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2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Tutor feedback in online English language learning: tutor perceptions.

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Presentation on theme: "2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Tutor feedback in online English language learning: tutor perceptions."— Presentation transcript:

1 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Tutor feedback in online English language learning: tutor perceptions Jinlan Tang Institute of Online Education, Beijing Foreign Studies University Colin Harrison School of Education/ Learning Sciences Research Institute, University of Nottingham Tony Fisher School of Education/ Learning Sciences Research Institute, University of Nottingham

2 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Outline Introduction Introduction Research Questions Research Questions Research Methods Research Methods Results Results Conclusion Conclusion

3 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Introduction

4 Importance of feedback (1)  Feedback, a key element in formative assessment, was deemed as “the life-blood of learning” (Rowntree, 1987:24).  In a comprehensive review of 87 meta-analyses of studies of what affected students’ achievement, Hattie (1987) concluded that the most powerful single influence was feedback.

5 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Importance of feedback (2)  Similarly, Black and Wiliam’s (1998) broad review of 250 studies of formative assessment with feedback underscored the extraordinarily consistent positive effects that feedback exerted on learning compared with other interventions designed to improve learning.

6 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Feedback in the online education contexts(1) Feedback provision was of more importance to distance language learners in that it might be their only chance of acquiring information about their performance (Morgan & O’Reilly, 1999; Hyland, 2001). Feedback provision was of more importance to distance language learners in that it might be their only chance of acquiring information about their performance (Morgan & O’Reilly, 1999; Hyland, 2001).

7 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Feedback in the online education contexts (2)  A prerequisite to enhance tutor feedback provision in the distance language learning or the e-learning context arguably might be to obtain an understanding of tutor present practices and perceptions on feedback.  Have tutors, as we expect, realized the importance of feedback? This research was designed with the purpose in mind.

8 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Research Questions The study intended to investigate: What are online tutors’ perceptions of roles and the importance of tutor feedback in learning? What are online tutors’ perceptions of roles and the importance of tutor feedback in learning? What are their dispositions toward assignment marking and previous experiences of being trained on providing feedback in the e-learning environment? What are their dispositions toward assignment marking and previous experiences of being trained on providing feedback in the e-learning environment? What their perceptions of good tutor feedback practice? What their perceptions of good tutor feedback practice?

9 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Research Method A web-based questionnaire A web-based questionnaire The Participants Fifty-two tutors teaching the same course in the third-year post-diploma BA program at an online institute of English language education in Beijing. Fifty-two tutors teaching the same course in the third-year post-diploma BA program at an online institute of English language education in Beijing.

10 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China The Questionnaire (1) The tutor questionnaire consisted of five sections, 41 questions in total basic information about the tutors themselves 2--- tutor perceptions on tutor feedback in general 3--- tutor usual practices in marking assignments 4--- tutor attitudes toward training on assignment marking 5---tutor perceptions of most effective feedback

11 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China The Questionnaire (2) Administration of the online questionnaire: The questionnaire was prepared in English and was piloted to a group of tutors proceeding its actual implementation to increase the reliability, validity and practicability of the questionnaire (Oppenheim,1992; Morrison, 1993); The questionnaire was prepared in English and was piloted to a group of tutors proceeding its actual implementation to increase the reliability, validity and practicability of the questionnaire (Oppenheim,1992; Morrison, 1993); It was administered online from 31st September to 30th October, tutors out of 55 tutors filled in the questionnaire. The return rate was 95%. It was administered online from 31st September to 30th October, tutors out of 55 tutors filled in the questionnaire. The return rate was 95%.

12 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China The online questionnaire --- A demo A demoA demo

13 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Results Results based on the descriptive statistics Results based on the descriptive statistics Results based on the factor analysis Results based on the factor analysis

14 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Results Results based on the descriptive statistics Results based on the descriptive statistics

15 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China 1 Basic information about tutors Gender: 24 were males, 28 were females Age: years old Teaching experiences: 2 months - 40 years Teaching positions: lecturers (61.5%) associate professors (25%) teaching assistants (7.7%) professors (5.8%)

16 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China 2 Tutor perceptions about tutor feedback practice (1) Areas of consensus: Students believed the most important feedback was their scores; Students believed the most important feedback was their scores; Detailed tutor feedback exerted positive influence on students’ subsequent achievements; Detailed tutor feedback exerted positive influence on students’ subsequent achievements; Feedback was helpful to students and students needed feedback in order to understand why they had made the mistakes. Feedback was helpful to students and students needed feedback in order to understand why they had made the mistakes.

