and eject the spent cartridge or shotshell. – Some break-actions have automatic ejectors, others require that you manually remove the spent cartridge or shotshell

18 Break or Hinge Action

19 Firearm Safety Pointing the muzzle of a firearm at someone Not identifying target carefully and what lies beyond it. Not keeping finger out of trigger guard and off trigger until ready to shoot. Assuming that a firearm is unloaded and not handling it safely. Stumbling or falling while carrying a loaded firearm

20 Firearm Safety Falling while climbing into/out of position Assuming that a firearm is unloaded when crossing a fence Jumping over a ditch or creek with a loaded firearm Transporting a loaded firearm in a motorized vehicle Swinging out of a safe zone of fire into another hunter's zone

21 Safeties A mechanical device that, when engaged, should prevent a firearm from firing by stopping the firing pin from striking the primer. IMPORTANT! The safety is a mechanical device and consequently subject to failure. While it is important to know how a safety works and how to use it properly, a safety is no substitute for the most basic rule of firearm safety: ALWAYS keep the gun pointed in a safe direction.

22 Safeties

23 RED MEANS DEAD!!!

24 Safeties

25 10 Rules of Firearm Safety (10.) Keep the muzzle pointed in a safe direction

26 9. Treat every firearm as if it were loaded.

27 8. Be sure of your target, in front and beyond.

28 7. Keep your finger off of the trigger

29 6. Check the barrel for obstructions.

30 5. Keep the action open.

31 4. Only point the muzzle when you plan to shoot at something.

32 3. Unload the gun before running, jumping or climbing.

33 2. Always store firearms securely and away from children.

34 1. Never consume alcohol before or while you handle a firearm. Avoid legal and illegal drugs that can alter your behavior and mental status as well.

35 Safe Firearm Handling in the Field The terrain the hunting preference will determine how you should handle your firearm in the field.

36 Two Hand Carry Provides the best control of the firearm. One hand holds the firearm's grip and the other is on the forearm of the firearm. It gives the hunter the best control of the muzzle, and the firearm can be shouldered quickly.

37 Shoulder Carry A useful carry when using a break action firearm. One hand is placed on the barrel as shown, while the action is open and rested on your shoulder. Only use this type of carry if you are absolutely certain that no one is behind you.

38 Trail Carry Use this carry only when no one is in front of you. Grasp the stock with one hand, just in front of the action. Ensure the muzzle is pointed away and in front of you Be careful that the muzzle does not hit the ground - if it does, you have to check the barrel for an obstruction.

39 Cradle Carry Placing the firearm across your chest, rest its action in the bend of your arm. Next, grasp the butt of the firearm with your other hand or cover the trigger guard. It's a very comfortable position. If there is another hunter walking beside you, make sure that each muzzle is pointed in a safe direction.

40 Sling Carry This takes advantage of the sling attachments on your firearm. Attach a sling, making sure it fits, and place the rifle over your shoulder while grasping the sling with your hand. If you bend over to pick up an object, remember that the muzzle is now pointed in front of you.

41 Elbow Carry Place the butt of the firearm in your armpit and let the forearm of the firearm rest on your arm. The muzzle is pointed down and in front of you. Remember that when you turn right or left, the muzzle will follow you.

42 Zones of Fire Hold your arms out in front of you at a 45- degree angle. As you look in front of you, the area in front of you starts out small and gets progressively larger into the distance. Your safe zone of fire is the space between your outstretched arms.

43 Misfires, Hangfires, Squib Loads

44 Misfire This occurs when the trigger is pulled and the firearm does not fire. It's caused either by a weak firing pin or a defective primer that fails to ignite the powder charge.

45 Hangfire This occurs when the trigger is pulled and the firearm is delayed in firing. It's caused by a temporary failure of the primer to ignite the powder charge.

46 Squib Load or Pop Fire This occurs when the trigger is pulled and you hear only a slight pop and do not feel any recoil. It is usually caused by not having a powder charge in the cartridge or shotshell.

