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Network Strategy Report - Solar Technologies Ongoing building sector changes: social and economic factors 10% of total energy for heating and DHW now.

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Presentation on theme: "Network Strategy Report - Solar Technologies Ongoing building sector changes: social and economic factors 10% of total energy for heating and DHW now."— Presentation transcript:


2 Network Strategy Report - Solar Technologies Ongoing building sector changes: social and economic factors 10% of total energy for heating and DHW now from solar energy Energy technologies: –mature, available, economic –technologies under development –technology gaps, future research priorities Exemplars: good energy technologies + good architecture Exemplars: reinforce public appreciation of benefits Retrofit market: new buildings only 1% - 2% of building stock Residential sector: –benefits for single family housing are clear –potential in large scale residential is large - needs emphasis

3 Network Strategy Report - Solar Technologies Rising electricity demand - especially in commercial buildings Construction costs of lean (low energy heating, cooling, and daylighting) buildings comparable with conventional Design costs will fall as experience is gained Local / regional initiatives: –sustainability policies –balanced spatial planning, mix of uses, public transport –district heating, cooling –exemplary, energy-efficient public buildings European Union –EU-wide action plan –legislative changes trigger surges in technology uptake

4 Network Strategy Report - Solar Technologies Bench-marking –building codes that reflect environmental costs –district level targets - flexibility in options for compliance Quality control –building codes provide rules but dont define reality - Q.C. needed –emphasis on actual performance rather than systems installed –provide feedback on performance and facilitate comparison with predicted performance and with other buildings –which concepts work best and why? Further research Retrofitting

5 Network Strategy Report - Solar Technologies Further research –research not limited to improving what already works –research of new solutions is essential - free from market pressures –public funding needed for basic research to broaden future options –industry / research centre dialogue essential without dependency Retrofitting –most buildings outlive the times and shortcomings of their creator –changes in building sector take time to show effect –cost effective integration of energy measures during refurbishment –legislative and financing measures needed

6 Network Strategy Report - Lighting Few, multi-national firms produce most lamps in large factories Publicly funded research has little impact Legislation can increase demand for high efficiency lighting Lamps for buildings: –halogen and incandescent - poor efficiencies, short life spans –tubular fluorescent: T5 + electronic ballast considered most efficient –high pressure sodium: less efficient but good in some applications –CFL: efficient alternative to incandescent - special optics needed Developments anticipated in: –Light Emitting Diodes, metal halide lamps Luminaires: efficiencies of 75% (85% with high reflection optics) Large savings possible with good lighting design

7 Network Strategy Report - Lighting Daylighting costs: in design, spec., const. of windows / spaces Glazing size, type: energy balance: heating, cooling, lighting Advanced glazing, shading, design of internal spaces Major barriers to good daylighting: –lack of awareness by clients, occupants –low direct financial benefits –long pay-back periods with some solutions –few design teams able to achieve optimal daylighting design

8 Network Strategy Report - Lighting Challenges: –high efficiency task lighting 600 lx on desk + luminance control –user-friendly automated controls with override –well adapted solar shading to give needed luminance + daylight –façade systems for glare control and good daylight penetration –roof systems with integrated solar protection

9 Network Strategy Report - Lighting Design support: –daylighting simulation software adapted to CAD –daylighting databases - materials, climatic data –detailed design information from glazing, component manufacturers Stimulation of demand: –definition of reasonable standards for lighting power, consumption –exemplars of high quality, low energy solutions

10 Network Strategy Report - Lighting Most impressive progress to date: –development of high efficiency lamps by multi-national companies –client awareness in some markets (Germany, Switzerland, etc.) Future high efficiency solutions depend on: –ability of lighting, window component industries to demonstrate energy and amenity benefits –closer liaison between researchers and manufacturers to identify best technologies / techniques and promote benefits

11 Network Strategy Report - Mech. Heating + Cooling Components: –recent focus on cost and energy efficiency –trend towards packaged, pre-tested equipment (esp. ventilation) –heat recovery now commonplace –high efficiency condensing gas boilers now standard –heat pumps: technology advancing, new refrigerants needed Future lies in integrating components into efficient systems Systems: –all elements that influence internal climate - façade to mech. plant –emphasis varies with climatic conditions

