Emissions have shown increased effects of asthma in 7-8% of the population, especially for young children (UNC Institute for the Environment) Air pollution is also the cause of over 1,000 deaths per year in the state of North Carolina (Pew Charitable Trust)
Ashevilles Skyline in Smog? Economy Largely Based on Tourism Due to air pollution, visibility from many southern Appalachian Mountain areas has decreased by 40%-80% depending on the season and the peak (National Park Service, 2011) The View
Fleet Goals Increase and improve fleet with newer vehicles Deliver the best fleet maintenance we can Reduce fuel use through driver conservation
City-Wide, ALL Departments Fuel Conservation Policy January 2013
Case Study: Polk County, Florida County's on-highway vehicles limited to 55 mph, Fuel Conservation training, incentives, in two years: Fuel consumption reduced by 13.4 percent Reduced preventable accidents by 22 percent. Crash damage severity reduced by 35 percent.
Part of AVL Fleet Conservation Efforts Fleet right sizing (currently 860 vehicles & equipment, 183 diesels) Efficient vehicle replacements APD Bicycle Patrol Right sizing vehicles (F350 to an F150) Trading in two old vehicles for one new vehicle
Alternative Vehicles and Fuels 5 out of 21 buses are hybrids, more on the way 9% of 653 City-owned vehicles (non-buses) 13 hybrid SUVs 10 electric Gem cars 34 CNG vehicles 1 Chevy Volt, 1 Prius Also using B5 Biodiesel Blend
Equipment to Increase Fuel Efficiency LED Light-bar Flashers (Whelen Liberty Series) use fraction of the energy, run on battery Driver feedback equipment Auxiliary Power Systems- runs on back-up or deep-cycle batteries instead of engine Automatic shut off settings
City Share Car Program CNG efficient vehicle loaned for city related trips Reserve through Microsoft Outlook Fueling Instruction in vehicle and at Station City Share We Care. We Share.
Fill up the car with gas and write down odometer value and the amount of gas added When you fill up next time, write down odometer value and the amount of gas added. The difference of the odometer values (-) divided by amount of gas equals the fuel efficiency value. Note: Fuel expense, frequency of fill-ups or fuel gauge readings are NOT accurate measures of mpg How to Calculate Fuel Efficiency
Virtual meetings Online purchasing Use camera phones to document & avoid repeat trips Consider Trip Alternatives
Combine several short trips into a single trip. Short trips (fewer than 5 miles) don't let the engine reach its most efficient operating temperature. Drive to the farthest destination first Circling the parking lot for the best parking spot? The extra gasoline adds up!
Carpool to meetings and site visits Go to www.sharetheridenc.org to find other commuters in your area
If it aint far, dont take the car. Walk or use city fleet bicycles for close trips Consider ART Transit- Routes and schedules available through Google Maps
Avoided left turns in streamlined route planning UPS drivers now turn right 90% of the time. In 2007, UPS: * Reduced nearly 30 million miles off routes * Saved 3 million gallons of gas * Reduced CO2 emissions by 32,000 metric tons- the equivalent of removing 5,300 passenger cars from the road for an entire year * Safer and spend less time in traffic To the Right: Case Study: UPS
Compare vehicles in same class, fuel economy Vehicles that are too large for their tasks burn more fuel, produce more emissions Manuals, more gears generally more fuel efficient Selecting Vehicles
Lighten Your Load Avoid keeping unnecessary items or equipment in your vehicle and carry what is needed for that day unless required Plan Ahead for equipment and supply needs Choose lighter weight components to reduce tare (empty) weight of light duty trucks
Wind Resistance Remove items from roof rack to reduce wind resistance-pack cargo inside the vehicle instead of on top to reduce drag. Maintain aerodynamic devices such as air dams- if damaged or missing increases drag Drive with the tailgate UP – for the best mileage.