47 Cleaning Your Firearm

48 Cleaning It is every hunter's responsibility to ensure their firearm is in working order before hunting. Not only does regular care and cleaning of a firearm ensure greater shot accuracy, it also helps ensure that the action and safety mechanisms function correctly.

49 Cleaning Keep the muzzle pointed in a safe direction. Ensure the firearm is unloaded. Clear the workbench of any material you do not need for cleaning. Move all ammunition to a separate location. Make sure your work area has adequate light and ventilation Wear some type of eye and hand-protection gear.

50 Cleaning Supplies

51 Step 1 Attach a cleaning brush that is the same size as the caliber or gauge of your firearm onto a cleaning rod. Pour a small amount of cleaning solution into an open container, such as a film canister, and dip the brush into the cleaning solution. Dipping the brush directly into the bottle of cleaning solution will contaminate the entire supply.

52 Step 2 Place the cleaning rod with a brush attached into the bore and work the brush down the entire length of the barrel.

53 Step 3 Remove the cleaning brush from the cleaning rod and attach the slotted patch holder onto the cleaning rod. Attach a clean patch onto the slotted patch holder and run the patch down the entire length of the barrel. Next, use the bore light to inspect the action and bore. If you spot any more residue, use another patch until it's completely clean.

54 Step 4 Attach a clean, well- oiled patch onto the slotted patch holder and run it down the entire length of the barrel. The oil will prevent rust in the barrel. Your barrel is now clean!

55 Step 5 Use a copper cleaning brush and work it around the bolt, bolt face and action to remove any powder residue. Wipe the bolt and action clean and apply a thin coat of oil Use a copper cleaning brush and work it around the bolt, bolt face and action to remove any powder residue. Wipe the bolt and action clean and apply a thin coat of oil.

56 Step 6 Wipe down the entire firearm with a lightly oiled rag to clean and protect the outside surface.

57 Alternative Ways to Clean Your Gun If the firearm cannot be cleaned from the breech as with the lever-action firearm, you will have to clean it from the muzzle end. You can place a patch or a thin cloth in the action so that residue does not fall into the trigger and safety assemblies.

58 Professional Repair by Gunsmith While cleaning a firearm, be sure to inspect it for loose screws or any signs of damage. If the firearm has been damaged or is not working properly, take it to a qualified gunsmith for inspection and repair if needed.

59 Storing If you have firearms in your home, protect your family and friends by ensuring that both your firearms and ammunition are legally and safely stored at all times. Gun safes protect firearms from being stolen, it keeps them out of the hands of careless adults and children alike. It also keeps them safe in the event of a break in; if your firearms fall into the wrong hands, you may be held responsible! All firearms should be stored in one secure location. Ammunition should be stored separately, but also in a secure location.

60 Muzzleloading The use of muzzleloading firearms in hunting is a time- honored tradition in North America. Compared with other firearms, it requires considerable skill to load, since each charge is loaded at the muzzle end of the barrel. It also requires much skill when using one to shoot game because, with the exception of double-barrel versions, there is only a single shot at relatively close range. That's why many are attracted to the challenge of this firearm. We will cover 3 styles: – inline percussion, percussion caplock, and flintlock.

61 Inline Percussion The modern inline percussion muzzleloader looks like most modern firearms, and it is very popular today. Some inline muzzleloaders are also equipped with an electronic ignition, where a tiny spark is produced in the breech, and ignites the gunpowder more rapidly than a percussion cap would. The inline and caplock muzzleloaders differ on where the nipple is attached. In an inline muzzleloader, the cap is in- line with the hammer and the barrel. The inline has the nipple attached to the barrel at the breech and accessed by a bolt or break action. Also, the inline model has a removable breech plug, to facilitate cleaning.

62 Inline Percussion ducation/?chapter=5&page=3

63 Percussion Muzzleloader This model has the nipple mounted on the outside of the barrel at the breech end. It uses a small percussion cap that has an explosive compound, which is used to ignite a gunpowder charge.

