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in semiconductor application

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1 in semiconductor application
Filter, Valve and Pipng in semiconductor application May TSMC F14 TFE3 劉易昌

2 Outline Filter Introduction Valve Introduction Piping Introduction Q&A

3 Filter Introduction

4 What is a Filter? A filter consists of a series of pores (channels) of a given size All particles bigger than the pore size are retained All particles smaller than the pore can go through the membrane

5 Depth Filter Characteristics & Structure
Relatively thick (fractions of an inch) Random structure High particle holding capacity Relatively low retention efficiency Potential for shedding & particle release Typically used as pre-filter High material content Materials: Polypropylene fiber or fiberglass

6 Membrane Filter Characteristic
Relatively thin (150 microns) Continuous polymeric sheet Defined pore size with high retention efficiency High Porosity ( Track etched low porosity ) Low particle holding capacity Typically used as final filters Materials - PTFE, PVDF, UPE etc.

7 Comparison of Membrane and Depth Filter Characteristics

8 Depth Filter – Graded Density
Flow Filter is constructed by wrapping multi-layers of fibrous non-woven media on a core There is retention gradient along the depth of flow direction by using different media Larger particles retained at outer section and smaller particle retained at inner section Planargard : CMP1,3,5,7,9,11,13,16 Schematic of Depth Filter

9 Typical Filtration Devices: Pleated Cartridges
Filter "pack" contains membrane, plus upstream & downstream fibrous supports. Supports can be a source of particles and can prevent efficient removal of bubbles. Pleat pack is thermoplastically potted to form a cartridge. Can be made in varied lengths from 2" to 40". Permeate Flow Path Inlet Flow Path Cross Section of Pleats

10 Filter Cartridge Holders
T-Style Housing Inline Housing Inlet Inlet Outlet Typical Flow Path Typical Flow Path Outlet

11 Typical Disposable Filter Assembly
outlet Vent Internal Filter Element inlet Drain

12 Retention Mechanisms: Sieving and Interception
In sieving (size exclusion), particles are too large to pass though the pore structure. They are either captured on the surface or in smaller passages inside of the structure. For interception to occur, the particles move with the fluid flow but touch a surface and are held there by strong forces.

13 Retention Mechanisms: Adsorption
Most particles in liquids have a negative charge and can be captured by attraction to a positively charge spots on the filter. Can be a large factor in liquids with some membranes.

14 Retention Mechanisms: Diffusion
Actual path Mean Free Path Due to molecular motion, very fine particles move in an almost random manner that follows a mean free path. Variations along this path may cause the particles to come in contact with the filter structure and be captured. Although this is a factor in liquids, it is the largest factor for high efficiency gas filters.

15 What is Pore Size Rating and Nominal Retention?
Pore Size Rating Definition: the largest actual or estimated size pores or “holes” in a filter Nominal Retention: Some Fractional Retention of a particular particle size (ex. 90%, 95%, 99%, 99.9%, etc.)

16 What is Pore Size Distribution?
Pore Size Distribution Definition: An estimate of the range and frequency of pore sizes which make up a given filter membrane Loose Vs Tight Distribution 0.2 0.1 0.05 0.01 1.0 Pore Size (micrometers) # Of Pores Loose Distribution Tight Distribution Both are 0.2 um rated filters based on definition of pore size rating

17 Effects of Particle Loading
Increase in pressure drop or reduction in retention Smaller membrane pores are plugged first. Larger pores remain open resulting in pathway for particles to travel through Retention decreases with heavy loading Decrease in retention can occur before any noticeable pressure drop increase

18 Housing Type For Cartridge Filters Chemlock Housing
Simple Cartridge/Bowl Installation Twist cartridge 1/4 turn to lock Attach bowl to head Tighten locking ring

19 Micro Contamination Removal
What do we use to Remove This Undesired Matter? Filters - Particle Removal Purifiers - Molecular Impurities (e.g. H2O, O2, Hydrocarbon..)

