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Mobile Communication and Mobile Computing

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Presentation on theme: "Mobile Communication and Mobile Computing"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mobile Communication and Mobile Computing
Prof. Dr. Alexander Schill TU Dresden, Computer Networks Dept.

2 Contents 1. Motivation 2. Mobile Communication History Principles
Media Access Methods Mobile Radio Networks: Overview GSM HSCSD, GPRS UMTS

3 Contents 2. Mobile Communication (Continuation)
Broadband-Radio Systems Wireless Local-area Networks (IEEE , Bluetooth etc.) Satellite-based Systems

4 Contents 3. Mobile Computing Layer 3 Layer 4
MobileIP v4 & v6 DHCP Layer 4 Higher Layers and Services WAP, XML Mobile RPC CODA, Databases Mobile Agents Middleware for spontaneous networking Services and system support for Mobile Computing

5 Literature Roth, J.: Mobile Computing, dpunkt-Verlag, Very good overview to mobile communication and mobile computing Schiller, J., Mobilkommunikation, Techniken für das allgegenwärtige Internet, Addison-Wesley, Mobile Communication principles and Mobile Computing Bernhard, Walke: Mobilfunknetze und ihre Protokolle, 2 Bände. Teubner, 2000 Principles, GSM, UMTS and other cellular Mobile Radio Networks [Vol.1] Circuit Switched Radio, Cordless Phone Systems, W-ATM, HIPERLAN, Satellite Radio, UPT [Vol.2] Schumny, Harald: Signalübertragung, Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig/Wiesbaden 1987; Wave propagation and wireless transmission A.S. Tanenbaum: Computernetzwerke, 4. Aufl., Prentice Hall, Protocols, ISO/OSI, standards, fixed networks Principles

6 1. Motivation and Examples

7 Motivation Ä New application areas, flexibility, improved workflows
Speech- and Data Communication location independent and mobile Ä New application areas, flexibility, improved workflows Requirements: - Mobile end-devices - Radio transmission - Localization and signalization/management - Standards - Application Concepts for mobile end-devices in distributed systems - Control of heterogeneous, dynamic infrastructures Mobile Computing

8 Application example: Civil Engineering, Field Service
Drafts, urgent modification Large archives, Videoconferences ATM ISDN Building of enterprise A (main office) Building of enterprise A (branch office) Architect X.25 ISDN ATM Selected drafts, Videoconferences GSM GSM Construction supervisor Material data, status data, dates Building site Building of enterprise B

9 WAP-Example: Order processing
Order book Status of bond transactions. Executed and deleted orders are indicated in the order book for some days more. Partial execution of some order is presented as one open and one executed partial order in the order book. Details to an order could be indicated via dial-up of correspondent Links.

10 Perspective: Mobile Multimedia Systems
Local Resources, Error Protocols Client Product Data Maintenance technician LAN-Access Main office Caching Mobile Access - very different performance and charges: radio networks versus fixed networks Software-technical, automatic adaptation to concrete system environment Example: Access to picture data/compressed picture data/graphics/text

11 Application Structure
Ethernet Ethernet Distributed Database DB E-Fax-Order Branch office Firm xDSL Application Resource Mobile Station Communication path GSM Ethernet Cache Management DB-Access Distributed Database Client X

12 Traffic Telematics Systems
Content Provider Main Office Content Provider ATM Internet GSM, RDS/TMC, DAB ... GSM Beam Radio, ISDN GSM GSM Radio/Infrared DAB: Digital Audio Broadcast RDS/TMC: Radio Data System/ Traffic Message Channel Infrastructure

13 Mobile Communication Networks: Examples
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications): worldwide standard for digital, cellular Mobile Radio Networks UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System): European Standard for future digital Mobile Radio Networks AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System): analog Mobile Radio Networks in USA DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications): European standard for cordless phones TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio): European standard for circuit switched radio networks ERMES (European Radio Message System): European standard for radio paging systems (Pager) 802.11: International standard for Wireless Local Networks Bluetooth: wireless networking in close/local area Inmarsat: geostationary satellite systems Teledesic: planned satellite system on a non-geostationary orbit

14 Mobile Communication: Development
D (GSM900) E (GSM1800) Mobile Phone Networks HSCSD EDGE GPRS Cordless Telephony CT2 DECT IMT2000/ UMTS Packet Networks Modacom Mobitex Circuit Switched Networks Tetra Satellite Networks Iridium/ Globalstar Inmarsat Radio-LAN Local Networks IEEE / Hiperlan MBS IR-LAN 1990 1995 2000 2005

15 Used Acronyms CT2: Cordless Telephone 2. Generation
HSCSD: High Speed Circuit Switched Data GPRS: General Packet Radio Service EDGE: Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution IMT2000: International Mobile Telecommunications by the year 2000 MBS: Mobile Broadband System

16 2. Mobile Communication

17 Principles

18 Mobile Communication Tied to electro-magnetic radio transmission
terrestrial orbital (satellite) broadcast radio beam radio equatorial orbit non-equatorial orbit cellular non-cellular Principles: Propagation and reception of electro-magnetic waves Modulation methods and their properties Multiplex methods Satellite orbits/Sight- and overlap areas

19 Cellular Networks: Principles
Interference Zone R Channels Channels 1-800 5R 1 5 6 3 7 4 2 R 7-Cell-Cluster (repeat sample of the same radio-channels) Supply- (radius R) and interference areas (5 R)

20 Cellular Networks: Principles
Cell structure: Example Reference cell Cell in the interference area of the reference cell Further cells, whose channel distribution should be known to the reference cell

21 Kinds of antennas: directional & sectored
Energy is radiated in definite directions, for instance x-Direction So called main propagation directions, for instance Satellite Antennas Often also used in Mobile Radio Systems, such as GSM, for creation of sectored cells Seamless radio supply via partial/overlay of sectors x z y x Directional Antenna Sectored Antenna

22 Media Access Methods

23 Principles Multiplex Media Access Methods
Multiple-shift usage of the medium without interference 4 multiplex methods: Space Time Frequency Code Media Access Methods controls user access to medium

24 SDMA (Space Division Multiple Access)
based on SDM (Space Division Multiplexing, Space Multiplex) communication channel obtains definite Space for definite Time on the definite Frequency with definite Code Space Multiplex for instance in the Analog Phone Systems (for each participant one line) and for Broadcasting Stations Problem: secure distance (interferences) between transmitting stations is required (using one frequency) and by pure Space Multiplex each communication channel would require an own transmitting station Space Multiplex is only reasonable in combination with other multiplex methods SDMA for instance by base station dedication to an end-device via Media Access Methods or respectively by segmentation of a Mobile Radio Network to several areas

25 SDMA: Example k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 s f1 SDMA finds selection
s – secure distance

26 FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)
Based on FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing, Frequency Multiplex) i.e. to transmission channels several frequencies are permanently assigned, for instance radio transmitting stations k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 t f k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 f1 f4 FDMA finds selection f2 f5 s f3 f6 s – secure distance

27 TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
Based on TDM (Time Division Multiplexing, Time Multiplex) i.e. to transmission channels is the transmission medium is slot assigned for certain time, is often used in LANs Synchronization (timing, static or dynamic) between transmitting and receiving stations is required k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 TDMA finds selection t f k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 f1

28 Combination: FDMA and TDMA, for instance GSM
GSM uses combination of FDMA and TDMA for better use of narrow resources the used band width for each carrier is 200 kHz f in MHz 960 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 downlink 25 MHz 935,2 915 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 200 kHz 45 MHz uplink 25 MHz 890,2 t

29 CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
based on CDM (Code Division Multiplexing, Code multiplex) i.e. to transmission channels the definite Code is assigned, this can be on the same Frequency for the same Time transmitted derivates from military area via development of cost-efficient VLSI components via spread spectrum techniques a good communication security and tiny fault sensitivity but: exact synchronization is required, code of transmitting station must be known to receiving station, complex receivers for signal separation are required Noise should not be very high

30 CDMA k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 f1 CDMA decoded

31 CDMA illustrated by example
The Principle of CDMA can be good illustrated by the example of some party: communication partners stand closely to each other, each transmission station (Sender) is only so loud, that it does not interfere to neighbored groups transmission stations (Senders) use certain Codes (for instance, just other languages), they can be just separately received by other transmission stations receiving station (Listener) attunes to this language (Code), all other Senders are realizing this only as background noise if receiving station (Listener) cannot understand this language (Code), then it can just receive the data, but it cannot do anything with them if two communication partners would like to have some secure communication line, then they should simply use a secret language (Code) Potential Problems: security distance is too tiny: interferences (i.e. Polish und Czech)

32 CDMA-Example in the theory
Sender A Sends Ad =1, Key Ak = (set: „0“= -1, „1“= +1) Transmit signal As =Ad *Ak = (-1, +1, -1, -1, +1, +1) Sender B sends Bd =0, Key Bk = (set: „0“= -1, „1“= +1) Transmit signal Bs =Bd *Bk = (-1, -1, +1, -1, +1, -1) Both signals superpose additively in air Faults are ignored here (noises etc.) C = As+ Bs =(-2,0,0,-2,+2,0) Receiver will listen to Sender A uses Key Ak bitwise (internal product) Ae = C * Ak = = 6 Result is greater than 0, so sent bit was „1“ analog B Be = C * Bk = = -6, also „0“