64 Percussion Muzzleloader ducation/?chapter=5&page=5

65 Flintlock Muzzleloader This style of muzzleloader dates back to the 17th century and features a flintlock mechanism that produces sparks when a piece of flint strikes its steel frizzen.

66 Flintlock Muzzleloader ducation/?chapter=5&page=7

67 Other Types of Muzzleloaders Wheellock Muzzleloader – This muzzleloader preceded the flintlock. – In this firearm, the Frizzen comes in a wheel shape and is powered by spring tension. – When the trigger is pulled, the frizzen spins against the flint, creating a shower of sparks to ignite the priming powder.

68 Wheellock Muzzleloader

69 Matchlock Muzzleloader The matchlock muzzleloader is one of the oldest firearms still used today. Instead of a flint striking the frizzen, this firearm uses a wick, which is a slow-burning material that is connected to the hammer. The hunter lights the wick with a match or a lighter, and when the trigger is pulled the wick descends into the flash pan to ignite the priming powder.

70 Matchlock Muzzleloader

71 Propellants Muzzleloading firearms use a special type of propellant, commonly referred to as black powder. However traditional black powder is a corrosive material which can cause the barrel of your firearm to rust quickly. There are also brand-name substitute powders, such as Pyrodex®, Clean Shot® and Hodgdon's Triple Seven®. All these powders are safe to use when handled properly. They are sold either in granulated or compressed pre- measured form. Modern muzzleloading firearms can now fire both black powder and smokeless powder. Using modern smokeless powder in a firearm that is not designed to handle it can result in serious injury to the shooter, and damage to the firearm.

72 Propellants

73

74 Primers Similar to what occurs when firing most modern-style firearms, primer for muzzleloaders ignites a main powder charge. The two most common percussion cap primers are the Number-11 Cap and the 209 Muzzleloader Primer. Each is coated with an explosive substance that when struck by the hammer, creates a spark. The Number-11 Cap is placed directly on the nipple. The 209 Muzzleloader Primer has a much hotter spark and is used where there is a larger amount of powder in the main charge. It is first placed in a primer holder and then on the nipple

75 Primers

76 Bullets

77 Cleaning Tools

78 Loading and Firing a Muzzleloader Safety Always read the owner's manual for any firearm. Always ensure the firearm is pointed upward and away from your face and body for loading. Use a stable rest for your firearm so it doesn't tip over. Check to see if the muzzleloader is loaded by inserting a pre-marked ramrod into the barrel. When the mark on the ramrod disappears into the barrel, this means the firearm is unloaded. Begin steps to load the firearm consistent with the manufacturer's instructions.

79 10 Steps to Load an Inline Muzzleloader Remember to follow all safety procedures

80 1 Pour black powder from the powder flask into the powder measurer.

81 2 Using the powder measurer, pour the measured black powder into the barrel.

82 3 Press the bullet into the muzzle

83 4 Using the small end or round end of a bullet starter, gently push the bullet into the barrel

84 5 Push the bullet farther into the barrel by using the longer end of a bullet starter

85 6 Hold the ramrod about 6 inches from the muzzle. seat the projectile firmly upon the powder charge so that there is no airspace between the projectile and the powder charge. – An air space here can cause a dangerous pressure build-up when firing.

86 7 When the mark on your ramrod lines up with the top of the muzzle, the bullet is now seated on top of the charge

87 8 Keeping the muzzle pointed in a safe direction, apply the safety if your firearm has one

88 9 Using the priming tool, seat the percussion cap onto the nipple

89 10 Make sure you wear appropriate eye protection while shooting. Once you are ready, properly identify the target as well as what is before and beyond the target. Line up your sights, disengage the safety if your firearm has one, pull the hammer back to the cocked position and gently squeeze the trigger.

90 Archery Dating back to the earliest period of civilization, people have been using bows and arrows for harvesting game. It's a very efficient and effective tool. It served the earliest hunters well in taking down even the most ferocious animals - think of a cave bear and you have a good idea of the kind of prey this tool could defeat. While today's hunters generally face less deadly targets, they can count on the timeless reliability of this tool- from longbow to recurve to compound - to get the job done.