20 Gas filters- Materials of Construction
PTFE (Teflon) Chemically stable to all gases Low pressure drop Metal Stainless steel (316L Low sulfur) Chemically stable, except in corrosives & Ozone Nickel Chemically stable to most gases Not for Ozone, CO, hydride gases (PH3, AsH3, B2H6) Ceramics can release organics and light metals


22 Valve Introduction

23 What’s a valve A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically pipe fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category. In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure. Valves may be operated manually, either by a handle, lever or pedal. Valves may also be automatic, driven by changes in pressure, temperature, or flow. These changes may act upon a diaphragm or a piston which in turn activates the valve, examples of this type of valve found commonly are safety valves fitted to hot water systems or boilers. More complex control systems using valves requiring automatic control based on an external input (i.e., regulating flow through a pipe to a changing set point) require an actuator. An actuator will stroke the valve depending on its input and set-up, allowing the valve to be positioned accurately, and allowing control over a variety of requirements.

24 Valve type 由於閥類種類繁多無法完全列舉,一般閥類的用途如球型閥, 球閥, 栓塞閥, 蝶形閥,閘閥,針閥等僅是流體的延續,調整或阻斷作用,而特殊閥類的用途如逆止閥,電磁閥,排洩閥,隔離閥,空氣釋放閥等為保護設備,管路系統或操作需求。閥類的使用主要需依流體的種類,設備及使用需求去設計安插。蒸氣,水,空氣,瓦斯,油類等,不同的流體使用不同閥類,壓力等級和構造型式。 以下為廢水廠,電子廠,焚化爐,一般學校家庭常用閥類 球型閥(Globe Valve)可較精準調整流量依型式使用任何流體 球閥(Ball Valve) 可調整流量但不精準一般設計全開及全關上,依型式常使用在水,空氣,瓦斯,藥劑,油類流體 栓塞閥(Plug Valve–Eccentric Plug Type) 可調整流量但不精準一般設計全開及全關上,依型式常使用在水及污泥流體 蝶形閥(Butterfly Valve) 可調整流量但不精準,依型式常使用在水,空氣流體 閘閥(Gate Valve) 可調整流量但不精準一般設計全開及全關上, 依型式使用任何流體 逆止閥(Check Valve)保護設備或不同流體防止逆流, 依型式使用任何流體 減壓閥(red Valve)依設備系統需求降低某部份或系統流體壓力

25 Valve Type and classified
Valves are quite diverse and may be classified into a number of basic types. Valves may also be classified by how they are actuated: Hydraulic Pneumatic Manual Solenoid Motor

26 球型閥 globe valve 球閥(Ball Valve)

27 蝶形閥(Butterfly Valve) 栓塞閥(Plug Valve–Eccentric Plug Type)

28 逆止閥(Check Valve) A check valve, clack valve, non-return valve or one-way valve is a mechanical device, a valve, which normally allows fluid (liquid or gas) to flow through it in only one direction

29 Advantages over Ball and Gate Valves
     In order to operate and seal effectively, seat wear is inherent in most ball and gate valve designs.  When the seats eventually wear away so does the ball or gate valve ability to seal.  Emergency sealant injection to energize the seal most often enters the flow, potentially damaging downstream instrumentation and or contaminating the flow media.     In fire-safe ball and gate valves when the primary elastomeric or plastic seals wear away or are destroyed, metal to metal contact between the secondary metal seal on the ball or gate creates abrasion and costly damage to the key sealing components.

30 電磁閥 Solenoid Valve, Pneumatic Control Valve
A- Input side B- Diaphragm C- Pressure chamber D- Pressure relief conduit E- Solenoid F- Output side

31 Valve Body Inlet Port Outlet Port Coil / Solenoid Coil Windings Lead Wires Plunger Spring Orifice The media controlled by the solenoid valve enters the valve through the inlet port (Part 2 in the illustration above). The media must flow through the orifice (9) before continuing into the outlet port (3). The orifice is closed and opened by the plunger (7). The valve pictured above is a normally-closed solenoid valve. Normally-closed valves use a spring (8) which presses the plunger tip against the opening of the orifice. The sealing material at the tip of the plunger keeps the media from entering the orifice, until the plunger is lifted up by an electromagnetic field created by the coil.

32 Direct acting 2-way valves
Two-way valves are shut-off valves with one inlet port and one outlet port. In the de-energized condition, the core spring, assisted by the fluid pressure, holds the valve seal on the valve seat to shut off the flow. When energized, the core and seal are pulled into the solenoid coil and the valve opens. The electro-magnetic force is greater than the combined spring force and the static and dynamic pressure forces of the medium. Direct acting 3-way valves Three-way valves have three port connections, one being the "common" port and two valve seats. One valve seal always remains open and the other closed in the de-energized mode. When the coil is energized, the mode reverses.  This is the pneumatic equivalent of a single-pole single-throw electrical switch. Direct acting 4-way valves Four-way valves have four port connections and two valve seats. When the coil is energized, one set of ports is connected straight through to the other set of ports.  In the de-energized mode, the connection is reversed.

