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ELTR 1223 Survey of Renewable Energy Technology R.E. Generators: Hydropower Prime Movers and Others Unit 9a Source:

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Presentation on theme: "ELTR 1223 Survey of Renewable Energy Technology R.E. Generators: Hydropower Prime Movers and Others Unit 9a Source:"— Presentation transcript:

1 ELTR 1223 Survey of Renewable Energy Technology R.E. Generators: Hydropower Prime Movers and Others Unit 9a Source:

2 Use Policy This material was developed by Timothy J. Wilhelm, P.E., Kankakee Community College, with funding from the National Science Foundation as part of ATE Grant No. 0802786. All materials in this presentation are designed and intended for educational use, only. They may not be used for any publication or commercial purposes. Source:

3 Author, Editors/Reviewers Author: Timothy J. Wilhelm, P.E., Kankakee Community College Editors/Reviewers / Modifiers: Chris Miller Heartland Community College Source:

4 Objectives Students will be able to describe, in very simple terms, the so-called hydrologic cycle, and its relationship to hydropower technology. Students will be able to name a kinetic type of water turbine, and briefly describe, in very simple terms, how it operates. Students will be able to name a water-head type of water turbine, and briefly describe, in very simple terms, how it operates. Source:

5 Objectives Students will be able to mathematically convert feet of water head into pounds-per-square-inch of pressure Students will be able to describe, in very simple terms, at least one method of extracting energy from the ocean. Source:

6 Hydro Power History

7 Hydropower History Hydropower used by the Greeks to turn water wheels for grinding wheat into flour, more than 2,000 years ago. Mid-1770s -- French hydraulic and military engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor wrote Architecture Hydraulique, a four-volume work describing vertical- and horizontal-axis machines.

8 Hydropower History Source: http://www.uni-bielefeld.de/lili/personen/fleischmann/d_archsuse05/210_constable_mill.jpg

9 Hydropower History

10

11 Hydro Electric Beginnings

12 Hydroelectric Beginnings 1880 -- Michigan's Grand Rapids electricity (DC) generated by a dynamo belted to a water turbine at the Wolverine Chair Factory, lit up 16 Brush- arc lamps.

13 Hydroelectric Beginnings 1881 -- Niagara Falls city street lamps powered by a brushed dynamo connected to an old flour mill drive.

14 Hydroelectric Beginnings 1882 -- Hydroelectric power plant operating on the Fox River in Appleton, Wisconsin. Source: http://kids.americancorners.or.kr/ENG/images/05_history_07_10_01.jpg

15 The War of the Currents

16 The Wizard Who Spat on the Floor Source: http://images1.wikia.nocookie.net/__cb20100410182815/uncyclopedia/images/thumb/c/ce/Edisonx2.jpg/150px- Edisonx2.jpg

17

18 The Eccentric Serb Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Teslathinker.jpg/220px-Teslathinker.jpg

19 Source: http://www.pbs.org/tesla/res/images/390414_b.gif

20 Source: http://www.b92.net/news/pics/2006/07/118552926044aa6e07b13ae812180880_200x235.jpg

21 Source: http://api.ning.com/files/6Uhv8JceS2ky6Hdh4qxdKFytN5dyrB2D4O0CUpyZCHrOUKLK80jCdtyHeWAuJa945 Y8s14QBfoB0pXnJA-cyJ-RXj6IiMqal/93033884.bin?width=136

22 In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue… The 1893 Columbian Exposition, Worlds Fair, Chicago Source: http://www.acenor.cl/acenor/pag.gral/documentos/historia_electricidad_archivos/Chicago1.jpg

23 Niagara Falls – Nov. 16, 1896 – Westinghouse and Tesla Send Electric Power to Buffalo, NY

24 Hydro Power Fundamentals

25 Solar Energy + Force of Gravity = Hydropower

26 Hydropower Fundamentals Kinetic-type primer movers Water Wheels Extract energy from stream-flow Head or Pressure-type Prime Movers High (inlet) Elevation – Low (discharge) Elevation = Head PSI(pressure) = Feet of Water (head) X 0.433 A pints a pound the world around. 1 Ft 3 = 7.48 gallons; 1 gallon = 8.34 pounds 8.34 lbs/gal x 7.48 gal/ft 3 x 1 ft 2 / 144 in 2 = 0.433