91 Compound Bow This is the bow of choice for a majority of archery hunters. Using wheels and cams, it allows the hunter to hold the bow at full draw for a longer period of time for the best shot - a significant advantage over other bow styles. As the hunter begins to draw the bow, the string starts to turn the wheel and cam that is attached to the bow limbs. The hunter pulls the full draw weight until the cam turns over, letting off the full draw weight.

92 Compound Bow When the cam turns over, the draw weight is decreased by 50 to 80%. This decrease in draw weight, achieved by the cam turning over, allows the hunter to hold less draw weight at full draw. There are add-ons to help reduce the effects of vibration - a common drawback of this style of bow.

93 Stablilizer Adding a stabilizer adds forward weight, to balance the bow and absorb the vibrations when the string is released.

94 Sight A mechanical device to help the archer to place a shot.

95 Arrow Rest A device that holds the arrow above the arrow shelf.

96 Vibration Dampener Will help absorb vibration caused when firing the bow. Will also help reduce shock and excess noise.

97 Compound Bow 1. Stabilizer 2. Sight 3. Arrow Rest 4. Vibration Dampener

98 Recurve Bow This bow features limbs that sweep back and then forward at the tips toward both the bow string and the grip. It is easier for the novice archer to use, since its curved limbs give it more potential energy. When pulling back a recurve to a full draw, an archer experiences less hand shock and vibration than with a long bow. However, unlike the compound bow, this bow does not have a "let off point" meaning that the archer will still feel the total draw weight of the bow throughout the entire draw. When the string is released, the limbs and string move in a forward direction. The stored energy in both parts of the limb is released very quickly, propelling the arrow to the target at high speed.

99 Recurve Bow

100 Long Bow This is a large, powerful, lightweight bow. For a novice archer, it is more difficult to use than other bow styles. Not all long bows have an arrow shelf for an arrow rest. Nor do they shoot as fast as the recurve or compound bow. It also does not have a "let-off point". – This means the archer feels the total draw weight of the bow through the entire draw. When the string is drawn back, energy is stored in the limbs until the archer releases the bow string, propelling the arrow to the target at high speed.

101 Long Bow Bow hunters who prefer a more traditional hunt with the recurve and long bows may have the least possible accessories or additional parts on bows in order to increase the challenge when hunting. Bow hunters who use the compound bow, by contrast, may add several accessories to support accurate, quiet shooting on game. Whichever bow you choose to use, remember to always follow manufacturer's instructions for safe handling and use of your bow.

102 Long Bow

103 Hunters Safety A safe hunter takes time to prepare and to practice using all gear before going out into the woods with a firearm. In this chapter we are going to discuss safety skills for handling a firearm in the field, as well as how to be safe when hunting near or on water. We'll also examine general safety guidelines for all types of hunting.

104 What to Wear Although camouflage is an essential part to hunting, Hunter, or Blaze Orange is usually ALWAYS required when hunting medium to large size game animals. Since fluorescent orange is not present in the natural world it is an excellent safety measure. It is clearly visible in both bright sunlight and in poor lighting conditions. When hunting big game or upland birds (Quail, Partridge, etc.) make sure there is Blaze Orange coverage on your front, back, both sides and head when you are in the field. When hunting waterfowl and turkey, only wear hunter orange when going to, and coming from your hunting location.

105 Big Game Hunter Orange camouflage provides the high visibility and safety of a hunter orange garment while effectively breaking up the outline of the human form.

106 Upland Bird Hunter Often hunting in fields and in groups, hunter orange is necessary to indicate your presence and where others are located. Chaps will help protect your legs when walking through thick brush.

107 Turkey Hunter Both turkeys and waterfowl have great eyesight. The smallest movement can spook them. Facemasks are often used to cover any bare skin. Use a camouflage that blends with the habitat where you are hunting.

108 Dominant Eye Knowing which eye is dominant is an important factor in shooting performance. The dominant eye is the one that looks directly at an object. The non-dominant eye looks at the same object at a slight angle. The result is depth perception. A firearm will always be shouldered on the side of the hunter's dominant eye.