33 Spread Spectrum Techniques
Signal is spread by the Sender before the transmission (overblown) dP/df value corresponds with so called Power Density, Energy is constant (in the Figure: the filled areas) Objective: Increase of robustness against small band-width faults listening security: power density of spread-spectrum signals can be lower than that of background noise

34 Spread Spectrum Techniques
small band-width faults are spread by de-spreading in receiving station band-pass deletes redundant frequency parts

35 Mobile Radio Networks: Overview

36 Development of Mobile Radio
General technological development in mobile telephony Satellite Systems (LEO) UMTS HSCSD GPRS EDGE GSM Phase II+ Digital cellular Networks Mhz PCN GSM1800 Digital cellular Networks Mhz GSM900 Prognoses Anal. cellular Networks Mhz Anal. cellular Networks Mhz Analog Networks...150Mhz before 1970 1970 1980 1990 2000 2005

37 Correspondent data rates
Satellites (GEO) (GEO)

38 Participant quantities in Mobile Radio – world-wide
November 2002: 1148 Mio. participants world-wide (1119 Mio. digital & 29 Mio analog) (Source: 1... Europe: Western Americas (thereof 15.4 Mio. analog) 2... Asia Pacific USA/Canada (thereof 5.4 Mio. analog) 3... Middle East Africa 7… Europe: Eastern

39 Frequency Assignment Circuit Switched Radio Mobile Phones Cordless Phones Wireless LANs TETRA NMT TETRA CT2 CT1+ GSM900 CT1+ GSM900 (nationally different) 500Mhz 1GHz TFTS (Pager, aircraft phones) GSM1800 TFTS GSM1800 DECT UMTS ( ) WLAN IEEE a: 5,15-5,25; 5,25-5,35; 5,725-5,825 IEEE b Bluetooth HIPERLAN1 HIPERLAN2 HIPER-Link MHz (ca.5200,5600) (ca.17000) Notes: - 2,4 GHz license free, nationally different - () written : Prognoses! - today speech over license free frequencies up to Ghz -> interesting for high data rates HomeRF...(approx.2400) TFTS - Terrestrial Flight Telephone System

40 Broadcast/multicast networks
several carrier frequencies but participant obtains carrier for short time only often in use by taxi- und logistics enterprises etc., each own separated frequency reaches can use the same frequency packs with FDM- and TDM- techniques, i.e. more efficient handling with narrow resource frequency spectrum improves transition to fixed network, speech- and data services not for public access very reliable, cost-efficient

41 TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio)
former name: Trans-European Trunked Radio frequencies: , MHz Uplink; , MHz Downlink bandwidth of each channel: 25 kHz 1991 started by ETSI replace of national networks like MODACOM, MOBITEX or COGNITO Services: Voice + Data (V+D)- Service: Speech and Data, channel-oriented, uni-, multi- and broadcast possible Packet Data Optimized (PDO)- Service: packet-oriented, improves connection-oriented or connectionless service, as well as point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communication carrier services with data rate up to 28,8 kbit/s unprotected; 9,6 kbit/s - protected

42 TETRA, advantages compared with GSM, UMTS
confirmed and/or non-confirmed Group Call (however it’s already possible with GSM today: up to 16 participants) Group call listening is possible (so called “open-channel mode”) very reliable fast dialing: approx. 300 ms (so called “push to talk”), GSM: several seconds certain independence of infrastructure (so called “direct mode” between end-devices) cost-efficient, especially for limited user quantity, because of the „large“ cells x • 10 km also especially suitable for emergency teams (fire department, ambulance etc.)

43 Cordless Telephony - DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications)
frequency reach: MHz other than GSM limited to short reaches (1km) in buildings particularly under 50m is not designed for use at high rates mobile phones with GSM and DECT are available in the market 120 full duplex channels TDD (Time Division Duplex) for directional separation with 10ms frame length frequency reach is divided into 10 carrier frequencies using FDMA each station 10mW averaged, max. 250mW of transmitting power, GSM – radio phones transmit at 1 to 2W, fixed car phones up to 8W

44 DECT – system architecture
HDB PA PT FT Local Networks VDB PA PT D1 FT Global Networks Local Networks FT.. Fixed Radio Termination PT.. Portable Radio Termination PA... Portable Terminations HDB.. Home Data Base VDB.. Visitor Data Base

45 DECT - Multiplex Used Data Used Data Synchronization Signalization CRC
(Speech) (Speech) CRC Secure marker 32 bit 48 bit 160 bit 8 bit 160 bit 8 bit 64 bit 0,417 ms DECT-timeslot structure Transmission reach of fixed part (downlink) Transmission reach of mobile part (uplink) carrier frequency 1: 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' ' 12' carrier frequency 2: 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' ' 12' 1728 . . . kHz carrier frequency 10: 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' ' 12' Transmission principle of DECT-system Channel 1 Channel 2 . . . Channel 12 Channel 1’ Channel 2' . . . Channel 12' fixed part to mobile part mobile part to fixed part Time duplex with 10 ms frame length Structure of DECT-time multiplex frame

46 Pager systems: overview
Eurosignal to each participant 4 different audio signals using 4 diverse call numbers are assigned. Meaning must be agreed. Receiving stations are at a size of a cigarette packet 85 senders in the 87 MHz-reach (ultra short waves) called person location must be approximately known: 3 area codes: North 0509, Middle 0279, South 0709 Cityruf (city call) additionally to 4 audio- or respectively optical signals transmission of short numerical (15 digitals) or alpha-numerical messages (80 characters) exists optionally, receiving station is smaller than with Eurosignal PEP (Pan European Paging) preparation for coupling of national services for ERMES D: Cityruf, F: Alphapage, GB: Europage, I: SIP ERMES (European Radio Message System) ETSI-Standard for pan-European radio service, similar to PEP but in 169 MHz-reach with 60 Mio. addresses

47 GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications

48 GSM: Properties cellular radio network (2nd Generation)
digital transmission, data communication up to 9600 Bit/s Roaming (mobility between different net operators, international) good transmission quality (error detection and -correction) scalable (large number of participants possible) Security mechanisms (authentication, authorization, encryption) good resource use (frequency and time division multiplexing) integration within ISDN and fixed network standard (ETSI, European Telecommunications Standards Institute)

49 Providers in Germany (1)
D1 T-Mobile subscribers: 24,6 Mio (Stand 2003) Vodafone D2 old name: Mannesmann Mobilfunk D2 subscribers: 22,7 Mio (Stand 2003) E-plus O2 old name: VIAG Interkom

50 Providers in Germany (2)
Subscribers, millions 2001 2002 2003 World-wide by 2003 D1 T-Mobile 22,6 23,1 24,6 82 Vodafone D2 21,9 - 22,7 112,5 E-Plus 7,5 O2 VIAG Interkom 3,66

51 GSM: structure Fixed network Switching Subsystems Radio Subsystems OMC
Data networks VLR HLR AuC EIR MS (G)MSC BSC BTS MS PSTN/ ISDN BTS Network Management Call Management BSS MS MS Mobile Station (G)MSC (Gateway) Mobile Switching Centre OMC Operation and Maintenance Centre PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network VLR Visitor Location Register ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network AuC Authentication Centre BSS Base Station Subsystem BSC Base Station Controller BTS Base Transceiver Station EIR Equipment Identity Register HLR Home Location Register

52 GSM: Structure Operation and Maintenance Centre (OMC)
logical, central structure with HLR, AuC und EIR Authentication Centre (AuC) authentication, storage of symmetrical keys, generation of encryption keys Equipment Identity Register (EIR) storage of device attributes of allowed, faulty and jammed devices (white, grey, black list) Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) arrangement centre, partial as gateways to other nets, assigned to one VLR each Base Station Subsystem (BSS): technical radio centre Base Station Controller (BSC): control centre Base Transceiver Station (BTS): radio tower / antenna

53 Radio technical structure
1 TDMA-Frame, 144 Bit in 4,615 ms 8 TDMA-channels, together 271 kBit/s inclusive error protection information 124 radio frequency channels (carrier), each 200 kHz downlink 890 915 MHz uplink 935 960 MHz 2 frequency wavebands, for each 25 MHz, divided into radio cells One or several carrier frequencies per BSC Physical channels defined by number and position of time slots

54 GSM: protocols, incoming call
(4) BSS (3) VLR HLR (8) (7) (6) (11) (10) (4) (2) (8) (8) PSTN/ ISDN (5) (1) (9) (9) MSC GMSC BSS BSS (12) (12) (8) BSS (1) Call from fixed network was switched via GMSC (2) GMSC finds out HLR from phone number and transmits need of conversation (3) HLR checks whether participant for a corresponding service is authorized and asks for MSRN at the responsible VLR (4) MSRN will be returned to GMSC, can now contact responsible MSC

55 GSM: protocols, incoming call
(4) BSS (3) VLR HLR (8) (7) (6) (11) (10) (4) (2) (8) (8) PSTN/ ISDN (5) (1) (9) (9) MSC GMSC BSS BSS (12) (12) (8) BSS (5) GMSC transmits call to current MSC (6) ask for the state of the mobile station (7) Information whether end terminal is active (8) Call to all cells of the Location Area (LA) (9) Answer from end terminal ( ) security check and connection construction

56 GSM: protocols, outgoing call
VLR BSS MSC GMSC HLR (5) (3) (4) (2) (1) (1) Demand on connection (2) Transfer by BSS (3-4) Control for authorization (5) Switching of the call demand to fixed net

