Presentation on theme: "Traffic Flow Simulation Car-Following Model"— Presentation transcript:
1Traffic Flow Simulation Car-Following Model By: Ittinop(Pun) Dumnernchanvanit
2Introduction: What is done in this project? Why car-following model? Simulate traffic following each individual car.Use AI to simulate driver’s behavior on roadObserve and analyze traffic phenomenaWhy car-following model?Traffic is extremely complex and most phenomena are non-linear and cannot be solved easily and accurately through equations.
3Example uses for simulation: Can help maximize traffic flow. For instance, determine the most efficient automated red light, green light pattern.How far to put a warning sign for road block.Help in choosing between stop sign/red light green light at specific intersection
4Phenomena Simulated: Shockwave Road block Cutting in front Platoon System of four way and three way intersections
8Mechanisms behind the simulation Angular movement calculated using turn radius.This way we can turn without worrying about speed
9Mechanisms behind the simulation: Angular movement
10Mechanism behind the simulation: Angular movement
11Mechanisms behind the simulation: Turn radius Turn radius calculation: (for future improvement)1. Find intersection using y = mx+b etc.2. Find distance from lane end to intersection3. Find angle 34. Find turn radius
12Mechanisms behind the simulation how to show vehicle with its directiontake car to center, then use rotational matrix, then take it back
14Car Variables: (x,y) Direction Max speed Max acceleration Max brake Lanewaypoints
15CarMethods:react() –determines acceleration and angular movement. Basically that is how real world driver control car, pedal/brake for acceleration and wheel turning for angular movement.move() – move the car according to acceleration and angular movement.getFrontCar(), getBackCar(), getBackMostCar()
16Lane Variables Methods Position Width Direction Leftlane, rightlane Start, endMethodsgetDirection()insertAdjacentLane(Lane* leftlane_raw, Lane* rightlane_raw)isEqual(Lane* a)
17CreatorWorks like car factory that spit out car on to lane from some specific point.Spit out if no car with in a specific distancestarting_speed:= max_speed*(1-min_d/d);Adjust to different density automatically and will not over produce.Can adjust density using this.
18Creator Variables: Methods Waypoints, endland transitions Distance between carsStarting speedChance to produce etc.MethodscloseByCar() test if there is car near by the creator object (Can adapt do different density)createCar()
19Main Set-up the system loop through time steps Build lanes, and creators/or carsloop through time stepsRun the carRecord the results
20Assumptions Max speed: 65 kmph Max acceleration: 3.79 m/s All units in meters and secondschose 0.1 sec for time step because human reaction is 0.2 secMax speed: 65 kmphMax acceleration: 3.79 m/s(~7.1s 0-60mph)Minimum distance between car:7m from center to center, or around 2-3m between car.
26PlatoonThis is an idea to group vehicle in to platoons to increase the capacity of road.This allow cars to be closer to each other.This will need smart car that can be driven by artificial intelligence
28PlatoonData comparison: (Assume that on one of the lane, there is 50%/50% chance that creator will produce platoon or car.)average final time (s)flux (n/s)Platoon1.73No Platoon27.1741.27
29Road Block: How it is done: Car object contain pointer to object targetlane and laneWhy targetlane?vehicles will also check other vehicle’s targetlane in their loop so they can recognize incoming car from another lane and yield for it.
30Road Block:AlgorithmAt road block, vehicle slow down and tries to cut in front of another vehicle.distance to back car and to front car in target lane vehicle need to cut is setwhen vehicle is set to change lane, it turn and run toward the lane and then turn the wheel back when it is in the middle and
31Something to keep in mind when looking at data Time is counted from entering system to exiting system.If flux is low, it might means traffic jam might propagate much longer than system which means the car would have waited much longer outside the system than the case with less flux
32Road Block MovieNo sign, see block at around 100
33Road Block MovieSign at 100, see actual block around 200
34Road Block Data: No Warning Sign Warning Sign Production distance average final time (s)flux (n/s)240.370.363444
35Cut in Front: How it is done Driver looks to another lane to decide whether it is worth to cut in front.Then look to the back to determine if it is possible to do so
36Cut in Front: How it is done Judgment criteria driver use for front car:coefficient*( (speed of front car in our lane)*time +distance to front car in our lane ))(speed of front car target lane)*time +distance to front car in target lanewhere time is any set time, depending on driver’s experience.coefficient allow us to set how much we want the driver to cut
37Cut in Front: How it is done Then look at back cardriver look at speed of back car and distance to back car.driver knows the amount of time he will use to cut in front.simple algorithm used is just, (coefficient*distance) >( (back car speed)*(cut time))
39Cut in Front: Data (5 lanes), del_t = 1.0s Distance = 14 mDistance = 54 mCoefficientaverage final time (s)flux (n/s)Number of cuts per car1.11.450.951.51.492.046.4173.05.0
40Keep in mind:Note that there are so much more variables such as car density we can manipulate and these behaviors might change totally.
41Complex Road System:System of four lane with three lane attached to it on the eastCases:Red/green lightall-way stop sign
42Complex Road System: How it is done Waypoints:the way point build and given to car creatormakes sense because driver usually knows where he is going to go from the start. (most of the time)In this project, the waypoints are different lanes the car will go through before exiting
43Complex Road System: How it is done Red light/Green light set upRed light are built into lane class. Basically, car on the lane check if it is turned on, if so stop at the light if front car is farther than the lane end.Set red light in main class. Set repeating pattern using fmod()Assume no left turn
44Complex Road System: Red light/Green light Video Show outside
45Complex Road System: How it is done All way Stop signs in this project was extended from red light code.Check area in the middle and open green light to let some car in temporarily.
46Complex Road System: All-way Stop Signs Video Show outside
47Complex Road System: Data Red light/green lightStop signsProduction Distanceaverage final time (s)flux (n/s)715104.563090.12250
48Complex Road System: Analysis So traffic lights are better than stop signs in traffic flow at high flux.They have around the same efficiency at low flux. This is the reason why why we see all-way stop signs in areas with less traffic.
49Thank you for Listening! The End:Thank you for Listening!