109 Find Your Dominant Eye Step 1. Make a small triangle with your hands, overlapping your thumbs and the top half of your fingers. Step 2. Extend your arms to the target. Step 3. Look through the triangle at the target. Step 4. Keep both eyes open. Step 5. Move your hands back to your face while looking at the target through the triangle you made with your hands. Step 6. Whichever eye your hand moves to is your dominant eye.

110 Prone Posititon This is the steadiest of all positions, because it supports both the firearm and the hunter's upper body. The hunter's hips and legs provide a stable platform. This position is very comfortable and should be used to practice the fundamentals of good shooting.

111 Sitting Position This is the next-best position for steadiness. With legs crossed at the ankles, the hunter's knees gives support to the arms. But a hunter's legs will start to shake if this position is held for a lengthy period.

112 Standing Position In this position, the hunter's arms are not supported, making it difficult to take an accurate shot. With this position, there is an exaggerated movement of the barrel. Some hunters will use a tree, large stone or a "shooting stick" as a prop to help ensure an accurate shot.

113 Kneeling Position This is an adaptation of the standing position, in which the hunter uses a rest to steady the firearm. The hunter will experience less barrel movement - a key to accurate shot placement

114 Still Hunting This is a technique in which a hunter moves slowly through a hunting area looking for game animals. By moving slowly and stopping frequently to look and listen, there's a greater chance of spotting game. It works very well on windy or rainy days.

115 Stalking Unlike still hunting, stalking is used when a hunter is following fresh game or animal signs, or has seen game in the distance. These signs might be fresh tracks in the dirt or leaves; they could also be scat or rub lines along a known game trail. If a hunter spots game animals in the distance, the stalking technique helps him or her to move closer and set up for a safe shot. A hunter moves very slowly, facing the wind and being mindful of footing to avoid breaking twigs or slipping

116 Ground Blinds These are temporary structures Ranging in size from a single- person blind to a miniature shed- like structure that can house up to three hunters, ground blinds can be a lot of fun to use. The advantage of a ground blind is that a hunter can sit inside it and be hidden from the sight of game animals. They are very effective when set up in areas of known game travel lanes and on the edges of crop fields and overgrown areas The disadvantage of a ground blind is if the game animals cannot see the hunter, neither can other hunters.

117 Man Drive In this technique, a party of hunters splits into two groups. One group lines up along the edge of the game cover - they're called the stages, and they don't move from their assigned positions. The other group are the drivers. – They position themselves on the opposite side of the game cover and walk toward the stages While walking through the cover, the drivers flush out game animals to the stages. If the drivers move slowly, the animals will also move slowly out of the cover

118 Man Drive Usually drivers do not shoot at the animal. This technique is quite effective for cover that is not too thick. Each of the stages must clearly identify the animal they want to target before shouldering their firearm. The stages have to be careful and know their zone of fire. It's important to wear a blaze orange hat and vest and know where the other stages are located.

119 Man Drive

120 Shot Placement Shot placement is crucial to achieving a quick, clean harvest of game animals. Since hunters do not want to wound a game animal and have it run away and not be found, it is every hunter's responsibility to first practice at a range to ensure they can place a shot successfully. Do not take a shot unless you are certain you can hit the vital area to achieve a quick and clean harvest. If you are unsure, don't take the shot.

121 Shot Placement After taking a shot, wait for at least 15 to 20 minutes before looking for the game animal. Patience is a must at this point. Remember that if the game animal does not drop immediately after having been shot, it will try to hide in a safe place. It is every hunter's responsibility to find any game they shot. This can sometimes take hours if it was a poorly placed shot, but it is your duty not to give up

122 Shot Placement

123 With a properly placed shot - in the area of the heart or lungs - the game animal will expire within a few minutes. After waiting, the hunter can start to track and find the game animal. When tracking the game animal, look for signs that it was shot - drops of blood on the ground or on plants are good signs It is a good idea to carry some flagging tape with you to mark the blood trail. This will show the general direction in which the animal ran.