17 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China 2 Tutor perceptions about tutor feedback practice (2) Areas of disagreement: Whether it was a waste of time to provide feedback because most students would only care about scores; Whether it was a waste of time to provide feedback because most students would only care about scores; Whether a good piece of work needed detailed feedback; Whether a good piece of work needed detailed feedback; Whether good students needed much tutor feedback. Whether good students needed much tutor feedback.

18 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China 3 Marking dispositions (1) Areas of convergence: The majority of them did not provide a score only when marking; The majority of them did not provide a score only when marking; 2/3 of them thought it was not important to correct every mistake students had made; 2/3 of them thought it was not important to correct every mistake students had made; 2/3 of the tutors would put a question mark at the places where the meaning was not clear; 2/3 of the tutors would put a question mark at the places where the meaning was not clear;

19 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China 3. Marking dispositions (2) Areas of divergence: Half of the tutors were not sure of whether students read and make use of the feedback provided; Half of the tutors were not sure of whether students read and make use of the feedback provided; Half of the tutors tended to use marking codes such as gr. and sp. in marking; Half of the tutors tended to use marking codes such as gr. and sp. in marking; Nearly half of the tutors adopted global marking approach (i.e. focusing on global areas and providing a summary comment); Nearly half of the tutors adopted global marking approach (i.e. focusing on global areas and providing a summary comment); Nearly half of the tutors under investigation reported underlining all the errors in marking. Nearly half of the tutors under investigation reported underlining all the errors in marking.

20 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China 4. Attitudes toward tutor training The majority of them maintained that training was needed in marking assignments; The majority of them maintained that training was needed in marking assignments; Less than 20% of the tutors admitted that they never had any training in marking assignments, while the majority did receive some training; Less than 20% of the tutors admitted that they never had any training in marking assignments, while the majority did receive some training; However, more than 2/3 of the tutors (76.9%) held that they could mark well so long as marking criteria were provided; However, more than 2/3 of the tutors (76.9%) held that they could mark well so long as marking criteria were provided; Over 80% of the tutors maintained that it could be helpful to engage in discussions with other colleagues when marking assignments. Over 80% of the tutors maintained that it could be helpful to engage in discussions with other colleagues when marking assignments.

21 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China 5. Tutor perceptions of most effective feedback (1) Which was the most important characteristic of good tutor feedback? Focus on the areas that learners are really in need of help; Focus on the areas that learners are really in need of help; Be timely; Be timely; Focus on students’ performance and their learning. Focus on students’ performance and their learning.

22 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China 5. Tutor perceptions of most effective feedback (2) Which was the most important purpose for good tutor feedback? Prompt further study; Prompt further study; Encourage positive motivational beliefs and self- esteem; Encourage positive motivational beliefs and self- esteem; Help clarify what good performance is (goals, criteria, and expected standards). Help clarify what good performance is (goals, criteria, and expected standards).

23 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Results Results based on factor analysis Results based on factor analysis Results based on factor analysis Results based on factor analysis

24 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Three factors Three factors are identified. They have high reliability scores and are found to be statistically significant. Reliability data. They have high reliability scores and are found to be statistically significant. Reliability data.Reliability dataReliability data Total Variance Explained Total Variance Explained Total Variance Explained Total Variance Explained

25 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China What are the three factors? Component Matrix data show the three factors in action. Component Matrix data show the three factors in action. Component Matrix Component Matrix The three factors actually refer to the three types of tutors. The three factors actually refer to the three types of tutors.

26 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Factor 1 Factor 1 (type of tutors): Factor 1 (type of tutors): Traditional, global and autonomous type of tutors, who preferred a score-only marking approach and did not expect to provide individual guidance. Traditional, global and autonomous type of tutors, who preferred a score-only marking approach and did not expect to provide individual guidance.

27 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Factor 2 Factor 2 (type of tutors): Factor 2 (type of tutors): Student-centered tutors, who disliked the score-only approach and believed that students needed feedback in order to improve. Student-centered tutors, who disliked the score-only approach and believed that students needed feedback in order to improve.

28 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Factor 3 Factor 3 (type of tutors): Factor 3 (type of tutors): They are tutors who had traditional views (for example, they were against the idea of being told about how to mark assignments), but this group favored local rather than global feedback (for example detailed correction of grammatical errors). They are tutors who had traditional views (for example, they were against the idea of being told about how to mark assignments), but this group favored local rather than global feedback (for example detailed correction of grammatical errors).

29 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Conclusion The research findings yielded a complex picture of tutor types and of tutor perceptions toward tutor feedback, with significant implications for the design of subsequent tutor training programs and feedback provision in the e-learning environment. The research findings yielded a complex picture of tutor types and of tutor perceptions toward tutor feedback, with significant implications for the design of subsequent tutor training programs and feedback provision in the e-learning environment.

30 2006 International Symposium of Computer Assisted Language Learning,June 2-4, Beijing China Thank you for your attention!


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