27 Hydropower Fundamentals

28 Hydro Prime Mover Types: Head-type Turbines Low-Head and High-Flow Reaction Turbines Kinetic turbines (water wheels, and other flow converters) Propeller turbines Francis turbines (like a squirrel-cage centrifugal turbine) High-Head and Low-Flow Impulse Turbines Pelton Turbines Cross-flow Turbines

29 Turbine Types and Applications 300 Meters 984 Feet 30 Meters 98 Feet or 5 Meters 16 Feet

30 Hydro Prime Mover Types: Kinetic Source: http://hydropower.navajo.cz/hydropower-2.jpg

31 Low-Head Propeller Turbine Low-Head = less than 16 feet Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d0/Hydroel ectricTurbineRunner.png/300px-HydroelectricTurbineRunner.png

32 Medium Head Francis Runner Source: http://www.capture3d.com/Images/Applications/turbines- 3DmeasureFig9.jpg

33 High Head Pelton Turbine

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35 Tesla Designed a Total System Bladeless hydro-frictional turbine 3-Phase alternator Distribution transformers Wireless transmission of electric power, to all points on the earth World peace and harmony

36 Teslas Frictional Turbine

37 Source: http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/tesla-turbine-4.jpg

38 Creating Water Head: Impoundment Source: http://media.thesolarguide.com/i/illust_howworks.gif

39 Creating Water Head: Diversion Source: http://gator787.hostgator.com/~reapmgmt/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/diversionhydro-280x213.jpg

40 Hydro Plant Sizes Large Hydropower Although definitions vary, DOE defines large hydropower as a capacity of more than 30 MW. Small Hydropower Although definitions vary, DOE defines small hydropower as a capacity of 100 KW to 30 MW. Micro Hydropower A micro hydropower plant has a capacity of up to 100 kilowatts. A small or micro-hydroelectric power system can produce enough electricity for a home, farm, ranch, or small village.

41 Micro-Hydro

42 Micro Hydro Typically need at least 3 feet of head and 20 gpm of flow

43 Harris Micro-hydro Source: http://www.firemountainsolar.com/pics/home_harrisCollageSM.jpg

44 Stream Engine Micro-hydro

45 Micro-hydro Installation Head (feet) x Flow (gpm) / 10 = Watts [For example, 30 gpm x 100 feet/ 10 = 300 watts]

46 Other Hydro-Related Prime Movers

47 Ocean Energy The tidal forces and thermal storage of the ocean provide a major energy source Wave action adds to the extractable surface energy Major ocean currents (like the Gulf Stream) may be exploited to extract energy with rotors Source: http://www.yourgreendream.com/images/articles/wp_wave.jpg

48 Ocean Energy: Tidal Energy Tides are produced by gravitational forces of the moon and sun and the Earths rotation Existing and possible sites: France: La Rance river estuary 240 MW station England: Severn River Canada: Passamaquoddy in the Bay of Fundy (1935 attempt failed) California: high potential along the northern coast Environmental, economic, and esthetic aspects have delayed implementation

49 Barage Tidal Power

50 Tidal-Stream Generators Source: http://www.metaefficient.com/wp-content/uploads/seagen_marine_current_turbine.jpg

51 Tidal-Stream Generators Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/77/SeaGen_installed.jpg/200px-SeaGen_installed.jpg

52 Tidal-Stream Generators

53 Ocean Energy: Wave Energy Salter ducks rock up and down as the wave passes beneath it. This oscillating mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy A Wavegen, wave-driven, air compressor or oscillating water column (OWC) spins a two-way Wells turbine to produce electricity

54 Wave Power Source: http://www.kitco.com/ind/K irtley_Sam/images/may17 2007_2.jpg Source: http://www.rise.org.au/info/Tech/wave/image002.gif

55 Ocean Energy: OTEC (Ocean Thermal Electric Conversion) OTEC requires some 40°F temperature difference between the surface and deep waters to extract energy Open-cycle plants vaporize warm water and condense it using the cold sea water, yielding potable water and electricity from turbines-driven alternators Closed-cycle units evaporate ammonia at 78°F to drive a turbine and an alternator

56

57 A Final, Related Prime Mover

58 Energy from the Earths Forces Winds, waves, tides, and thermal gradients are renewable energy sources that might be valuable in some areas. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ner5tWA- 4o&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ner5tWA- 4o&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MT-4ZMgDBNI


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