124 Approaching Downed Animal Once you find the game animal, approach it with caution from the rear. That way, if it is still alive and jumps up, you will not be in its way. If you see any movement from the downed game animal, you will have to take another shot at it - aimed at the base of the skull where it meets the spinal column, or in the heart and lung area. Most game animals will have their eyes open when they expire.

125 Approaching

126 Field Dressing Field dressing is the act of removing the entrails from the body cavity of a downed game animal. It is the best way to cool down a game animal in the field. When field dressing any animal, take great care not to cut through the intestines, bladder or stomach area, as urine and other sources of bacteria can cause contamination.

127 Field Dressing To field dress big game, such as deer, you will need to make a cut in the skin starting just above the anus, and going right up to the base of the animal's jaw. This will allow you to remove the internal organs from the body cavity. Once the initial cut is made, take your time cutting the entrails from the backbone. When done properly, the entrails should come out as one large mass.

128 Field Dressing

129 When you return to camp, hang the game animal from a tree or a specially designed rack. This allows the air to circulate, cooling the meat quicker. Dispose of the entrails in a way that will not offend others. Once the animal is skinned, wash any dirt or blood from the meat. Next, dry the meat with paper towels or clean, dry rags. Make sure you wear some type of latex or rubber gloves when handling a downed game animal. This not only keeps your hands cleaner, but also protects you from getting scratched and helps reduce the risk of contracting infections. Although unlikely, there is always a chance of harvesting a diseased animal. Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), Lyme disease, and Rabies are three examples of infections that can potentially be transmitted to humans from a downed animal.

130 Field Dressing

131 Transporting When transporting a game animal, place it in the back of a truck or on a vehicle rack with a cover over it to protect it from dirt and debris. Do not strap the game animal to the hood of a vehicle. Not only is it offensive to others and disrespectful to the game animal, the heat from the vehicle's engine will spoil the meat.

132 Transporting

133 Trapping Trapping, like hunting, is a part of our heritage. For some, trapping evokes images of bearded mountain men with clothing made from deer and buffalo hides exploring the untamed wilderness There are times when there is an absence of natural predators and one species becomes overpopulated, leading animals out of their natural habitat and closer to civilization. For example, beavers take up residence in drainage areas and dam up creeks, causing flooding and damage to property. Trapping is also used to control damage to livestock animals. Trapping controls the spread of disease by keeping the wildlife population at the carrying capacity of the land. Trapping is not always for capturing animals for their fur.

134 Trapping Equipment

135 Foothold Trap The trap is connected to an anchor stake and chain. The stake keeps the animal from running off with the trap after it is caught. It is required by law that all traps have a name tag attached to the anchor chain. The trap is set under spring tension provided by a coil. The dog holds the jaws under spring tension. The pan is connected to the dog and is the triggering mechanism.

136 Live Trap Live traps are big and bulky and are hard to carry on a trapline. They are predominately found in urban areas and primarily used for relocating animals from around farms, homes and office buildings. These traps capture the animal alive and unhurt. The animal walks into the trap and steps onto a triggering mechanism. A door swings down and locks in place.

137 Bodygrip The bodygrip trap catches the animal around the body and kills it. They are mostly used in a water setting The bodygrip trap is placed in a location where the targeted animal will swim through it. When the animal swims through it, the triggering mechanism is activated and the trap snaps shut, capturing the animal.

138 Box Trap Commonly referred to as a colony, cage or basket trap, this has swinging doors at both ends. A targeted animal enters the trap by pushing on or swimming past the swinging door, which opens to the inside of the trap. It is hinged under a light spring pressure. Once the animal is in the box trap, it cannot escape

139 Snare Snares are considered trapping devices, but they work differently than the other traps discussed so far. The snare is suspended above the ground - usually at the head and shoulder height of the targeted animal. As the animal walks down the trail, its head enters the snare. As the animal continues to move forward along the trail, the snare tightens around the animal's neck.


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