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Presented by Introduction History Types Principle Simple view Block diagram Different dam Advantage & disadvantage References.

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Presentation on theme: "Presented by Introduction History Types Principle Simple view Block diagram Different dam Advantage & disadvantage References."— Presentation transcript:


2 Presented by

3 Introduction History Types Principle Simple view Block diagram Different dam Advantage & disadvantage References INDEX

4 HYDRO POWER INTRODUCTION 1) One of the most widely used renewable source of energy for generating electricity on large scale basis is hydropower 2) The power obtained from river or ocean water is called as hydropower 3) Hydropower is the renewable source of energy since water is available in large quantities from rain, rivers, and oceans and this is will be available for unlimited time to come

5 HISTORY - In the 1700's, hydropower was broadly used for milling of lumber and grain and for pumping irrigation water - Appleton, Wisconsin became the first operational hydroelectric generating station in the United States, in 1882, producing 12.5 kilowatts (kW) of power - The total electrical capacity generated was equivalent to 250 lights - The largest and last masonry dam built by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation was the Roosevelt Dam in Arizona between ; its power output has increased from 4,500 kW to 36,000 kWRoosevelt Dam - Still in use today, Niagra Falls was the first hydropower site developed for a vast quantity of electricityNiagra Falls

6 TYPES OF HYDRO POWER PLANT 1) Water wheels 2) Hydro power plants 3) Wave energy from oceans 4) Tidal energy 5) Damless hydro power Based on Quantity of Water Available 1) Run-off river hydro plants with pond 2) Run-off river hydro plants with pond 3) Reservoir hydroelectric power plants

7 Based on the Head of Water Available 1) Low head hydroelectric power plants 2)Medium head hydroelectric power plants 3) High head hydroelectric power plants Based on the Nature of Load 1) Base load hydroelectric power plants 2) Peak load hydroelectric power plants

8 PRINCIPLE OF HYDRO POWER PLANT WATER CYCLE VAPORATION PRECIPITION RAIN The continuous cycle in which water changes from water vapor in the atmosphere to liquid water through condensation and precipitation and then back to water vapor through evaporation, transpiration, and respiration Water energies: Kinetic energy, Potential energy PROCESS / STAGES 1) Water in reservoir 2) Fall in turbine blade 3) Shaft rotation 4) Electric generation 5) Flow back of water Water cycle in the hydraulic power plant



11 Storage dams To impound water used for Irrigation Flood control Power generation

12 COMPONENT AND WORKING OF HYDRO POWER PLANT 1) Dam What is dam Location Classification of dams Storage dams Diversion dams Detention dams Overflow dams Rockfill dams Gravity dams Gravity dam Dam structure and design

13 The movement of water can be used to make electricity. Energy from water is created by the force of water moving from a higher elevation to a lower elevation through a large pipe (penstock). When the water reaches the end of the pipe, it hits and spins a water wheel or turbine. The turbine rotates the connected shaft, which then turns the generator, making electricity.


15 2) Water reservoir Place behind the dam Height of water Potential energy 3) Intake or control gates Gates inside of the dam. Inlet gates 4) The penstock To carries the water Controlled by the control gates 5) Water turbines Convert HYDROLIC energy to MECHANICAL energy 6) Generators Convert MECHANICAL energy in ELECTRICAL energy

16 7) Transformer Converts the alternating current to high voltage current. Two coils: the supply coil and the outlet coil. Voltage required for various applications is 110V or 230V. Numbers of turns in outlet coil are double of supply coil, the voltage produced is also double. 8) Tailrace Pipeline to drain the water The potential energy of water in the tailrace has been used to generate electricity





21 CASE STUDY OF HIRAKUND DAM It was the first major multipurpose river valley project started after India's independence. Built Built across the Mahanadi river about 15 km from Sambalpur in the state of Orissa in India. HISTORY Built in 1956Length is about (26 km) (A) HYDROLOGICAL :- (a)Catchment Sq. Kms (32200 sq miles) (b)Rain fall(mm)-OriginalRevised SALIENT FEATURES Top dam level R.L M. (R.L.642 ft.) Dead storage level R.L M(R.L 590 Ft) N:Installed Capicity = MW





26 ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF HYDRO POWER PLANT Advantages 1) No fuel required 2) Cost of electricity is constant 3) No air-pollution is created 4) Long life 5) Cost of generation of electricity 6) Can easily work during high peak daily loads 7) Irrigation of farms 8) Water sports and gardens 9) Prevents floods

27 DISADVANTAGES 1) Disrupts the aquatic ecosystems 2) Disruption in the surrounding areas 3) Requires large areas 4) Large scale human displacement 5) Very high capital cost or investment 6) High quality construction 7) Site specific 8) Effects on environment 9) Safety of the dams


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