Tire Inflation Inflate tires to the pressure listed inside the driver's side door not what is printed on the tire itself-same tire is used for different vehicles. Use calibrated air gauge, when tires are cold as air expands when it warms up.
Use Recommended Motor Oil Using 10W-30 motor oil in an engine designed to use 5W-30 can decrease fuel economy by 1% to 2%. Motor oil labeled "Energy or Resource Conserving" contains friction-reducing additives that improve mpg
Fuel efficiency is impacted by air, oil, engine coolant, transmission and power steering fluids Keeping up routine maintenance schedules will improve fuel economy and engine performance.
Maintain a 3-4 second driving distance between you and the vehicle in front of you Allows enough room to maintain a more consistent speed, vehicles to flow in and out of traffic without forcing you to quickly and continuously apply the brakes Allows you to coast more often Helps reduce accidents Keep Your Distance: 3-4 Seconds
For every 5 miles per hour you drive over 50 miles per hour is like paying $.26 more per gallon of gas (at $3.75 per gallon) -US Dept of Energy Reduce Your Speed
Let overly aggressive drivers pass by at the first opportunity. Let them waste their own fuel on their way to going nowhere fast.
Maintain a steady moderate speed. Anticipate changes and traffic flow ahead Slowly, smoothly stop. Take off slowly from a full stop Slow before entering a curve, to reduce excessive heavy braking
Using Your Momentum When it is safe to do so, slow down by lifting your foot up off the gas pedal, rather than braking, prior to an anticipated decrease in speed Most passenger vehicles today have a fuel-injection system that automatically shuts off the flow of fuel to the engine when the accelerator is fully released, allowing the vehicle to slow down and coast
Lift foot off accelerator to coast but DO NOT turn off ignition OR shift into neutral. Hyper-miling – is not safe! You will loose power assisted brakes and steering. DO NOT tailgate trucks for drafting. DO NOT coast in a hybrid. Regenerative braking does not work unless you brake. Unsafe Hyper-miling
Use Cruise Control* *EXCEPT limit when on very steep or hilly incline Or if time travel is available
Drag from open windows at high speeds can reduce fuel efficiency by up to 20%* *Society of Automotive Engineers
Use the 40 MPH rule: When driving under 40 MPH, open the windows Its A Breeze: Smart Cooling
What a Drag: Close Windows on Highways Keep windows closed while driving on highways to reduce aerodynamic drag (Society of Automotive Engineers ) When driving over 40 MPH use the vents or air conditioner
Turn off AC a few minutes before arriving Switch out of defroster mode after windows clear, which may be running on the A/C When possible, in hot weather park vehicles in shade Lower windows and vent out the hot air before turning on the air
Light Duty Vehicles Should Idle for no more than 10 SECONDS
Frequent restarting has little impact on the engine. Most batteries use less power per engine start, have greater power reserves, and recharge faster than they used to. Idling for 10 seconds to 1 minute (depending on vehicle) uses as much fuel as restarting vehicle
Speed up warming up by driving NOT Idling Driving a vehicle moderately within 30 seconds is best way to warm it up, cuts warm-up time in half. Revving up the engine does not warm it up faster Electronic fuel injection systems deliver a preset amt of fuel so accelerator does not need to be depressed Non-emergency vehicles should avoid high speeds and rapid acceleration for the first 3-5 miles for best MPG
Today, most passenger vehicles (cars, SUVs, and pickups) have electronic ignitions & a catalytic converter Idling an engine is not at its optimum operating temperature, leading to incomplete fuel combustion Contaminates oil, increases deposits, clog fuel injectors Argonne National Lab: 1 hour of idling equivalent to engine wear as much as 7 miles of driving Once operating in appropriate temperature range, engine takes about 25 minutes to lose heat- so re-starting is ok Idling is Bad for the Engine
Follow manufacturers recommendations Winter blend diesel fuels are made not to gel in cold Wait until all pressure readings and wait lights are ok. Heavy duty vehicles and equipment usually require no more than 5 minutes to warm hydraulic fluids, etc. Big block diesel engines can use 1 gallon fuel per hr. idling Most newer diesel engines do not need to run for more than 3-5 minutes before driving
Idling Exemptions Emergency responses To run equipment Work crews health and safety Normal driving operations (in traffic, etc.) Restart issues due to mechanical problems Manufacturers recommendations- example turbo and CNG vehicles may need longer periods Supervisors discretion
Idle Controls Certified Clean Idle Engines: automatically shuts down the engine after five minutes of continuous idling OR certified nitrogen oxide NOx very low limit, can idle indefinitely. Idle Speed Controls: Regulates engine idling speed. Example: Fast Idle System: An electronic system that raises the idle speed. Keeps battery charged by speeding up the alternator and also keeps the air conditioner compressor spinning faster for cooler interior temps.
