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Copyright © 2004 Sherif Kamel Technology Acceptance Model Sherif Kamel The American University in Cairo
Copyright © 2004 Sherif Kamel Introduction Emerging information technology can not deliver improved organizational effectiveness if it is not accepted and used by potential users. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is one of the most successful measurements for computer usage effectively among practitioners and academics. TAM is consistent with Everett Rogers (1983) theory on diffusion of innovation where technology adoption is a function of a variety of factors including o Relative advantage o Ease of use
Copyright © 2004 Sherif Kamel Organizational Investments in IT Investments in computer-based tools to support planning, decision making and communication processes are usually risky o Role of a champion o Change management Recognizing the difficulty of specifying the right systems requirements based on their own preferences and logic, systems builders always seek methods for evaluating the acceptability of systems as early as possible Need to know why people resist computers? Predicting how users will respond? Attempt to improve users response
Copyright © 2004 Sherif Kamel Challenges faced Understanding why people accept or reject computers had proven to be one of the most challenging issues in information systems (Swanson, 1988) o Users beliefs and attitude is a major determinants o Satisfaction measures are also important o Adaptation to change o Role of culture o Education and awareness are vital
Copyright © 2004 Sherif Kamel Theory of Reasoned Action TAM is an adaptation of the Theory of Reasoned Action TRA is a widely studied model from social psychology which is concerned with the determinants of consciously intended behavior (more general theory) According to TRA, a persons performance of a specific behavior is determined by his/her behavioral intention (BI) to perform the behavior and BI is jointly determined by the persons attitude (A) and subjective norm (SN) concerning the behavior in question
Copyright © 2004 Sherif Kamel Normative beliefs and motivation to comply Actual behavior Attitude towards behavior Subjective norm Behavioral intention (BI) Theoretical Framework (TRA) Beliefs and evaluations BI = A + SN
Copyright © 2004 Sherif Kamel Technology Acceptance Model Introduced by Fred Davis in 1986 – an adaptation of TRA and specifically tailored for modeling user acceptance of information systems TAM is based on two main assumptions: o Perceived usefulness (PU) o Perceived ease of use (PEOU) TAM attempts not only for prediction but also for explanation to help researchers and practitioners identify why a particular system may be unacceptable and pursue appropriate steps Copyright © 1986 Fred D Davis
Copyright © 2004 Sherif Kamel Technology Acceptance Model Purpose of TAM is to assess the user acceptance of emerging information technology TAM is more specific and applies only to the use of computers (usage behavior) o TAM addresses the human-computer interface (HCI)
Copyright © 2004 Sherif Kamel Technology Acceptance Model An important factor in TAM is to trace the impact of external factors on internal beliefs, attitudes and intentions. Two particular beliefs are addressed through TAM o Perceived usefulness (PU) Prospective users subjective probability that using a specific application system will increase his or her job performance within an organizational context o Perceived ease of use (PEOU) Degree to which the prospective user expects the target system to be free of effort. Copyright © 1986 Fred D Davis
Copyright © 2004 Sherif Kamel PU and PEOU Scales Perceived usefulness o Work more quickly o Job performance o Increased productivity o Effectiveness o Makes job easier o Useful Perceived ease of use o Easy to learn o Clear and understandable o Easy to become skillful o Easy to use o Controllable o Easy to remember
Copyright © 2004 Sherif Kamel External Variables Actual system use Perceived Usefulness (PU) Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU) Behavioral Intention to use Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by F D Davis (1986) Theoretical Framework (TAM) Attitude toward using Copyright © 1986 Fred D Davis
Copyright © 2004 Sherif Kamel Example beliefs I would save time in creating and editing documents I would find it easier to create and edit documents My documents would be of a better quality I would not use alternative presentation packages I would experience problems gaining access to the computing center due to crowds I would become dependent on PowerPoint I would not use PowerPoint after I leave my current employer
Copyright © 2004 Sherif Kamel Determinants of managerial computer use 1.Peoples computer use can be predicted reasonably well from their intentions 2.Perceived usefulness is a major determinant of peoples intentions to use computers 3.Perceived ease of use is a significant secondary determinant of peoples intentions to use computers
Copyright © 2004 Sherif Kamel TAM Implications Planning is vital for IS success o Early warning techniques o Systems testing o Mapping paper designs to actual systems outcomes o Continuous exposure, usage and assessment during systems development phases
Copyright © 2004 Sherif Kamel Relationship between ease of use, usefulness and usage Everett Rogers claims that adoption of innovation is a function of a variety of factors including o Relative advantage o Ease of use of the innovation itself It is important to note whether the use of the innovation is a… o Job requirement o Voluntary
Copyright © 2004 Sherif Kamel Example Applications Electronic mail Voice mail Word processing Spreadsheets Graphics
Copyright © 2004 Sherif Kamel Conclusion There is no absolute measure to ease of use or usefulness User perceptions of these constructs may vary with time and experience for any given application Technology innovation and frequent use are important elements Element of trust is an integral part of the formula
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