57 GSM: channel strucure Traffic Channel
speech- / data channel (13 kbit/s brutto; differential encoding) units of 26 TDMA - Frames Half-rate traffic channel: for more efficient speech encoding with 7 kbit/s Control Channel Signal information Monitoring of the BSCs for reconnaissance of Handover Broadcast Control Channel BSC to MS (identity, frequency order etc.) Random Access Channel Steering of channel entry with Aloha-procedure Paging Channel signalize incoming calls

58 Databases Home Location Register (HLR), stores data of participants, which are reported in an HLR-area Semi-permanent data: Call number (Mobile Subscriber International ISDN Number) - MSISDN, e.g /171/ (country, net, call number) identity (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) - IMSI: MCC = Mobile Country Code (262 for .de) + MNC = Mobile Network Code (01-D1, 02-Vodafone-D2, 03-eplus, 07-O2) + MSIN = Mobile Subscriber Identification Number Personal data (name, address, mode of payment) Service profile ( call transfer, Roaming-limits etc.) Temporary data: MSRN (Mobile Subscriber Roaming Number) (country, net, MSC) VLR-address, MSC-address Authentication Sets of AuC (RAND (128 Bit), SRES (128 Bit), KC (64Bit)) charge data

59 Databases Visitor Location Register (VLR)
local database of each MSC with following data: IMSI, MSISDN service profile accounting information TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) - pseudonym for data security MSRN LAI (Location Area Identity) MSC-address, HLR-address

60 GSM: mobile telephone areas
MSC-area = VLR-area Handover radio-cell with BTS Location Area (LA) LA = smallest addressable unit

61 Connection HLR, VLR HLR MSC-area VLR Location area advantage of the architecture: Location Update at limited mobility, as a rule only at VLR, rarely at (perhaps far remote) HLR

62 Localization at GSM LA 3 LA 2 LA 5 LA 3 +49 0177-26 32311 VLR 10 VLR 9
IMSI LA 2 HLR 26 32311 z.B. 0x62F220 01E5 LA 3 LA 2 participant call number in HLR country code number net-entry code Provider LA 5 LA 3

63 Data transmission each GSM-channel configurable as a data channel; similar structure like ISDN-B and -D-channels data rates up to 9600 bit/s now delay approximately 200 ms speech channels have as a rule higher priority as data channels kinds of channels: transparent (without error correction; however FEC; fixed data rate; error rate 10-3 up to 10-4) non-transparent (repeat of faulty data frames; very low error rate, but also less throughput) Short-Message-Service (SMS) connectionless transmission (up to 160 Byte) on signal channel Cell Broadcast (CB) connectionless transmission (up to 80 Byte) on signal channel to all participants, e.g. one cell

64 Data transmission - structure
BSC MSC IWF ISDN UDI BTS Modem TA PSTN Internet Modem IWF - Inter Working Function UDI - Unspecified Digital TA - Terminal Adapter

65 Security aspects: Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
Chip-card (Smart Cart) to personalize a mobile subscriber (MS): IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) participant special symmetric key Ki, stored also at AuC algorithm “A3” for Challenge-Response-Authentication algorithm “A8” for key generation of Kc for content data PIN (Personal Identification Number) for entry control Temporary data: TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) LAI (Location Area Identification) Encryption key Kc

66 Security in GSM-networks
SIM Entry control and cryptographic algorithms Single-sided authentication (participant against network) Challenge-Response-method (cryptographic algorithm: A3) Pseudonyms of participants at the Radio interface Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) Connection encoding on the Radio interface Key generation: A8 Encryption: A5

67 Security aspects: Authentication
MS MSC, VLR, AuC max. 128 Bit Random number generator A3 Authentication Request RAND (128 Bit) A3 SRES Authentication Response = SRES (32 Bit) Location Registration Location Update with VLR-change Call setup (in both directions) SMS (Short Message Service)

68 Security aspects: Session Key
MS Netz Random number generator Authentication Request A8 RAND (128 Bit) 64 Bit A8 Key generation: Algorithm A8 Stored on SIM and in AuC with Ki parametric one way function no (Europe, world wide) standard can be determined by net operator Interfaces are standardized combination A3/A8 known as COMP128

69 Security aspects: encryption at the Radio interface
MS Net TDMA-frame- number Ciphering Mode Command TDMA-frame- number A5 A5 Key block Ciphering Mode Complete + + Plain text block Encrypted Text Plain text block 114 Bit Data encryption through algorithm A5: stored in the Mobile Station standardized in Europe and world wide weaker algorithm A5* or A5/2 for specific countries

70 GSM-Security: assessment
cryptographic methods secret, so they are not „well examined“ symmetric procedure consequence: storage of user special secret keys with net operators required low key length Ki with max. 128 Bit (could be hacked by using Brute Force Attack in 8-12 hours) no mutual authentication intended consequence: Attacker can pretend a GSM-Net no end-to-end encryption no end-to-end authentication Key generation and -administration not controlled by the participants

71 GSM Phase II+ HSCSD, GPRS

72 HSCSD: High Speed Circuit Switched Data

73 Properties higher data rate because of channel bundling
parallel usage of several time slots (TCH) of one frequency on Um more efficient channel encoding (14,4 kbit/s per TCH) Data rates from 9,6 up to 53,8 kbit/s asymmetric transmission (1TCH Uplink / 3TCH Downlink)

74 HSCSD data rates transparent non transparent 1 + 1 9,6 14,4 9,6 13,2
up- / downlink 100% coverage 95% coverage 100% coverage 95% coverage 1 + 1 9,6 14,4 9,6 13,2 2 + 2 19,2 28,8 19,2 26,4 1 + 3 --- ---- 28,8 39,6 1 + 4 --- ---- 38,4 53,8

75 HSCSD: structure ISDN PSTN Internet MSC BSC IWF UDI BTS Modem TA
n time slots (TCH) of each TDMA frame (theoretically max. 8) PSTN Internet Modem IWF - Inter Working Function UDI - Unspecified Digital TA - Terminal Adapter

76 n time slots (TCH) of each TDMA frame
HSCSD: changes n time slots (TCH) of each TDMA frame (theoretically max. 8) BTS BSC MSC Um Abis A multiplex of the time slots on each 64 kBit/s channel certain changes are necessary at the component several changes at the software/firmware minimal changes at the software/firmware

77 HSCSD radio interface Required time for setting to transmission standby Required time for setting to receiving standby 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 MS RECEIVE 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 MS TRANSMIT MS MONITOR Required time for signal strength measure and setting to receiving standby parallel usage of several time slots limited to one frequency Cost factor limits number of used TCH‘s to (2+2) or (1+3, uplink, downlink)

78 Assessment of HSCSD existing net structure and accounting model maintained in comparison to GPRS only around1/5 of investment necessary HSCSD is still circuit switched has defined QoS- settings (data rate, delay) one logical channel will be switched on all interfaces for the time of the connection Non-efficient for burst-like traffic (Internet) or Flat Rate billing (Logistics) no international acceptance (Roaming!) uses also more resources on the radio interface problems with handover into a new cell

79 GPRS: General Packet Radio Service

80 Properties Packet switching service (end- to- end)
Data rates up to 171,2 kbit/s (theoretical) Effective and flexible administration of the radio interface adaptive channel encoding Internetworking with IP- and X.25 nets standardized dynamic sharing of resources with „classical“ GSM speech services Advantage: Billing and Accounting according to data volume Disadvantage: cost intensive additional net hardware necessary

81 Properties point-to-point-Packet transfer service
PTP-CONS (PTP Connection oriented Network Service) connection oriented, similar to X.25 PTP- CLNS (PTP Connectionless Network Service) connectionless, similar to IP point- to- multipoint - group communication

82 GPRS Backbone Frame Relay / ATM
GPRS: Structure GPRS Nets other operators GSM BSC MSC HLR BTS Internet Border Gateway SGSN GGSN other packet switching networks GGSN GPRS Backbone Frame Relay / ATM SGSN - Serving GPRS Support Node GGSN - Gateway GPRS Support Node signalization data user data

83 GPRS: Changes public remote fixed nets Um other packet switching
GMSC public remote fixed nets n time slots (TCH) per TDMA frame (theoretically max. 8) per packet! Circuit switched traffic MSC MAP A Abis HLR/AuC GPRS register BTS BSC Gs PCU Gb MAP SGSN other packet switching networks Packet arranged traffic Um Gn Gi GGSN modified network components new components or extensively modified components Existing components PCU - Packet Control Unit

84 Tasks: SGSN, GGSN External Data Domain HLR Internet SGSN:
- mobility management - session management - QoS - security HLR External Data Domain MAP Signalization (GGSN) MAP Signalization (SGSN) SGSN Intranet Internet BSS PCU GGSN BSS PCU Client SGSN BSS PCU SGSN, GGSN: - Routing - Signalization - Resource management Client Server

85 Tasks of the SGSN Packet delivery mobility management
apply/ sign off of terminals localization LLC (Logical Link Control) management authentication billing

86 Tasks of the GGSN mediator between GPRS backbone and external data networks (Internet, X-25 etc.) converts GPRS packets, data Protocol (PDP) into the corresponding structure also converts PDP addresses of incoming packets into GSM address of the receiver saves current data for the SGSN address of the participant as well as their profile and data for authentication and invoice

87 GPRS: air interface Radio Link Control (RLC)
Segmentation of the LLC-Frames in RLC blocks Block size dependent on short-term channel conditions Backward error correction and data flow control by Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) protocol repeating not repairable RLC blocks selectively Medium Access Control ( MAC) Channel reservation contains: - one/several time slots (Packet Data Channels PDCH) of one frequency one uplink status flag (USF) per Packet Data Channel (PDCH), channel partition of up to 8 ms

