Presentation on theme: "Learners Acceptance of Mobile Phone for Distance Learning Tutorials: A Case Study of University of Ibadan Distance Learning Centre. Francis Egbokhare."— Presentation transcript:
Learners Acceptance of Mobile Phone for Distance Learning Tutorials: A Case Study of University of Ibadan Distance Learning Centre. Francis Egbokhare Gloria Adedoja Omobola Adelore University of Ibadan, Nigeria
An intervention piloted at tutorials with educational radio and mobile phones in supporting distance learners at the University of Ibadan.
Case Study Objectives The objectives of the study on the use of radio broadcasting and mobile phones are to: Determine the level of acceptance of students mobile delivery mode; Create opportunities for users to contribute to the final product under the following variables; external factors perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, intention to use, attitude to using and action (Davis, 1986); Determine which cultural and environmental factors are predominant in influencing acceptability of the courseware; Determine preference for a particular delivery format and reasons for choice; Ascertain the type of support students need for effective use of the new delivery mode; and Based on challenges faced in the process of utilisation make appropriate recommendations for adoption.
Delimitations of the Study The study concerned with Distance learners view and acceptance of a new support mode. It looks at this in light of the following variables: – External factors – Perceived usefulness – Perceived ease of use – Behavioural intention to use – Actual use
Methodology The study adopted a mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) – Creation of awareness using email and bulk sms – Registration of students on the mobile platform – Dividing students into groups for tutor interaction – Exposing learners to an assessment after going through the first three modules. – Immediate feedback to students after quiz. – Tutors interact with students. – Students are given questionnaires to fill and exposed to FGD. Questionnaires administered was divided into sections that treated the variables to be measured.
MODEL Figure 1: TAM Model Showing the Relationship between Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use and Actual Use
Explanation of Model The studys framework is based on Davis (1986) Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which made use of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA).TRA postulates that an individuals attitude towards a behaviour is influenced by his/her belief. Notably, the model deals with the acceptability of an information system/tool, how it can be used to predict acceptability of the system/tool, and modifications to be made for acceptability. The model assumes that acceptability is majorly determined by two factors: Perceived Usefulness (PU); and Perceived Ease of Use (PEU) See page 6 for Proposed Model
Proposed Model for Analysis Perceived ease of use Attitude towards use Interest Behavioural intention of use Actual use Perceived usefulness Technology self-efficacy Acceptance of model
Hypotheses The study would be testing the following hypotheses: H 1 : Perceived usefulness is positively related to improving attitude towards use of educational radio and mobile technology. H 2 : Perceived ease of use has a positive effect on attitude towards use of educational radio and mobile technology. H 3 : Perceived ease of use has a positive effect on perceived usefulness of educational radio and mobile technology. H 4 : Interest is positively related to the use of educational radio and mobile technology. H 5 : Technology self-efficacy is positively related to attitude hence, affecting learners acceptance towards use of educational radio and mobile technology. H 6 : Perceived usefulness will be associated with actual use of educational radio and mobile technology. H 7 : Behavioural intention is positively associated with learners acceptance of the use of educational radio and mobile technology. H 8 : Perceived usefulness. Perceived ease of use, interest, technology self-efficacy, attitude, behavioural intention, actual use of educational radio and mobile technology will predict learners acceptance of delivery modes of distance learning tutorials. H 9 :There is a significant relationship between attitude of learners and their Behavioral intention to use educational radio and mobile technology.
Data Analysis For the questionnaire, the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)was used in data analysis. Correlations was used to examine the relationships between the constructs Regression analysis was used to find out the prediction of acceptance of educational radio and mobile phone for distance learning tutorials.
Findings RESULTS of the overall model show that there is significant correlation between PU and attitude towards the use of mobile for tutorial delivery; PEU and PU PEU and attitude Interest to use and attitude TSE and attitude TSE and actual use Attitude and acceptance
Findings Contd This could be explained as: If a system is easy to use,users (distance learners) may find it useful hence motivation to use it,so in the end actual usage behaviour happens as an indirect result of ease of use. That is, students are motivated to adopt a new delivery mode because of the functions it performs and secondly on how easy it is to get the system to perform the functions. TSE strongly determines PU,PEU,and user attitude towards mobile phones for tutorial delivery
Contribution of the factors to the prediction of acceptance of modes of tutorials delivery (N=201). Model Unstandard coefficientStandard coefficient TSIg. BStd ErrorBeta Constant Perceived usefulness Perceived ease of use Interest Attitude Behavioural intention Actual use Self-efficacy 16.021.587 1.178.622 1.001.587.834 1.818 6.378.467.492.472.567.421.306.418.104.22.168.269.089.229.160 6.821 2.017 4.554 6.600 5.174 4.900 6.212 3.018.000
Qualitative Analysis The FGD sessions further corroborate the quantitative data obtained. Seventy-five percent of the respondent showed positive acceptance of Mobile delivery mode for tutorials.
Some Challenges Logging in problem: some students found it difficult to log in, some names for logging in were not written correctly, e.g. students name: JOSHUA, registered name: JOSUA, this made the students to be confused and frustrated. During quiz, some complained about not being able to initiate the quiz (this complaint was made about TEE course quiz, due to low computer skills). Network problem: some students complained about loss of internet connectivity Special needs: Students with physical challenges were not catered for in the project as they were not able to interact with content which is wholly text-based. Some of these students complained and requested that their physical challenge should be factored into the design and implementation of the mobile learning project Low ICT skills: Some students complained about answering the quiz questions but werenot able to submit because of low IT skills.
Lessons Learned Learners interest in the use of mobile delivery contributed to their level of acceptance Support is major contributory factor to successful implementation of mobile learning. Learners require immense technical support Network services proved a great challenge among others Some students have low computer skills, presumably the older ones. It is therefore imperative for intending Distance learning students to have acquired sufficient computer and internet skills in order to successfully participate in the experience. Cost also is an issue. Although students were advised to subscribe to a plan, this was not adhered to by all students. In order to make sure that network problems are taken care of, students received messages not only through SMS but also through their email accounts
Lessons Learned (contd) In order to reduce frustration on the part of students, technical details requiring some degree of precision, such as signing into the platform using lower case rather than upper case was handled for students by the teams technical support. Students who find it difficult to navigate the mobile platform could be helped by providing a demo of the mobile platform on the Centres website and this could also be demonstrated at the orientation programmes since mobile phone/device is an integral tool for learning in this mode. Course development for mobile learning requires some technicality and rigour not required in print or online materials. Course developers need skills to do this and incentives to continue to do so.
Conclusion The findings established a rich picture of the experiences of students. Students responded positively and for many, their use has transformed learning – providing choice, flexibility and enabling them to revisit key concepts and ideas at convenience. This brings into question the nature of support required by learners for effective use of the delivery mode.
Mobile learning technologies in general, will continue to act as a stimulus for change – particularly if, as we have seen in this research, they tap into the needs of students and support their learning. The ways in which students learn and communicate will continue to evolve in response to their changing environment. This highlights the importance of ongoing research to understand the nature of these changes and the implications they have for both students and teachers in learning and teaching.