KITCHEN LIGHTING BASICS ID-240 Interior Design II
TYPES OF LIGHT General: 35 – 50 Foot Candles Task: Where work is done Accent: For visual interest Make sure if mixing lamps (LED, Incandescent or Fluorescent that you keep the temperature the same color.
TYPES OF LAMPS (BULBS) 1.Incandescent: 1.Incandescent: generate light when an electric current heats the lamps tungsten filament until it glows. 2.Halogen: 2.Halogen: A type of incandescent lamp that contains a small amount of halogen gas within the glass bulb that impedes the evaporation of tungsten. They are more efficient, produce a whiter light and last longer. They can get extremely hot. 3.Fluorescent: 3.Fluorescent: Invented in the 1930s. Uses the principle of fluorescence in which minerals exposed ultraviolet light are caused to glow. These lamps typically contain small amounts of mercury. Requires a ballast to regulate the power flow to the lamp. 4.HID: 4.HID: High Intensity Discharge – used for street and parking lighting and large indoor spaces like gymnasiums and industrial work floors. Can get hot. Metal Halid Lamps can produce good color quality. Sodium lamps have poor CRI. 5.Light Emitting Diodes: (LED) 5.Light Emitting Diodes: (LED) Latest technology
LAMPS A Lamp: Incandescent Lamp (pear shaped) Typical A-19 Lamp R Lamp: Contain an internal reflector to direct light in one direction Common: R-20, R-30 and R-40 T Lamp: Tubular Lamps: Fluorescent lamps contain a small amount of mercury. Typical sizes: T5 & T8. HID: High Intensity Discharge: MR-16 (Multifaceted Reflector) Low-voltage, typically 12 volts. Lamp sizes: diameter is measured in 1/8. For example a T-8 tube is 1 in diameter while a T-5 tube is smaller at 5/8.
LED – LIGHT EMITTING DIODES Newest technology. An LED is fundamentally different than other lamps. No filament, gas or fragile glass enclosure. It is an e semiconductor device. This is a low voltage method that requires a driver – similar to a ballast. These lights are more expensive but can last upwards of 50,000 hours vs. 750 hours for a typical incandescent lamp.
COLOR RENDERING/TEMP Color Rendering Index (CRI): The measurement that illustrates the light sources ability to render the color of objects correctly. Scale of 0 – 100, 0 being bad. 80 – 100 CRI is recommended. Natural light has a CRI of 100. Degrees Kelvin: Color Temperature – Warm, Neutral or Cool light. Incandescent lamps are 2700K
RECESSED DOWNLIGHT Can be equipped with incandescent, halogen, compact fluorescent, HID, or LED lamps Consists of two parts: the can or housing above the ceiling and the trim kit installed below the ceiling. The housing must be suited fo rthe application: T= thermally protected. Common for most commercial installation with a dropped ceiling IC = Insulated Ceiling – used if cans will be in contact with insulation materials found in attics of homes. Damp Locations: Exposed to moist air, but not diret water spray or rain Wet Locations: Exposed to direct water spray Emergency fixture: has a battery backup for 90 minutes
ADJUSTABLE FIXTURES Adjustable fixtures allow light to focus on objects of interest such as art, signage, or interior surfaces. Recessed Track Rail