88 GPRS: air interface Reservation in the uplink (MS to BSS):
Medium Access Control ( MAC) Reservation in the uplink (MS to BSS): MS sends reservation request on a Random Access Channel (Slotted ALOHA) BTS allocates a (split) channel and sends packet assignment MS sends data depending on the current priority (USF flag) Reservation in the Downlink (BSS to MS): BTS displays transmitting request and informs about the reserved channel MS supervises the reserved channel and receives

89 GPRS: air interface Physical Link Control
adaptive forward error correction (FEC) dependent on short-term channel conditions temporal scrambling (Interleaving) of the bursts and Mapping on reserved PDCH (Packet Data Channel) procedure to recognize overbooking situations on the physical channel GPRS Channel Encoding

90 Quality of Service QoS profile agrees service parameters inside the whole network Agreed for the duration of one PDP (Packet Data Protocol) context (session, end terminal is obtainable for the duration of the context, e.g. obtainable over Internet ) : temporary address (IP) for mobile station tunneling information, among others GGSN, which is used for access to corresponding packet arranged network type of the connection QoS profile QoS profile commits: precedence class, priority against other services (high, normal, low) packet delay class, times are valid for traffic inside the GPRS- network reliability class peak throughput class mean throughput class

91 Quality of Service Packet delay classes Security classes

92 Quality of Service GPRS- using data rates
CS 3 and CS 4 are only reasonable in the second phase of GPRS introduction They will be used adaptively at corresponding good quality of radio connection CS 4 does not comprise error correction, code rate = 1!

93 Assessment of GPRS An up to 4 times higher data rate in comparison to ordinary GSM- data services better resource management through packet arranged service „always on” data service ( , etc.) GPRS is a more suitable carrier for services like WAP - IP-derivate, no true guaranties (QoS) - development of the network infrastructure is relatively expensive, particularly regarding introduction to UMTS (return of investment) - GPRS doesn’t give such data rates like advertising has sometimes promised

94 Development of the GSM-data services
Data rate CS 1 CS 2 39.6 kbit/s 40.2 kbit/s 26.4 kbit/s Channel packing, NT HSCSD 27.2 kbit/s 26.8 kbit/s Packet arranged GPRS 18.1 kbit/s 13.2 kbit/s 13.4 kbit/s 9.6 kbit/s 9 kbit/s flow

95 Enhanced Services - EMS (enhanced message service)
Uses widespread existing infrastructure (SMS) new Mobile telephones necessary allows sending and receiving of messages with formatted texts, melodies, graphics (32 x 32 Pixel) and animations (16 x 16 Pixel) – e.g. NOKIA new applications like Mobile Ticketing tickets will be transferred to mobile phone like a bar code and checked at the admission EMS enables transition to MMS (multimedia messaging service), which allows transmission of multimedia enriched messages over UMTS-Network (photos, parts of videos) MMS requires new network elements in the Infrastructure of the operators

96 MMS - architecture MMS User Databases HLR MMS Relay LDAP GSM-MAP or IS-41-MAP or TCP/IP WAP or MExE (e.g. Java and TCP/IP) MMS User Agent SMTP, HTTP, POP3, IMAPv4 SMTP alien MMS Relay . . . MMS Server (e.g. ) MMS Server (e.g. Fax) MMS Server (other service) Based on materials from 3GPP,

97 UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, 3G, 3rd generation of mobile radio

98 IMT-2000 - structure 3 systems - UMTS - CDMA2000 - UWC-136
2 core technologies - TDMA - CDMA individual carrier IMT-SC UWC-136 (EDGE) TDMA multiple carrier IMT-FT DECT IMT-2000 IMT-DS UTRA-FDD FDD IMT-MC CDMA2000 CDMA IMT-2000 family of radio interfaces : IMT-DS (Direct Spread) UTRA-FDD (UMTS) IMT-MC (Multi Carrier) CDMA2000, USA IMT-TC (Time Code) UTRA-TDD (UMTS), TD- SCDMA (Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access, China) IMT-SC (Single Carrier) UWC-136, USA IMT-FT (Frequency time) DECT UTRA-TDD TDD IMT-TC TD-SCDMA satellite- supported network expansion: - SW-CDMA: Satellite Wideband CMDA - SW-CDTMA: Satellite Wideband CDMA/TDMA (Hybride procedure) - SAT-CDMA: Satellite CDMA - ICO RTT: ICO Radio Transmission Technology In europe UMTS ICO RTT... Standard by ICO Global Communications IMT ... International Mobile Telecommunications UTRA ... Universal Terrestrial Radio Access UWC ... Universal Wireless Communications source:

99 Worldwide frequency assignment for IMT-200
developed by ITU PCS... Personal Communication System MSS...Mobile Satellite Service PHS... Personal Handy-Phone System

100 UMTS - Facts consideration: early 90ies
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, developed in the EU (ETSI: European Telecommunication Standards Institute) UMTS is the European implementation of IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications by the year 2000) Start of network expansion: in Europe: 2003 (some trials, e.g. British Telecom on Isle of Man, 2002) in the USA: 2005 in Japan since 2000 : NTT DOCOMO

101 Frequency award in Europe
230 MHz frequency range for IMT-2000 GSM1800 Uplink GSM1800 Downlink FDD Uplink MSS FDD Downlink MSS DECT TDD TDD MSS…Satellite- based at FDD symmetrical spectrum is necessary, not at TDD (time slots at same frequency) gradual new assignment of wavebands depending on development of the need up to MHz frequency range in 2008 source:

102 Characteristics system general , worldwide roaming
high data rates: 144 kbit/s mobile, up to 2 Mbit/s at local area fusion of different mobile radio communications-, wireless- and pager-systems into one common system speech-, data-, and multimedia- information services independent of used network access support of different carrier services: real-time capable/not real-time capable circuit switched/ packet switched Roaming also between UMTS and GSM and satellite networks Asymmetrical data rates in up-/downlink

103 UMTS- Disadvantages Technology not yet perfect
rent ability of pico cells („Hotspots“) not yet analyzed strong contention by WLAN increased radiation exposure high data rate only obtainable sometimes (High-Tech-network expansion, stationary and exclusive usage necessary!) because of high license costs high charges necessary (around double GSM-costs)

104 UMTS - Performance Photo Report Video UMTS Web Photo Report Video GPRS
Transmission Real- time (Video) Not Real-time (SMS etc.) Bit error rate 10-3 … 10-7 10-5 … 10-8 Permitted delay 20ms … 300ms > 150 ms Photo Report Video UMTS Web Photo Report Video GPRS Mail Web Photo Report Video ISDN Mail Web Photo PSTN Mail Web Photo Report Video GSM ~ 0 sec 10 sec 1 min 10 min 1 h source: Mobilkom Austria

105 UMTS - Hardware big color displays high resolution True Color

106 UMTS- cell structure UMTS-Core Network Internet customer Intranet BTS
Home Location Register Gateway GPRS Support Node Gateway Mobile Switching Centre circuit switched customer Intranet PSTN/ ISDN 3G- Serving GPRS Support Node 3G Mobile Switching Centre Visitor Location Register packet- switched Base Station Controller Radio Network Controller Radio Network Controller BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS Radio access network GSM - BSS UTRAN- UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Quelle: Mobilkom Austria

107 UMTS: cell structure “World cell” Satellite Zone 4: Global
Zone 3: Suburban “Macro cell” Zone 2: Neighborhood Zone1: In-building “Micro cell” “Pico cell” Integration with the fixed network Basic terminal PDA terminal Audio/visual terminal

108 UMTS: hierarchical cell structure
principle: - all neighbor cells use same frequency channel - only one waveband is necessary for cellular construction - further wavebands are necessary for hierarchical structure Global Regional Lokal Home/ Office Pico World Micro Macro expansion Data rate (kbit/s) Max. velocity (mph) Special features World Cell global - no UTRAN, other technology! Macro Cell Up to 1,24 miles 144 310 complete national UMTS support Micro Cell Up to 0,62 miles 384 74 Greater cities, commonly used Pico Cell > 60miles 2000 6,2! „Hotspots“ – e.g. airport, station

109 Classification

110 Service concept Virtual Home Environment (VHE): offered services are freely configurable, configuration still exists in the whole network choose of service quality and also arising costs behave at bottlenecks (data rates, etc.) configurable dynamic customization to connection

111 UPT: Universal Personal Telecommunication Service
one phone number for several devices (Call- Management) subscriber localization e.g. with SIM-card call passing virtual mobility of fixed networks

112 Intelligent networks Implementation of basic services like subscriber localization billing etc. supply of value added service (Voic box, etc.) possibility of easy, fast introduction of new services flexible service administration usage of services also from foreign network possible better control of service parameters through subscriber

113 UMTS: basic network structure
Access Network: base stations, responsible for radio contact to mobile end devices Core Network (Fixed Network): responsible for structure of connections Intelligent Network (IN): responsible for billing, subscriber localization, Roaming, Handover Intelligent Network Core Network Access Network User Equipment (UE)

114 General reference architecture
UE UTRAN Uu Iu CN UTRA: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access UTRAN (UTRA- Network) contains several radio subsystems, so called Radio Network Subsystems (RNS) and contains functions for mobility management RNS controls handover at cell change, capacitates functions for the encoding and administrates the resources of the radio interface Uu connects UTRAN with mobile end devices, so called User Equipment (UE), is comparable with Um in GSM UTRAN is connected over Iu with the Core Network, comparable with the A interface in GSM between BSC and MSC CN contains the interfaces to other networks and mechanisms for connection handover to other systems