33 半導體使用的一些閥件 氣動閥 電磁閥 調壓閥 手動閥 手動閥 調壓閥

34 Piping Introduction

35 What’s piping Within industry, piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluids (liquids and gases) from one location to another. The engineering discipline of piping design studies the efficient transport of fluid. Industrial process piping (and accompanying in-line components) can be manufactured from wood, fiberglass, glass, steel, aluminum, plastic, copper, and concrete. The in-line components, known as fittings, valves, and other devices, typically sense and control the pressure, flow rate and temperature of the transmitted fluid, and usually are included in the field of Piping Design (or Piping Engineering). Piping systems are documented in piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs). If necessary, pipes can be cleaned by the tube cleaning process.

36 不銹鋼管

37 Major classifications of steel


39 鍍鋅鋼管 - EMT

40 PVC管 PVC管是水電工最常用的管材,它可用於水管也可以用於電管,因厚度不同有分給水管與排水管或電管,因為耐酸鹼所以適合作各種場所,但是 PVC管怕熱 , 加熱之後會軟化,所以不適合在高溫場所,但也因此可利用加熱來彎曲PVC管及擴管,縮管等,使配管更方便,再搭配預製好的彎頭與三通等另件及專用膠水一般來說PVC管.管壁上都有標示. 電管~E水管~A or B 其製造材質相同.唯有管壁厚度的差異而已.因電(E)管為配線保護使用.故其管壁厚度也較薄.水管又紛給水(需承受水壓故管壁厚度大於排水用管)/排水使用.建議按實際需求使用合適管件.較為安全.

41 PVC 雙套管 在半導體工廠很多地方必須使用雙套管方式施工尤其是以運送chemical等液體管路其最重要的目的是防止化學品因管線破裂造成外洩及防護人員安全為主 並在外管標示該管路明稱及運送方向以利使用者快速辨識該化學品種類

42 What’s the PTFE (Teflon)
In chemistry, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that finds numerous applications. PTFE is most well known by the DuPont brand name Teflon. PTFE is a fluorocarbon solid, as it is a high-molecular-weight compound consisting wholly of carbon and fluorine. PTFE is hydrophobic: neither water nor water-containing substances wet PTFE, as fluorocarbons demonstrate mitigated London dispersion forces due to the high electronegativity of fluorine. PTFE has one of the lowest coefficients of friction against any solid. PTFE is used as a non-stick coating for pans and other cookware. It is very non-reactive, partly because of the strength of carbon–fluorine bonds, and so it is often used in containers and pipework for reactive and corrosive chemicals. Where used as a lubricant, PTFE reduces friction, wear, and energy consumption of machinery.

43 Material Poly Tetra Fluoro Ethylene (PTFE)
Properties general Upper service temperature 260 °C Chemical resistance excellent Specific gravity 2.15 Melting point 327 °C electrical Dielectric constant 2.1 Dielectric dissipation factor Dielectric strength > 1400 Volt / mil Mechanical Tensile strength 3500 psi Elongation 300 % Compressive strength 3500 psi Flexural Modulus psi Hardness D-60 Enviromental Water absorption < 0.01 % Water resistance excellent Oxygen index >95 %

44 Datasheet PTFE Tubing PTFE is the most chemically resistant plastic known. Its mechanical properties are low compared to other engineered plastics, but it can be improved by adding fillers such as glass fiber, carbon, graphite and similar materials. PTFE has almost ideal dielectric properties. Its dielectric constant (2.1) and power-loss factor (0.0002) are low and remain so over a wide range of temperatures and frequencies. In certain applications, such as fuel hoses, some electrical conductivity is required to dissipate static charges. When exposed to flame, PTFE decomposes leaving just a little residue. PTFE is extremely inert and stable up to a temperature of 260 °C.PTFE is also virtually unaffected by oxygen, ozone and UV light.

45 Homework Please briefly describe retention mechanism of filter.
What is the definition of pore size distribution? Please briefly describe valve classified and choice 3 types valve and describe its function. What is the PTFE tube and its character?

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