12 Network Strategy Report - Mech. Heating + Cooling Future development: –use of ventilation systems likely to increase with need for greater IAQ, especially in urban areas. –limited information available on low pressure heat loss recovery systems and the behaviour of filters at reduced face velocity Health: –IAQ and particulate filtration likely to gain momentum –research into harmful effects of particulates (size, etc) needed Sustainability: –ground water heat pumps for cooling –water conservation / reuse

13 Network Strategy Report - Mech. Heating + Cooling Summary: Focus on integrated systems Feedback on installations and lessons learnt Low pressure systems Health guidelines Ground source cooling and water conservation

14 Network Strategy Report - PV in Buildings PV in second decade: –many examples show good functionality and building integration –potential for prestigious applications and simpler roof applications –wide range of products available Current trends: –power supply issues are main focus - less emphasis on BIPV –100,000 roofs and guaranteed PV electricity prices successful –similar actions in NL, CH, Italy, but further coordination needed –roof mounted PV market is more important that PV facades Much development needed to achieve commercial products

15 Network Strategy Report - PV in Buildings Conclusions: –much development in high quality BIPV is still needed –strong trend in pre-fabricated BIPV in several Member States –many marketing strategies tried but little coordination –main focus is on safety, performance - little in building integration Future RTD needs: –guidelines / requirements on functional and aesthetic integration –LCA, eco-performance (energy and material balance) –costs and performance of whole chain from cell to grid connection –improved, innovative PV roofing technology; better marketing –cell and module technology for low cost manufacturing –cost reductions; links with other RTD projects worldwide

16 Network Strategy Report - Building Components Windows and facades: –major developments is past decade in thermal, light transmission performance and time-variable properties (switchable glazing, etc) –shift in focus from winter comfort to indoor climate and energy –change from poorly performing elements to advanced components –integrated design - working in harmony with HVAC, lighting –major new opportunities in indoor climate and energy performance Other components: –less spectacular development in energy performance generally –exceptions: vacuum insulation, elimination of conventional house heating systems - greater emphasis on building skin performance

17 Network Strategy Report - Building Components The market: –wide range of window and façade systems, products –uptake varies widely across EU but different from 10 years ago –marginal uptake of variable glazing, hybrid PV - due to cost Future challenges: –substantial improvements still needed –vacuum glazing for large applications but edge losses, condensation –reliable climate façade concepts with optimised performance –attractive solutions for integration or renewables in facades

18 Network Strategy Report - Building Components Design support: –whole building design support and evaluation increasingly needed –window, façade performance influenced by occupancy, esp. housing –support for climate facades for better comfort and energy use –design support for opaque elements is easier except where no conventional heating system is used Standards, regulations –need for more integrated performance assessment methods –common (EN) standards are interpreted differently in Member States –not possible to assess advanced systems using current standards –optimisation and standardisation of assessment procedures needed

19 Network Strategy Report - Building, Urban Design Changes in focus: –from energy in buildings to sustainable design –from single buildings to urban and brown field settings Sustainable design: –minimise energy wastage (construction materials, water, etc.) –rational use of energy - passive solar design in new build and retrofit –implementation or renewable energy strategies

20 Network Strategy Report - Building, Urban Design Key issues: –integration –capacity building –dissemination Research needs: –establishment of targets –development of design tools –dissemination

21 Network Strategy Report - Building, Urban Design Sustainable design: –whole life analysis –embodied energy in construction materials can be 5 times annual –PV may have 2 year energy pay back but much longer cost pay back –materials: renewable or finite, long/short life –adaptable design, flexibility - loose fit –microclimate: overshadowing, winds, air and noise pollution –Better urban microclimates - better use of natural ventilation –effects on health, comfort and energy use of air quality, lighting, natural ventilation, solar gains

22 Network Strategy Report - Building, Urban Design Key issues: –integration of active (RES) and passive (RUE) energy systems –integration of local, national and international scales –local traditions, skills, materials –integration of technical issues with social and aesthetic concerns –stimulating design opportunities offered by energy-efficient design –capacity building: increase awareness and expertise through training –dissemination: exemplars, technologies, products/systems

23 Network Strategy Report - Building, Urban Design Research needs: –establish appropriate targets through education, training, dissemination, legislation –sustainability indicators –life cycle assessment –ongoing building performance assessment –performance of building elements and materials Design tools –refurbishment –urban scale assessment –IAQ and improved comfort assessment


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