115 The UMTS-radio interface UTRA (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access)
Two modes defined: UTRA/FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) mainly in suburban areas for symmetrical transmission of speech and video data rates up to 384 kbit/s, supra-regional roaming for circuit- and packet switched services in urban areas UTRA/TDD (Time Division Duplex) mainly in households and other restricted areas (company's premises, similar to DECT) for broadcast of speech and video, both symmetrical: up to 384 kbit/s also asymmetrical: up to 2 Mbit/s

116 UTRA/FDD puts wide- band- CDMA (W-CDMA) together with DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) as spread spectrum technique channel separation by carrier frequencies, spreading code and phase position (only uplink) ca. 250 channels for used data, data rates up to 2 Mbit/s complex performance control necessary t f in MHz 190 MHz uplink downlink 1920,9 1979,7 carrier 1 5 MHz carrier 12 . 2110,9 2169,7

117 UTRA/TDD puts wideband- TDMA/CDMA together with DSSS
sends and receives on same carrier (TDD) ca. 120 channels for used data, data rates up to 2 Mbit/s channel separation by spread code and time slots less spreading than at FDD precise synchronization necessary lower demand for performance control t f in MHz 1900,1 1920,1 carrier 1 5 MHz carrier 4 . 2010,1 2020,1 carrier 5 carrier 6 uplink downlink

118 Frequency award for UMTS
1885 1980 1920 2010 2025 2110 2170 60 GHz MHz MBS terrestrial satellite- based Extension Bands (for a future market potential ..from 2005) Extension Band 1 (worldwide similar) – partly terrestrial, partly satellite- based 2520 2670 MHz 470 862 2290 2300 2700 2900 Existing Nets 880 1885 GSM, DECT 1675 1710 satellite-based

119 UMTS-licenses in Germany
E-Plus Hutchison Group 3G Vodafone (Mannesmann Mobilfunk) € MobilCom Multimedia T-Mobil O2 (VIAG Interkom) : each license got 2 x 5 MHz packets, 60 MHz have been given away altogether, 150 MHz are available altogether RegTP determined: - till end of % network coverage - till end of % network coverage

120 Summary introduced variants are the proposals, which will be supported by Europe, Japan and partly by the USA worldwide accessibility can be realized only with multimode end devices even in Europe combined UTRA-FDD/UTRA-TDD/GSM- devices are necessary (those are realized by the identical frame time of 10ms at relatively low costs)

121 Wireless Local Networks, WLAN

122 Why do we need wireless LANs?
Advantages flexibility Ad-hoc-network realizable with less expenditure No problems with cables Disadvantages high error vulnerability on the transmission link in comparison to Standard-LANs National restrictions, no international standards at used frequency bands (Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM)- Band) security, costs

123 Application areas networks in exhibition halls hospitals warehouses
airports structure of networks in historic buildings extension of existing wired local area networks in offices, universities etc.

124 Problems with the use of WLAN‘s
physical problems interference: band spreading echo: use of special antennas Hidden Terminal problem: use CSMA/CA data security Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) service further development WiFi (Wireless Fidelity), WPA (WiFi Protected Access)

125 Standards IEEE 802.11 (a,b,g ; optional e,h,i) HomeRF
frequency band 2,4 GHz, also in the 5GHz - band data rates: 1 bis 11 Mbit/s (at present, later up to 20 (2,4 GHz) or 54 Mbit/s (5,4 GHz)) WiFi: Wireless Fidelity, certificate from the WECA (Wireless Compatibility Allicance), secures the interoperability between the Radio- LANs and contains improved security mechanisms HomeRF Bluetooth (IEEE ) Frequency band: 2,4 GHz Data rate: 1 Mbit/s; in the future also 20 Mbit/s connection of peripherals HIPERLAN (ETSI) / Wireless ATM frequency bands 5,15 / 5,30 GHz and 17,1 / 17,3 GHz data rates: 24 Mbit/s or 155 Mbit/s however no practical relevance

126 IEEE 802.11b frequency: transmission power: reach:
2,4 GHz frequency band, also called ISM (= Industrial Scientific Medical Band), not regulated nm at infrared transmission power: min. 1mW max. 100mW in Europe (1W in the USA) reach: of 10m (IR) to 30km or more with the help of special antennas (directional antennas)

127 Basic WLAN- structure Ad-hoc-network:
3 connected infrastructure networks: AP STA4 STA5 AP - Access Point

128 System architecture IEEE 802.11
802.x LAN LAN STA1 ESS BSS1 Access Point Portal Distribution System Access Point BSS2 STA2 LAN STA3

129 System architecture IEEE 802.11, concepts
Station (STA) device with concurring interface Access Point allows the access to the distribution system for registered stations and secures accessibility of the stations also beyond the BSS Coordination Function (CF) logical functional unit, which decides when a station can send Basic Service Set (BSS) consists of several stations, that were controlled by an CF, e.g. BSS2 and STA2, STA3

130 System architecture IEEE 802.11, concepts
Distribution System connects several BSS over access points and forms a logically larger net Extended Service Set (ESS) Radio networks, which are connected over Distribution System Portal allows transition into other networks

131 Overview is the most frequently used solution for wireless connection; very strong distribution on the market interesting future option: „Seamless Handover“ between GSM and IEEE ; supported by Cisco, Intel etc. (alternative to UMTS?) higher data rates already standardized or in use 802.11a: physical layer at 5 GHz – Band, data rates up to 54 MBit/s 802.11b: extension to physical layer for the 2,4 GHz – band, data rates up to 11 MBit/s, products available 802.11g: at present the industry works on an extension, shall allow the up to 54Mbit/s in the frequency band around 2.4 GHz Study Group 5GSG: examines the harmonization between IEEE and ETSI HiperLAN Task Group e: MAC functions for QoS-Management and to refine improved safety functions, introduction of service classes etc.

132 – Norms for WLAN 802.11 Since end of 1990; RadioLAN; B=1-2 MBit/s; ISM-Band F=2,4GHz; low Interoperability and bit rate! 802.11b 11MBit/s, actual Standard, existed NICs and APs; ISM-Band F=2,4GHz; possesses further sub-standards 802.11a Since 2000; competition with b; up to 54 MBit/s; F=5,1 GHz, correspond. national restrictions: in the buildings 802.11g Ratification March, 2003; first pre-standard products; ISM-Band 2,4GHz; up to 54 MBit/s; 802.11e Sub-standard; planed for end 2003; use of QoS-approaches; realization of multimedia applications/ Voice over IP over WLAN 802.11h Sub-standard / method for a; optional functionality – transmission power control of radio interface by national via RegTP prescribed norms; correspond. especially for Germany a or h 802.11i Sub-standard; security approaches for WLAN (encryption, authentication) WPA WiFi Protected Access; Substandard; competition with i 802.11c Sub-standard; Method of Wireless-Bridging 802.11d Sub-standard; country specifics for b 802.11f Sub-standard; Routing between radio cells of different vendors by IAPP (Inter-Access-Point Protocol)

133 Parameters Standards 802.11 802.11b 802.11a / h 802.11g Frequency band, GHz 2,4 (ISM-Band) 5,1 Bit rate, MBit/s 1-11 11 54 Use field building, territory in the buildings Deployment End 1990 actually Since 2000 Since March 2003 Available Hardware Marketable NICs and APs Experimental operation Pre-standard Products  Data security WEP 64/128/256 bit WEP 802.11i - security approaches for WLAN (encryption, authentication); WPA - WiFi Protected Access (competition with i) QoS for multimedia-transmission none 802.11e (Ende 2003): use of QoS-approaches; realization of multimedia applications/ Voice over IP Problematic low bit rate low interoperability National restrictions Pre-standard

134 Example: Lucent Wavelan 802.11b WLAN Card
Wireless connection that acts just like a conventional Ethernet link Technical specifications: 11 Mbps wireless connection 40-bit WEP or 104-bit RC4 link layer encryption Interoperability with other cards of IEEE b (i.e. Cisco Aironet or the Apple Airport Card) Tiny size - a PCMCIA card less than 1 inch Cross-platform support (Linux, Mac, and Win*) Very low cost (comparable to a PCMCIA 10/100 Ethernet card)

135 Example: Globalsuntech 802.11b products
Bit rates: 22/11/5.5/2/1 MBit/s per channel WEP 64/128/256 Bit Available devices: Card Bus PCMCIA Card PCI Card Mini USB DSSS; selectable channels: USA, Canada - 11 channels Europe - 13 channels Japan - 14 channels Sensitivity, range: 80dBm for 22MBit/s 92dBm for 1MBit/s Cross-platform support (Linux, Win*)

136 Further Scenarios (1) Scenario 1: Wireless Access
Wireless Access Point (Hub Type) LAN WLAN Wireless PC PCs

137 Further Scenarios (2) Scenario 2: Wireless Bridging Ethernet Hub
Wireless Access Point (Bridge Type) WLAN LAN Wireless PCs

138 Further Scenarios (3) Scenario 3: Share Wireless AP Internet
Cable/DSL-Modem Wireless Access Point (Router Type) WAN WLAN Wireless PCs

139 Further Scenarios (4) Scenario 4: Wireless/Wired Routing Internet
Cable/DSL-Modem Cable/DSL- Wireless/ Wired Router WAN LAN LAN WLAN Wireless PCs

