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Energy Performance Certificates & Display Energy CertificatesLighting PRESENTED BY SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGLIGHTING INSTALLATIONS Introduction Lighting is often the single largest electrical consumption and cost in non air conditioned buildings. For example, lighting can account for over 40% of electricity costs in naturally ventilated offices. Good lighting design can reduce these running costs and can also reduce internal heat gains, thus reducing the need for air conditioning. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGA luminaire comprises a housing, a reflector, a lamp and shielding (either louvres, or a lens or diffusing material) and, for discharge lamps, some form of control gear. The photometric efficiency is measured in terms of its light output ratio. This is the ratio of the total light output of the luminaire to that of the lamp(s) under reference conditions. The higher the light output ratio, for a given light distribution, the more efficient the luminaire. The distribution and other characteristics of over 70 generic types of luminaire are described in the Code for lighting. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGTerminology Adaptation. The process which takes place as vision adjusts to the brightness or the colour of the visual field. Average lamp life. The time when half the number of lamps in a batch under test conditions failed. Ballast. Also called control gear. Apparatus to start and control the current through the lamp. Connected load. The total load connected to the mains including lamp and ballast. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGDiffuser. A translucent screen used to shield a light source and at the same time soften the light output and distribute it evenly. Discharge lamp. A lamp whose illumination is produced by an electric discharge through a gas, a metal vapour or a mixture of gases and vapours. Efficacy (luminous efficacy). The ratio of luminous flux emitted by a lamp to the power consumed by it, e.g. lumens per watt. When the control gear losses are included it is expressed as lumens per circuit watt. Extra low voltage (ELV). Refers to anything under 50V and generally considered harmless. Electrical engineers term ‘mains’ voltage as low voltage (50V –1000V) SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING(There is a further category, Safety Extra Low Voltage (SELV) which refers to supplies also under 50V but supplied through an isolating transformer.) General lighting. Lighting of a whole area. High frequency electronic ballasts (also called high frequency control gear). Uses solid state technology to run the lamp between 20 to 40 kHz. Illuminance. The amount of light falling on a surface of unit area. The unit of illuminance is the lux, equal to one lumen per square metre. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGLight output ratio. The ratio of the total amount of light output of a luminaire, under stated practical conditions, to that of the lamp. Lumen. Unit of luminous flux, used to describe the amount of light given by a lamp or falling, onto a surface. Luminaire (light fitting). The correct term for a light fitting. An apparatus which controls the light from a lamp and includes all components for fixing, protecting the lamps and connecting them to the supply. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGMaintained illuminance. The average illuminance over the reference surface at the time maintenance has to be carried out by replacing lamps and/or cleaning luminaires and room surfaces. Power factor. The ratio watts to volt-amps. It indicates the efficiency with which power supplied by the generating station is used. The higher the power factor the better, 1 (unity) being the maximum. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGLamp Selection The factors involved in lamp selection are: — luminous efficacy (lumen output/watts input) — rating (consumption watts) — mortality (rated life of the lamp) — lumen maintenance (lumen depreciation over life) — operating position (in some cases this may affect efficacy) — size (physical properties can affect optical efficiency of light control) — control gear type and controllability (switching or dimming) — colour appearance (appearance of the source in terms of ‘warm’ or ‘cool’) — colour rendering — starting, run-up and re-start times — minimum starting temperatures. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGThere are three main categories of lamps: Tungsten filament lamps Fluorescent lamps High-intensity discharge lamps. Each category has different operating characteristics and is appropriate in different circumstances, depending on the relative importance of cost, life, colour appearance, colour rendering and efficiency. It should be noted that the Building Regulations now require the use, in most cases, of energy efficient lamps. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGFilament lamps Filament lamps (of which GLS lamps are an example) are the most common type of lamp. They are cheap but relatively inefficient, and are available in many different shapes, colours and bulb finishes. They can also have built-in reflectors to direct the light. A major variation of the basic design uses a halogen additive to the gas filling in the lamp. These incorporate a quartz envelope that permits the use of a higher operating temperature, a more compact lamp, a higher efficiency and often a longer life. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGFluorescent lamps Light is generated mainly from the phosphor coating on a glass envelope. The phosphors convert invisible ultraviolet radiation from a low-pressure mercury discharge to visible light. Different blends of phosphor powders allow a choice of lamps of different colour rendering and colour appearance properties. A fluorescent lamp requires control gear for its correct operation and most have near instantaneous switch-on. In some cases they can take a short time before reaching full light output but this is rarely more than one minute. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGCompact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with built-in control gear are intended as direct replacements for filament lamps, enabling the lamp to be inserted in the socket vacated by the filament lamp and operate without any external control gear. A recent addition to the family of fluorescent lamps is the induction lamp. It is similar to other versions except that the discharge is generated by a magnetic field. Because this eliminates the need for electrodes, which deteriorate with time, the lamp can have an extremely long life, typically hours. This makes it useful for lamp positions that are difficult to reach. The lamps are compact in size and have similar colour performances to other fluorescent lamps. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGHigh intensity discharge (HID) lamps The commonly used types of HID lamp are sodium and mercury lamps. They have the advantages of a large light output for their size, relatively high energy efficiency and a long life. Light is produced directly by a high-pressure gas discharge, although some mercury lamps also employ a phosphor coating. The gas discharge (together with additives) determines the properties of the light produced. Applications for most types of HID lamp are limited by the colour performance and their run-up and re-strike times. All HID lamps require control gear that should be matched to the particular lamp. Standard types of control gear and lamp combinations involve a time delay before full light output is reached after switch on. Also when a lamp is switched on while still warm, there will be a short delay before the lamp re-strikes. Special control gear packages are available with instant re-strike capability for some lamps. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGIncandescent tungsten filament lamps The most common types are known as general lighting service (GLS) lamps and decorative (e.g. candle) lamps. The majority of luminaires (light fittings) in most homes use incandescent tungsten filament lamps with an efficacy of only about 8 to 15 l/W. Incandescence literally means light produced from heating, achieved by passing an electrical current through a strand of tungsten filament. The filament is delicate and eventually burns out after about 1000 hours. Although some lamps are made to last longer and sold as double life lamps, this is at the cost of light output. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGSA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGAdvantages: Low purchase price Excellent colour rendering No ballast required Immediate full light when switched on Ease of dimming Sparkle lighting effects can be created Operates in any plane (universal operating position). Disadvantages: Low efficacy – 8 to 15 l/W Short life, usually 1000 hours High running cost. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGTungsten halogen (quartz halogen) lamps These are versions of the tungsten filament lamp. Many tungsten halogen lamps operate at 12 volts, (extra low voltage – ELV) requiring a transformer that is now quite neat and small. This light source is compact and can be focused and directed better than any other, making it particularly appropriate for spotlighting. Although they should not be regarded as having high efficacy, tungsten halogen lamps produce 16 to 25 lumens per watt and last longer than standard tungsten filament lamps. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGThese are versions of the tungsten filament lamp. Many tungsten halogen lamps operate at 12 volts, (extra low voltage – ELV) requiring a transformer that is now quite neat and small. This light source is compact and can be focused and directed better than any other, making it particularly appropriate for spotlighting. Although they should not be regarded as having high efficacy, tungsten halogen lamps produce 16 to 25 lumens per watt and last longer than standard tungsten filament lamps. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGMains voltage tungsten halogen lamps can be dimmed with a simple domestic dimmer of the right capacity, but some ELV lamps may require a special dimmer depending upon the type of transformer used. Running the lamp at lower than the rated voltage will lower the filament operating temperature, preventing the halogen cycle* from taking place, and causing the lamp to blacken. The blackening can be removed by occasionally running the lamp at full light output. The quartz lamp envelope should not be handled with bare hands and manufacturers instructions regarding the operating position of the lamp should be observed. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGAdvantages: Higher efficacy than conventional tungsten filament lamps Brighter, whiter light Life of 2000 to 5000 hours depending on type Excellent colour rendering No ballast required Immediate full light output when switched on Can be dimmed Bulb blackening eliminated when run at full light output. Disadvantages: Transformer required for extra low voltage lamps Requires careful handling Operating positions of double ended types is limited to horizontal SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGTubular fluorescent lamps SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGFluorescent lamps have four to ten times the efficacy of incandescent lamps and can last up to eighteen times longer, depending on the type of lamp and its ballast. All fluorescent lamps require a ballast to operate. Fluorescent lamps and tungsten filament lamps work in entirely different ways. The fluorescent tube contains an inert gas, usually argon or krypton at low pressure, and a small amount of mercury. When an arc is struck between the lamp’s electrodes, ultraviolet radiation is produced, which excites a phosphor coating on the inside of the tube to produce light at visible wavelengths. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGThe quality of light that is produced depends on the precise mix of phosphors in the coating. Older halo phosphate phosphors decayed noticeably over the life of the lamp, but the newer troposphere and multi-phosphor lamps lose less light output. The latest troposphere lamps maintain most of their initial light output throughout their life. Older tubular lamps 600 mm long and over were usually 38 mm diameter (known as T12) but newer lamps are 26 mm diameter (known as T8). Simply by replacing T12 by T8 lamps in switch start luminaires will save up to 10% energy. Further improvements have been made and now T5 fittings (16mm) are available with further energy savings. Due to changes in building regulations, Part L2 now requires this type of light fitting to achieve compliance. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGAdvantages: Low running cost High efficacy Very good to excellent colour rendering Long life in normal use Minimal reduction of light output through life Prompt start and restart Quick run-up to full light output Up to 10% energy saving when replacing equivalent T12 on switch-start circuits Universal operating position. Disadvantages: Excessive switching shortens life Ballast required Can be dimmed but requires special ballast and dimmer. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGHigh pressure sodium lamps Although not regarded as domestic lamps, high pressure sodium discharge lamps combine high efficacy with very long life and are particularly suited for floodlighting and illuminating larger exterior areas that need to be lit for long periods. They are not made for frequent switching and therefore should not be operated by presence detectors for security lighting. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGAdvantages: Very low running cost Very high efficacy Very long life Quick start Universal operating position. Disadvantages: High purchase cost Very poor colour rendering Ballast required Requires 1.5 to 6 minutes time to run up to full output Delayed restart when hot on most lamps. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGCompact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) New technology has reduced the size of fluorescent tubes, and compact fluorescent lamps have been developed to replace tungsten filament lamp applications in the home. These new lamps give a light similar to tungsten lamps and present a good opportunity to light homes with a fifth of the energy required before. Although they cost more to purchase than traditional GLS lamps (bulbs), CFLs make savings in the electricity bill straight away. CFLs should be installed in fittings that are heavily used (>4hrs/day), for example in living areas and circulation areas, halls, stairways, landings, common passages outside buildings and areas that are likely to be lit continually. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGVirtually all tungsten lamps can be replaced with compact fluorescents as the opportunity arises, except in some luminaires which use crystal glass to create sparkle. An ever growing range of compact lamps is available in various wattages, shapes and sizes. Many of these lamps have a ballast built in, or an adapter enabling them to fit directly into the standard bayonet cap (BC) or Edison screw (ES) lamp-holders. CFLs generally have five times the efficacy and last eight to twelve times longer than a tungsten lamp of equivalent light output. When cold, CFLs produce 40 to 60% of their full light output which is reached after about two minutes. CFLs should not be used with the standard domestic dimmer control but it is possible to dim the separately ballasted four contact versions of the lamps with a dimmable ballast and compatible dimming equipment. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGAdvantages: Low running cost Replacement for tungsten lamps Five times the efficacy of equivalent tungsten lamps Average life of 8000 to hours Very good colour rendering with most lamps and some types giving excellent colour rendering Quick run up to full light output Prompt start and restart Four pin lamps can be dimmed with suitable ballast and dimmer Universal operating position but light output may be reduced with some types. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGDisadvantages: Excessive switching shortens life Ballast required but is built in on some lamps Not suitable for use on standard domestic dimmer SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGLED Lamps Typically higher efficiency than CFL Can be longer life Variety of colours available Low running cost Quick run up to full light output Prompt start and restart Universal operating position Brightness and pattern of light often poorer SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGAssessing Lighting Requirements The role undertaken by a non-domestic energy assessor is to provide an energy assessment as accurate as possible from the information gathered on site. As lighting will be generally the single highest energy use on site, assessing this energy use correctly is essential in providing an accurate certificate. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGFrom the conventions – Check Latest ‘If a building’s original lighting design is available and there is no discrepancy between that and the observed lighting within the building, the wattage and lux values, from that design, should be entered using the ‘full lighting design carried out’ option in SBEM. If complimentary values are not available (i.e. both values from the same lighting design) the lighting design(s) must not be used.’ ‘If the circuit wattage and lux levels can be accurately recorded by the assessor (…) the option for ‘full lighting design carried out’ should also be used and the appropriate values entered. Wattage and lux values must not be entered separately nor is it acceptable to input assumed wattage or lux values from BSRIA publications or other reference documents or to accept or use a software suggested default value.’ SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING‘If the circuit wattage and lux values cannot be ascertained by either of the above methods it may be possible to use the ‘Lighting chosen but calculation not carried out’ option where the lumens per circuit wattage must be entered, calculated in line with building regulations guidance. This may not be possible for all zone activity selections. The evidence of how the values for lamp lumens and circuit wattage must be provided in the site notes.’ ‘Lux level readings, taken by an assessor, may only be used for the production of an EPC if the readings have been recorded in line with the Society of Light & Lighting’s Code for Lighting Evidence of achieving a complete blackout of windows and the required calculations to establish the grid size for the measurements taken must be provided.’ SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING‘If none of the above options are applicable the ‘lighting parameters not available’ option should be chosen and the appropriate lamp type for the zone should be selected.’ Mixed lighting in a zone in SBEM ‘Where a zone contains both general lighting and display lighting, and for the selected activity SBEM assumes the presence of display lamps, then the display lighting and the general lighting must be entered as ‘display’ and ‘general’ lighting respectively.’ ‘Where a zone contains both general lighting and display lighting, and for the selected activity SBEM does not assume the presence of display lamps, then the zone must be subdivided to create additional ‘display’ zones to represent the display lighting.’ SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING‘A suitable ‘display’ activity should be used for the ‘display’ zones and appropriate lighting entries entered. The remains of the original zone must have the original activity and only the general lighting is entered into the zone(s).’ ‘Where a zone contains a mixture of lamp types providing general lighting (no display lighting) across the entire zone, such that simply splitting the zone to reflect the lamp’s locations is not practicable, then the following method should be followed.’ ‘1. The proportion of the zone’s area lit by each lamp type should be established.’ ‘2. The zone should then be split into a number of zones to match the number of lamp types and for each lamp type the relevant proportion of the zone area and all of the zone’s envelopes, including glazing, should be entered into each relevant zone along with the appropriate respective lamp type.’ SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGLIGHTING CONTROLS Appropriate lighting controls can yield substantial improvements in lighting energy efficiency These improvements arise principally from the utilisation of available daylight to reduce electric lighting use and from switching off electric lighting when a space is unoccupied. In addition they can increase user satisfaction by allowing occupants to have more control over their working environment through the use of localised switches. To be energy efficient, lamps must be switched on to provide light only when it is required, and switched off when it is not. Both automatic and manual switching of lamps will adversely affect lamps by shortening their service life. This effect is minimal; the energy cost saved by switching lamps off recovers the cost of shortening lamp life within a few minutes. Provided that lamps are to be left off for periods of more than two or three minutes it is always cost effective to switch off. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGThe most cost-effective control strategy for a particular space will depend on the daylight availability and the type and pattern of occupation. If sufficient daylight is available to meet lighting requirements for a significant part of the day, energy savings can be considerable. Research has shown that the probability of switching on electric lighting on first entering a space correlates closely with the daylight availability, but switching off rarely occurs until the last occupant has left. Daylight availability generally increases during daylight hours and is, therefore, correlated with time of day Thus daylight availability strategies are often linked to time switching technology. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGIt is also possible to provide localised switching so that occupants can decide when to switch off the lighting of their working area once the day lighting is sufficient. Localised switching provides more flexible control of the lighting of a worker’s space than a bank of switches mounted at the main entrance of a space. Further improvements in energy efficiency can be achieved by using automatic sensing of daylight levels, called daylight linking, or occupancy, called occupancy linking. For spaces with negligible day lighting, a combination of time switching and localised switching will cover most situations, although care is necessary to ensure that dangerous blackout conditions are avoided if lighting is automatically switched off For installations with sparse and intermittent occupancy such as a warehouse, localised switching will eliminate the need for the whole space to be lit when only a small part is in use; occupancy detectors are particularly suitable for such spaces, and may also be made an integral part of the security system. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGLocal switches and dimmers These are either permanently wired, such as wall- or ceiling-mounted pull switches, or are remote control devices like those commonly used to operate televisions and video recorders. Permanently wired manual switches need to be positioned near to the lighting circuit they operate, and should be easily accessible to ensure that only the lights that are necessary are switched on. Approved document Part L of the Building Regulations specifies that the operating switch should be no more than 8 m (in plan) away from the luminaire that it controls, or no more than three times the height of the luminaire above floor level if this is greater. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGTime operated controls These can be used to switch lights off when they are not required, such as at lunchtime or at the end of the working day, or at a time when it is estimated there will be sufficient daylight. A manual override must be provided to allow users to switch lights on if necessary. Time operated switches can also be used to control lights in any situation with a regular period of operation. Lights in a windowless circulation area, for example, can be switched on just before people arrive in the morning and switched off at the end of the day. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGPresence or occupancy sensor operated controls These can be used to switch lights on as people enter a room and off again after they have left. This avoids lights being left on unnecessarily SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGThey can be used to operate task lighting, or lighting in rooms which are used infrequently, such as storerooms. They can be particularly useful in rooms where people are likely to have their hands full on entering. The circuit will need to include a time delay to allow people to leave the space safely and to avoid lights being constantly switched on and off. Frequent switching of fluorescent lamps can shorten their life unless appropriate control gear is used Presence detectors can be ceiling- or wall-mounted, but the sensor must be able to detect an occupant at all times. This may require more than one sensor to cover an area. Sensors must also be sufficiently sensitive to operate when required, but not too sensitive that they respond to extraneous signals. An option is to combine a presence operated switch with a manual switch. The occupant switches the lights on manually when required, and the presence detector switches them off. This is sometimes referred to as ‘absence sensing’. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGIlluminance sensor operated controls In areas where there is adequate daylight for part of the time, daylight illuminance sensors (photocells) can be used to ensure that electric lights are not left on unnecessarily. People will often switch electric lights on first thing in the morning when it is still dark, but they are less likely to switch them off later when daylight becomes sufficient, particularly in shared spaces and circulation areas. Illuminance sensors can switch or regulate luminaire light output, but regulation (dimming) will require the appropriate control gear. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGIf switch control is used, the switch-off level must be set to avoid causing annoyance, i.e. switching off the luminaires when it will hardly be noticed. If the sensor records the combined daylight and electric light this will probably need to be at least three times the required task illuminance. A time delay will be needed to avoid frequent operation of lights in rapidly changing daylight conditions. Dimmer control can provide a near constant illuminance and is usually more acceptable to users, particularly in shared spaces. Fluorescent lamps will normally dim down smoothly to a certain level, after which they can become unstable and start to flicker. The level at which this occurs will depend on the control gear, but it is typically 10% of full light output. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGCentral controller Luminaires can be controlled by a dedicated personal computer or a building management system. Depending on the sophistication of the system and the wiring of the luminaires, almost anything is possible. Switching can be related to time, daylight level and occupancy, and luminaires can be linked into groups which can be changed when necessary. Dimming is also possible if the luminaires are equipped with appropriate control gear. Luminaires can be controlled in particular sequences, so that room lighting is operated independently of, but linked to, circulation lighting. This can be used to prevent circulation lighting from being switched off if rooms are still occupied, thus allowing people a safe exit from the building. It is essential that adequate lighting is always provided to allow people to exit a building safely. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAINING‘Intelligent’ luminaires Luminaires are now available with their own control sensors designed for occupancy and illuminance monitoring. The sensors can signal either a switching or dimming action, and can be overridden with a hand-held infrared controller. The luminaires can be programmed to provide a constant maintained illuminance throughout the maintenance cycle of the installation. Illuminance and time delay, which operates when the occupancy sensor ceases to record movement, can be adjusted manually by using controls within the luminaire or remotely. SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
LEVEL 3 BUILDING SERVICES TRAININGEnd of Section SA AC REGIONAL 1 © STROMA CERTIFICATION LTD v1.3
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