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Large Tidal Turbine Farms: A tale of two NZ channels R. Vennell, Tuning turbines in a tidal channel, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2010. R. Vennell, Tuning tidal turbines in-concert to maximise farm efficiency, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2011 R. Vennell, Estimating the Power Potential of Tidal Currents and the Impact of Power Extraction on Flow Speeds, Renewable Energy, 2011 Ross Vennell Ocean Physics Group, Department of Marine Science, University of Otago ross.vennell@otago.ac.nz http://www.otago.ac.nz/oceanphysics Sea-Gen

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Two types tidal power http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidal_power 1960s, Worlds Largest 240 MW plant on the Rance River, France Require large tidal range > 5m Rare!! 1) Tidal Barrage 2) Tidal Current Power Requires currents around 2m/s Common in straits and channels around the world High density energy at predictable times

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Tidal Current Power Tidal Turbines- wet wind turbines? www.marineturbines.com 1.2MW at 2.25 m/s Verdant Power – New Yorks East River Open Hydro (Ireland) – Canada Kobold Vertical Axis Turbine – Straits of Messina, Italy

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Large Tidal Turbine Farms Different to Wind Farms Wind Farms are tiny compared to volume weather systems which drive then ->Farm does not affect free-stream flow NZ Met. Service Tidal Turbine Farms must be densely packed within channel Strong interaction between power extraction and flow -> affects free-stream flow Power extraction slows currents along entire channel!

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How does power output scale with farm size? 1MW 100 MWs ? Tidal current research and development Most: CFD modelling and building single turbines Few: estimating the limits of production from a given channel No one: connected the dots by determine how much power a given number of turbines can deliver from a channel Power extraction slows the flow -> power does not scale linearly!!

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Upper limit for Production in Channels Number of Turbines -> Farm Power Production Installed Capacity Channels Upper Limit or Potential requires a wall of turbines Decreasing Flow-> Flow will bypass turbines through any gaps needed for navigation! Maximum realisable with gaps

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Gaps to allow Navigation along Channel Bypassing flow and Mixing Losses Mixing Losses Bypassing Flow Turbines Channel Shoreline

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Yes there are equations!

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Two examples EnergyScape, 2009 Kaipara Harbour Cook Strait

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Kaipara Harbour Channel 15 km long channel 25 m deep 2.5 km wide Estuary 950 km 2 400km 2 dry at low tide 1.5-2.7m tidal range

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Kaiprara Harbour Entrance At Peak FlowAveraged over Tidal Cycle Upper Bound or Potential 570 MW240 MW Requires Turbines to Fill Cross-section 250 turbines + 40% flow reduction Filling 10% of cross- section and 10 rows 100 MW45 MW Requires250 turbines + 5% flow reduction Filling 30% of cross- section and 10 rows 300 MW130 MW Requires740 turbines+ 17% flow reduction Based on 1.7m/s peak flows and 18m diameter turbine blades and assumes turbines are optimally tuned for the channel.

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Power production will be smaller as these values as they dont allow for Mechanical loses in gear boxes Electrical conversion and transmission losses Energy losses due to drag on turbines support structure (?) Effects of upstream rows and their turbulence on turbine efficiency (?) Energy dissipation with the shallow Harbour due to bottom friction (?)

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Cook Strait Channel 100 km long channel 150+ m deep 25 km wide High tide at one end when almost low tide at the other

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Cook Strait At Peak FlowAveraged over Tidal Cycle Upper Bound or Potential 36,000 MW15,000 MW Requires Turbines to Fill Cross-Section 15,000 turbines + 34% flow reduction Filling 10% of Cross- Section and 10 rows 1,800 MW800 MW Requires15,000 turbines + 0.5% flow reduction Filling 30% of Cross- Section and 10 rows 8,300 MW3,500 MW Requires44,000 turbines + 4% flow reduction Based on 1.1 m/s peak flows and 18m diameter turbine blades and assumes turbines are optimally tuned for the channel.

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Effect Of Current Speed on Turbine Output 1.2MW 2.25 m/s Rated Current 0.5MW 1.7 m/s Kaipara Power Production of Sea Gen Current Speed 0.14MW 1.1 m/s Cook Strait Power V 3 Low currents low output per turbinelarge numbers of turbines required. Filling more of Cross-section

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Cook Strait Numbers Unduly Pessimistic Install in high flow regions to reduce turbine numbers These regions will move as a result, but should give higher flows that 1.1m/s cross-sectional average velocity. Peter McComb- MetOcean Solutions

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Summary A compromise between Power Production and 1)The fraction of the cross-section turbines are permitted to occupy 2)An environmentally acceptable flow reduction For Kaipara, 250 18m diameter turbines give an average of 240 MW if channel cross-section filled with turbines and a 40% flow reduction 45 MW if only 10% of cross-section filled and a 5% flow reduction For Cook Strait low average flows mean large numbers of turbines are needed, however targeting high flow regions would require far fewer turbines and yield 1-2GW R. Vennell, Tuning turbines in a tidal channel. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2010. R. Vennell, Tuning tidal turbines in-concert to maximise farm efficiency, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2011 R. Vennell, Estimating the Power Potential of Tidal Currents and the Impact of Power Extraction on Flow Speeds, Renewable Energy, in press ross.vennell@otago.ac.nz www.otago.ac.nz/oceanphysics

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