140 UMTS vs WLAN

141 Mobility and data rates
UMTS: better mobility, connectivity WLAN: higher data rates, more cheap, but no telephone Vehicle 0,4 WLAN UMTS (best support) 2,0 3G – UMTS 5,5 TDSL Walk 2G 65,5 ISDN in minutes, trailer , 30 MB Source: Focus, 34/2002 WLAN Bluetooth Fixed LAN Data rate [Mbit/s] 0,1 1 10 100 Source:

142 WLAN- Spectrum Allocation
License exempt. 455 MHz HIPERLAN HIPERLAN High Speed wireless access Sharing rules 100 MHz U-NII U-NII Unlicensed 300 MHz 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5800 5900 Frequency [MHz] U-NII ... Unlicensed national information infrastructure source:

143 Interworking UMTS/WLAN
- User should be notified of any possible degradation - subscriber database could be shared, or separated in HLR/HSS (3GPP) or AAA (IETF) format Three classes: - no coupling - loose coupling - tight coupling AAA ... Authentication, authorization, accounting no coupling loose coupling tight coupling UMTS/WLAN as completely independent UMTS/WLAN use same database in AAA format HIPERLAN/2 is connected through UTRAN to UMTS, using special interface - Rapid introduction - no impact on GSN nodes - good handling - no impact on GSN nodes - improved handover performance Pro: Contra: - poor handover - no common database, billing - poor handover - HIPERLAN/2 have to support complete UMTS interface - feasible if operator have both networks

144 Data security in WLAN and UMTS
Data security for WLAN: 802.11i new, additionally standards a/h and g complex solution for security packet encryption key distribution via RADIUS -Remote Access Dial-In User Service packet authentication partial compatibility with IPsec relevant against all attacks WPA - WiFi Protected Access preliminary to i properties similar to i competition to i  WEP - Wired Equivalent Privacy additionally to standard b, partially obsolete!!! users mobility between several Access- Points, without re-configuration (roaming) disadvantages: short key of 64 / 128 bit different, partially contradictory statements to offered security Data security for UMTS: IPsec Client/Server based, Clients and IPsec-Servers negotiate dynamic keys tolerant, relevant for key assignment to IP-subnets and against all Internet-attacks secrecy on the network layer: IP-datagrams TCP/UDP-segments ICMP/SNMP-messages Encryption via DES, 3DES and 40-bit-DES authentication via “IP Encapsulating Security Payload" (RFC 2406, 1998) “IP Authentication Header” (RFC 2402, 1998)

145 HomeRF (Radio Frequency)
competitive standard to IEEE Up to 128 network nodes Frequency jump in separations of 3MHz or 5MHz Low costs and support of synchronous services: DECT speech support 2,4 GHz (FHSS), transition power max. 100 mW, Shared Wireless Access Protocol (SWAP): hybrid protocol of DECT (TDMA) and CSMA according to IEEE (modified) up to 6 wireless fixed network connections however sinking market shares in comparison with IEEE

146 HomeRF data rate 1-2 Mbit/s 50 m reach within buildings
Supplier: e.g. Intel with ANYPOINT (wireless home network) future: HomeRF + Bluetooth: DUAL MODE SYSTEM (Symbionics) ad-hoc possibly voice transmission - today only few manufactures

147 Wireless City Networking via 802.16
IEEE Wireless MAN/ ETSI Hiper MAN

148 Wireless City Networking: scenarios
new IEEE standards can provide great regions with fast Internet services Use fields: office materials shops cafes at the railway stations to surf at the parks

149 USA: Wireless MAN Wireless MAN: 802.16-version in USA Backgrounds:
competition to T-Mobile USA - mobile radio network provider great number of Internet service providers (ISP via Wireless LAN) wide spread x – networks in the country via provided approx regions

150 Europa: Hiper MAN ETSI (European Telecommunications Standard Institute): activities in the range of – development of Hiper MAN new marketable products: since July 2004 (according to announcement of Fujitsu Europe)

151 802.16 / 802.16a Wireless MAN Standard 802.16 Start-Standard 802.16a
developed end of month January 2003 frequency bandwidth: 10 up to 66 GHz reach: up to 50 km (30 miles) data rate: up to 134 MBit/s new x standards can provide great regions with fast Internet service, momentary trial operation in Boston/USA (ISP via Wireless MAN) Start-Standard a frequency bandwidth: 2-11 GHz data rate: up to 70 MBit/s only predominantly conceptualized for fast links of hotspots can be used to establishment of private DSL-links final operation inset: January 2005

152 802.16a-Forum Members: Aims:
Airspan Networks, Alvarion, Aperto Networks, Ensemble Communication, Fujitsu of America, Intel, Nokia, Proxim, Wi-LAN Aims: to provide compatibility of a-products among each other

153 Conclusion: 802.16 vs 802.11 802.11 802.16 advantage: disadvantage:
in spite of sharp competition to Mobile Radio (IMT2000/UMTS) x gained the mass market well-elaborated x (x = a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, WPA) disadvantage: existing bandwidth problems (at most up to 54 Mbit/s) reach at most up to 100m without directional antennas 802.16 advantage: covers approx. 50km (30 miles) substitution via as access techniques possible in future cost-efficient in comparison to disadvantage: averaged investment for leased circuits amounting to 1000$ per location necessary sharp competition to Mobile Radio (IMT2000/UMTS): to occupy the market is for Wireless Networks more important as for Mobile Radio! final operation inset: planned January 2005 only

154 Better than UMTS: future use scenarios of 802.16
Scenario: fast Internet WWW-Server/ Intranet-Firewall Internet (1) via ISDN, Modem, DSL ISP via Wireless MAN WAN PC/LAN (2) via Wireless MAN Access Point WAN Wireless MAN up to 50 Km (30 miles) Mbit/s Wireless PCs

155 Bluetooth

156 Bluetooth - Facts Harald Bluetooth was the King of Denmark in the 10th century 1998 started from Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia, Toshiba Open Standard: IEEE Generally for wireless Ad-hoc- piconets (Range < 10m) Goal: not expensive One-Chip-Decision for radio/ wireless communication networks Use fields: Connection of peripheral devices Support of Ad-Hoc-Nets Connection of different networks Frequency band in IMS-Range of 2,4 GHz

157 Bluetooth Pico nets with up to 8 participants (ad-hoc) (one master, slaves) Scatter nets as an association of different pico nets frequency hopping is used for improving of interception safety and system robustness

158 Bluetooth - properties
Range: - 10 cm up to 10 m at 1 mW transmitting power - up to 100m at 100mW Data rates: 433,9 kBit/s asynchronous-symmetrical 723,2 kBit/s / 57,6 kbit/s asynchronous-asymmetrical 64 kBit/s synchronous, voice service In future up to 20 Mbit/s (IEEE ) Basic set-up Bluetooth Host- System 2,4-Ghz- HF Bluetooth- Baseband- Controller

159 Bluetooth-comparison
FUNCTION Bluetooth v1.1 IrDA Data 1.1 IEEE (WLAN) Range w/o PA: 10 meter max. 1 meter max. 50 meter max. Angle: omni-directional ca 30° RF Frequency Band: ISM Band, 2.4 GHz Infrared Radiation Mobility: mobile stationary Data rate: 721kBit/s 4MBit/s 2MBit/s Security level: High Low Source:

160 Bluetooth- functionality
Not connected Standby Standby t =2 s Inquiry after unknown Address Page after unknown Address connection- status t =0,6 s active states Send data connected t =2 ms t =2 ms PARK HOLD SNIFF Low-Power- states MAC-Address resigned MAC-Address available

161 Bluetooth – architecture (1)
Data Applications Data TCS,SDP,RFCOMM L2CAP connection between Hardware and upper protocol (only necessary, if L2CAP not implemented in Hardware!) HCL LMP connection between end devices In hardware implemented ! Baseband Radio Physical connection interface TCS …Telephony Control Protocol Specification SDP … Service discovery protocol RFCOMM … RF communication protocol (cable replacement protocol) LMP … Link Manager Protocol HCL … Host Controller L2CAP … Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol

162 Bluetooth- architecture (2)
Radio Layer - work area: ISM-Band (2,4 Ghz) - Spread Spectrum Communication - Frequency Hopping- Technology - high error rate acceptability through CVSD-encoding at heavy micro wave load Baseband - controls Radio- Layer 2 Modes: Synchronous, connection-oriented transfer (SCO) voice connections need symmetrical, circuit-switched point-to-point-connections, Master reserves two successive time slots (up- and downstream) - Asynchronous, connectionless transfer (ACL) data transfers need symmetrical or asymmetrical, packet-switched point-to-point/multipoint transfers, master uses polling CVSD… Continuously Variable Slop Delta (Sprachkodierung)

163 Bluetooth- architecture
Link Manager Protocol 3 Functions - Piconet management - link configuration - security functions Logical Link Control and Adaption Protocol Functions: - Mutiplexing (different applications can use connection between 2 devices simultaneously) - Reduzierung der Paketgröße der Anwendungen auf akzeptable Baseband- Paket- Größe - Quality of Service

164 Possible configurations
Master Slave Piconet Scatter net

165 possible configurations
Piconet Scatternet Slave 3 Slave 1 Master Master Slave 4 Slave 5 Scatternet Slave 2 Piconet 2 Piconet 1 association of different pico nets GSM frequency hopping : jumps in k steps (k = 0…22 or 79) with Δf distances in ISM-band Bluetooth a) Peer to Peer (or 1 Master and 1 Slave) b) Multi-slave (up to 7 "slaves" with 1 Master)