Use ice scrapers to clear snow and ice on windshields, prior to letting the vehicle run Use commercial de-icers on large vehicles and equipment Clear snow off rest of vehicle to reduce added weight Snow
How NOT to Save Fuel Fuel Saving Devices? EPA has tested over 100 and found very few that provide ANY fuel economy improvement Fueling AM or PM? Temperature of gas as it is being pumped from underground tanks changes very little, if any. Modern fuel pumps make losses negligible. (API) Tank half full? According to API, technical changes to vehicle fuel systems have virtually eliminated fuel evaporation loss (Consumer Reports) Premium Gas? Most engines are designed for an octane rating of about 87 (regular gasoline); engine performance does not increase with a higher octane level, unless designed to run on premium. R eformulated gas, on the other hand, causes a 1-3% decrease in a vehicles fuel economy. (EPA)
Progressive Shifting Select highest gear possible with lowest RPM Driving in lower gears burns up more fuel Shift the gear as soon as you have enough engine speed Limit unnecessary shifting; block-shift (go from, for example, 2nd gear to 5th gear) Re-program automatic transmission control units so trucks up-shift at lower speeds since factory settings maximize power not fuel economy
Avoid Lugging the Engine Avoid lugging the engine: if you try to accelerate and doesnt speed up you are at too high a gear. If you start lugging immediately downshift. When approaching hills, don't wait until the vehicle begins to "lug" before shifting gears. Gradually increasing speed as you approach a hill.
Determine specific shift points in owners manual, usually up-shifts between 1200 and 1600 rpms For synchronized transmissions - push the clutch and shift (usually light and med duty vehicles-gears are in mesh& rotating) For unsynchronized transmissions- (in heavy trucks and machinery) always double clutch: press in clutch, put in neutral, by ear or by looking at tachometer, adjust throttle to reach recommended rpms, apply clutch again, put in gear. If stopped, push in clutch all the way to floor to release. * From: Office of Energy Efficiency, Environment Canada Shifting Diesels*
Overdrive Gears Use overdrive gears if available (usually 5 th gear) but not at warp speeds! Overdrive gears improve the fuel economy of your car during highway driving. Your car's engine speed decreases (engine turns over less frequently with gear ratios)
Case Study: Isuzu Eco Driving Program 26% average increase fuel economy (for 13 years ) Single truck, averaging 35,000 miles per year, fuel consumption reduced by more than 1,200 gallons At $3.92 per gallon for diesel, was annual savings of $4,700. For 50-truck fleet, $235,000 per year. minimize speed accelerate slowly up-shift at low RPMs maximize time in top gear steady acceleration avoid overuse of braking
Half Full, Half Empty Exceptions, yes. Adjustments, yes. Feedback, yes. YOU can identify the best opportunities for fuel conservation. You know your vehicle and job best. Please Use Your BEST JUDGEMENT for YOUR Department
Better air. Better on fuel. Better for the engine. Better for the local economy. Better for Asheville.
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Thank you! For more information, Please visit: www.ashevillenc.gov/green