166 Bluetooth - Frequencies
Country Frequency range [MHz] RF channels Multiplier Spain 2445 – 2475 fk = k Δf k = 0,…,22 France 2446,5 – 2483,5 fk = k Δf Japan 2471 – 2497 fk = k Δf other Europe / USA fk = k Δf k = 0,…,78 Δf… frequency distance between channels - different frequencies around the world Goal: Harmonization of wavebands Source:

167 Bluetooth - Framestructure
fk fk+1 fk fk+1 Master one Slot Packet Master 3- Slot-packets three slot Packets Slave Slave one Slot Packet one Slot Packet 625 µs one slot 625 µs one slot Multi slot frame Single slot frame source:

168 Bluetooth – security - 128 Bit Key encryption and authentication - every device has own 48 Bit- address - over devices can keep apart - low range (manipulation only local!) source: PIN E2 Link Key E3 Encryption Key Encyption Key Authentication Encryption user input (Initialization) (possible) permanent storage temporary storage

169 Bluetooth – security Generic access: Three modes - non-secure - service level enforced security - link level enforced security For Devices: two modes - trusted - untrusted for Services: three modes: - services that require authorization and authentication - services that require authentication only - services that are open to all devices Bluetooth device initiates security procedures before the channel is established Bluetooth is not secure enough for critical transmissions (billing etc.) Sources: Müller T., Bluetooth Security Architecture

170 Bluetooth – applications (1)
replaces perhaps infrared in the area of the coupling of peripherals completely „Intelligent Shop“ shop informs the buyer about special offers by mobile phone or handles inquiries for offers in the individual halls Bluetooth-capable ticket machine Payment over mobile telephone is carried out without contacts control of home appliances by mobile telephone lower layers are developed further in the context of the IEEE working group (WPAN - Wireless Personal Area Networks) higher data rates, further frequencies, but possible interferences with other systems

171 Bluetooth - applications
wireless connection Headset Handy

172 HIPERLAN HIPERLAN/1 wireless LAN (as extension to conventional LANs)
5,15 - 5,25 GHz, ca. 20 Mbps, reach > 50 m, mobility < 10m/s decentralized Ad-hoc net, no QoS-guarantee HIPERLAN/2 wireless ATM-LAN (as extension to ATM and IP nets) 5,15 - 5,25 GHz, ca. 20 Mbps, reach 50 m, mobility<10m/s cellular structure with base stations, ATM service classes HIPERACCESS point-to-multipoint ATM connections 5,15 - 5,25 GHz, ca. 25 Mbps, reach 5000 m, stationary/quasi-stationary, point-to-multipoint, ATM service classes HIPERLINK point-to-point ATM connection 17,1 - 17,3 GHz, 155 MBit/s, reach 150 m, stationary/quasi-stationary, point-to-point, ATM source: ETSI RES 10, BRAN

173 Assessment of HIPERLAN
despite of some unique characteristics there are no products available yet, only single prototypes is planned as one of the alternatives for BRAN (Broadband Radio Access Network) in the Wireless ATM planned frequencies are originally not worldwide available (5,1-53GHz)

174 Wireless ATM Requirements:
wireless connection of mobile terminals to ATM-networks compatibility to existing standards existing networks should be easily upgradeable guaranteed service quality properties which other wireless nets don't offer UMTS and WLANs don‘t offer any data rates >50 Mbit/s Problems: ATM is conceived for high data rates ATM is optimized on reliable media applications should notice nothing of the wireless mode

175 Wireless ATM: review WATM still is standardization endeavors, no definite standards approved the WATM forum has tried to standardize as much as possible, the WATM standard is relatively complex WATM supports relatively many configurations: wireless Ad-hoc networks wireless mobile end-devices: access to the network via radio subsystem, similar to access-points mobile end-devices: seamless handover between connected terminals mobile ATM-Switches (for planes, ships, trains etc.) fixed ATM-terminals: conventional ATM fixed terminals with radio access: comparable with line-of-sight radio links It is not arranged completely for which configuration also products will exist

176 Satellite-based systems

177 Sample system Inter-Satellite Link (ISL) Mobile User Link (MUL)
Gateway Link (GWL) Gateway Ground Station User Spot beams Footprint PSTN, ISDN, GSM, ... Internet

178 Basics (1) satellites describe elliptical or circular orbit around the earth distance to the earth remains constant: (1) - Appeal of the Earth - Centrifugal force - Mass of the satellite - Earth radius, 6.370km - Distance of the satellite to the Earth’s center - Grounding acceleration, g = 9,81 m/s2 - Angular frequency: - Cycle frequency of the satellite

179 Basics (2) Formulae transformation: F = m . a (by Newton)
Fgrav = k . M . m / r2 (Gravitation between 2 point masses) mg = k . M . m / R2 (Appeal on the Earth surface = Gravitation) k . M = gR2 FG = gR2 m/r2 = gm(R/r)2 (transformed) δt = 2 . (r-R) / c Signal propagation delay Satellite Downlink r-R Uplink

180 Basics (3) (2) (1) resolved to r gives:
that means, the distance of a satellite to the earth's surface depends only on its cycle duration (special case T = 24h - > synchronous distance r= km) (2) Cycle duration [h] 10 20 30 40 x 106 m 4 12 velocity [x1000km/h] Synchronous distance km

181 Satellite system classes
GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit) ca km MEO (Medium Earth Orbit) ca km Van-Allen-belts km km (no satellite use possible) LEO (Low Earth Orbit) ca km HEO (Highly Elliptical Orbit)

182 Geostationary Satellite systems
Principle: Satellit Base for Inmarsat Uplink Downlink Constant position to the Earth, 3 satellites cover complete earth (with the exception of the polar caps), satellites move synchronously to the Earth Simple solution, however large distance (36000 km), therefore high signal propagation delay, long life time of the satellites: ~ 15 years low data rates, large transmission power required problems: on the other side of the 60th degree of latitude reception problems (elevation) because of a high transmission power unfavorable for mobile telephones signal propagation delay too high (0.25 s)

183 LEO- Systems non-stationary satellites (LEO - Low Earth Orbit)
distance to the earth ~ km shorter signal runtimes (5-10 ms), lower transmission power of the mobile stations sufficing however more satellites necessary, frequent handover between satellites, approximately all 10 min. examples: Teledesic, Globalstar only low transmission power necessary, suitable for mobile phone networks Disadvantages: large number is necessary ( , or more) fast handovers within satellites are necessary short life time of the satellites because of atmospheric friction (5-8 years)

184 MEO- Systems ~ 10000km, lower number of satellites necessary : ~12
slow movement: handover between satellites is hardly necessary cycle duration: 6h high elevation enables coverage large, highly-populated areas Problems: signal propagation delay: 70 to 80 ms higher transmission power is necessary special antennas for small cells are necessary

185 Service transitions in Inmarsat-C-service
L-Band 1,5/1,6 GHz Rx/Tx (GPS) Inmarsat Satellite 600 bit/s laptop 600 bit/s Inmarsat - C – End-Terminal Graphic table Terrestrial station Buffer memory X.25 Interface Phone-Interface Telefax- X.25 Net System modem PAD Internet Mail Box Fax- Interface Fixed network data + maps text data + maps fax laptop desktop desktop desktop

186 Examples of satellite-based systems
Satellites Height Data rate Teledesic (planned) (?) ~ 700 km 64 Mbit/s  2 / 64 Mbit/s  Iridium (+6) ~ 780 km 2,4 / 4,8 kbit/s Globalstar (+4) ~ 1400 km 9,6 kbit/s ICO (+2) ~ km 4,8 kbit/s Inmarsat geostationary 2,4 kbit/s Orbcomm LEO-stationary 57,6 kbit/s Globalstar can transfer bi-directionally up to 144 Kbit/s, through combination of channels Orbcomm - first commercial LEO–service worldwide

187 Comparison of satellite-based systems
GEO MEO LEO Distance, km r = km r-R=6000 – 12000 km r-R= 500 – 2000 km Cycle duration, T 24 h 6 h 95 – 120 min Signal propagation delay, t 0.25 s 70-80 ms 10 ms Transmission power, W 10 5 1 Use examples Numerous systems, approx. 2000: Sputnik (1957) Intelsat 1-3 (1965, 1967, 1969) Marisat (1976) Inmarsat-A (1982) Inmarsat-C (1988) ICO 10+2 Iridium (bankrupt, 2000) 66+6 Globalstar, 48+4/ 144 kBit/s Teledesic (2003), 288/ 2-64 MBit/s Orbcomm, 35 Data rate, kBit/s 0.1 – 1 1 – 64000 Life time, years 15 5-8

188 Global Positioning System, GPS

189 Overview 24 satellites on the 6 orbits (20200 km, time of circulation = 12h) 5 earth stations (Hawaii, Ascension Island, Diego Garcia, Kwajalein, Colorado Springs) Accuracy: so called P-Code for military applications: on ~6m accurately, partially 2,8m so called Selective Availability Mode, SAM (artificial degradation) for civil applications: < 100m ( disestablished) Functionality principle: Triangulation GPS-receiver calculates distance to the satellite on the base of Time of Arrival of the received signals distances to at least three satellites enables the calculation of position, a fourth satellite can be used for determination of elevation over zero official initiation 1995, testing since 1978

190 Principle: TOA (Time of Arrival) / TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival)
Distance d, Signal Delay T Mobile Object synchronized clocks measurement of signal delay by speed of light between satellite and receiver, for instance T = 100 ms hence calculation of distance: d = T • c = 1 • 10-1s • 3 • 108 m/s = 3 • 107 m = km calculation of spheres around each satellite the position is on the intersection point of three spheres

191 Principles satellites send a signal composed of three components 50 times per second: identification component: PRC (Pseudo Random Code), provides satellite recognition and status information position component: exact position of satellite time component: time point, when signal is transmitted the time offset measured by the receiver is corresponding to the Time of Arrival, from TOA the distance is calculated for measurement of TOA of signals very accurate clocks are required the exact position of the satellites must be known

192 Sources of errors Clocks highly accurate atom clocks in the satellites
simple clocks in the receivers are calibrated via measurement of a fourth satellite Satellite position satellite orbits are relatively stable and forecastable deviations are measured by US DoD deviations are transmitted as correction factor to the satellites using the PRC Miscellaneous error sources atmospheric faults multi-path propagation

193 Differential GPS, DGPS use of a stationary receiver as reference
position of this receiver is exactly known the stationary receiver carries out position determination and calculates correction factor from the actually obtained position on the base of deviations correction factor is delivered to the mobile receiver

194 DGPS accuracy grades Accuracy under 10cm: Accuracy under 1m:
professional applications, for instance is interesting in meterology and respectively for user of well-engineered software decisions (machine control systems etc.) Accuracy under 1m: events mapping, control of machines, traffic control systems, agriculture Guaranteed accuracy under 10m: agriculture/ forestry, railway (wagon search service), car navigation (private/commercial)

195 Galileo EU-Project for installation of European satellite navigation system initiation: prospective 2008 positioning accuracy: 45cm 30 satellites Approx. costs: 3,2 Billion €

196 Galileo „ A system that both competes with and complements the American GPS system “ ITS (Intelligent Transport System) based on a constellation of 30 MEO-satellites ground stations providing information concerning the positioning of users in many sectors usable: transport (vehicle location, route searching, speed control, etc.) social services (e.g. aid for the disabled or elderly) the justice system ( border controls) public works (geographical information systems)

197 Galileo -architecture
Service centres GALILEO GLOBAL CONTENT Regional Components Local Components MEO Constellation ... BSS network Local MS Data link s-band s-band . . i-band . . i-band TTC BSS network Local MS OSS Network Data link GEO OSS Network UMTS RMS network Integrity determination &dissemination Navigation control & constellation management EGNOS I-Band- NAV UHF- S&R External complementary systems COSPAS-SARSAT ground segment User segment

198 Broadcast Systems, Distribution Networks

199 Overview special variants of asymmetric communication systems
HSCSD supports for instance asymmetric connections regarding to data rate, also ADSL WWW is the biggest representative of asymmetric communication: data volume of uplink (URLs) is much lower than downlink (complete HTML-pages) Problem of distribution systems: Sender can be optimized for a large quantity of receivers only, for instance videostreaming Examples: DVB, Digital Video Broadcast DAB, Digital Audio Broadcast

200 Principle of Distribution Systems
A C B B C Time information sequence is optimized for expected access behavior of all consumers A B t Individual access sample of diverse consumers can more or less deviate from expected access behavior

201 Digital Audio Broadcast, DAB
Audio-transmission in CD-Quality Non-sensible towards interferences of multi-path-propagation Use of SFN (Single Frequency Network) – i.e. all senders of some broadcast-program are working on the same frequency as a rule Frequencies: UHF,VHF, for instance: MHz, MHz Modulation methods: DQPSK (Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) Optionally COFDM (Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) is used with several carrier frequencies inside some DAB-channel (its quantity is between 192 and 1536), 1,5MHz bandwidth for each channel FEC (Forward Error Correction)-mechanism for fault correction Up to 6 stereo-programs by 192 kbit/s in the same frequency band are transmittable alternatively data can be transmitted with up to 1,5 Mbit/s (responding to the used code rate etc.)

202 Digital Audio Broadcast, DAB
2 Transport Mechanisms Main Service Channel (MSC): Data, Audio, Multimedia 2 Transport Modes: Stream Mode, Packet Mode Fast Information Channel (FIC): Transport of Fast Information Blocks (FIB, 32 Byte) – control data for interpretation of Data in the MSC, can be also used for services such as Traffic Dispatches, Paging etc. Audio-converting: PCM 48 kHz & MPEG2-Audiocompression High transmission rates by high velocities, up to 250 km/h, responding to distance from sender and error security class, use for instance in high-speed train MOT (Multimedia Object Transfer) protocol for data transmission Cyclic repeat and caching of data blocks

203 Dynamic channel reconfiguration for DAB
Ensemble-Configuration Audio 2 192 KBit/s PAD Audio 3 Audio 4 160 KBit/s Audio 5 Audio 6 128 KBit/s Audio 1 Data D2 D3 D1 D6 D7 D4 D8 D5 Temporarily changed Ensemble-Configuration Audio 2 192 KBit/s PAD Audio 4 160 KBit/s Audio 5 Audio 1 Audio 3 128 KBit/s Data D10 D11 D2 D3 D1 D6 D7 D4 D8 D5 Audio 7 96 KBit/s Audio 8

204 DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting
1991 ELR (European Launching Group) founded Goal: joint digital Television System for Europe Specifications: DVB-S, DVB-T, DVB-C Frequency reaches: 200, 550, 700 MHz Cell size: up to 60 km Used data rate: ~38,5 Mbit/s Velocity of mobile stations: up to 200 km/h Central Unit: combined DVB-Receiver-Decoder (set-top-box) can receive DVB-Data via satellites, B-ISDN, ADSL… some transmission systems offer a feedback channel for Video on Demand etc.

205 DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting
Different Quality Levels defined: SDTV (Standard Definition TV) EDTV (Enhanced DTV) HDTV (High DTV) Data transport: User Data: MPEG2-Container (Data Transfer Unit) like DAB, Container doesn’t define the type of data Service Information about MPEG2-Container-content: NIT (Network Information Table): Information from a provider about offered services and optional data for the receiver SDT (Service Description Table): Description and parameters for each service in the MPEG2-stream EIT (Event Information Table): Data about actual transmission status TDT (Time and Date Table): e.g. updating of DVB-receiver

206 Possible contents of DVB/MPEG2-Container
MPEG2/DVB-Container MPEG2/DVB-Container HDTV EDTV Single channel (High Definition TV) Several channels (Enhanced DTV) MPEG2/DVB-Container MPEG2/DVB-Container SDTV Several channels (Standard TV) Multimedia (data broadcasting)

207 DVB used as medium for asymmetric Internet-access
Client sends data query to Provider, Provider transmits data to the satellite network, receiver obtains data via DVB-receiver Feedback channel can be phone network, for on-demand services Data rates: 6 up to 38 Mbit/s downlink, 33 kbit/s up to over 100 kbit/s (ADSL) uplink Advantages: data can be transmitted in parallel with TV no additional costs for satellite provider low priced for low-density populated areas Disadvantages: all users need satellite antennas only a minor part of the total bandwidth is usable not suitable for high-density populated areas

208 DVB as medium for the asymmetric Internet-access
Satellite provider DVB–Card in the PC dedicated line (user-to-user) Internet Content Provider Service Provider

209 3. Mobile Computing

210 Layer 3 Mobile IP v4 & v6 DHCP

211 Mobile IP (Internet Protocol)

212 Problem situation computer mobility in heterogenic networks
relocation between different IP-subnets Goal: transparent migration and localization, compatibility to IP, no changes of existing routers Idea: introduction of temporary/ actual IP-addresses (also “care-of-address”, COA); mapping of permanent to temporary IP-addresses using localization technique

213 Requirements to MobileIP according to IETF
Transparency: mobile computer is permanently reachable via its previous “home-address” can change its network access point freely can also communicate after coupling/uncoupling Compatibility: supports each layer below IP (also 1 & 2) mobile computer can also communicate with each “non-mobileIP”-computer no changes to existing computer/routers Security: all registering messages must be authenticated

214 IETF Mobile IP Goals/Restrictions
Minimization of overheads: mobile connections are possibly wireless and have limited band width mobile connections have possibly higher error rate Efficiency and scalability: support of a large quantities of mobile computers support of a theoretically Internet-wide mobility

215 Correspondent Node (CN)
Architecture model Foreign Agent (FA) Foreign Subnet Global Internet Mobile Node Anywhere Home Subnet Home Agent (HA) Router Correspondent Node (CN)

216 Terms Mobile Node (MN) with permanent IP-address from Home Subnet
Home Address permanent address of a mobile computer Home Agent (HA) with knowledge of actual residence of all MNs from so called Home Subnet, like GSM-HLR Care of Address temporary address of a mobile computer from Foreign Subnet Foreign Agent (FA) for assignment of temporary IP-addresses (care of address) and packet forwarding to MNs currently residing in its subnet

217 Log on via Foreign Agent
Home Subnet Foreign Subnet 2.) relaying request HA FA MN 1.) Registration.request 3.) relaying.reply {grant, deny} 4.) Registration reply Log on with a FA - Care-of Address (address of FA, is just an intermediate target for all MN- related packets, tunnel-end) or Application of a co-located Care-of Address (address from Foreign-Subnet, MN is tunnel-end itself), but reception of an Agent Advertisement Message with a set “R”-bit, i.e. the MN is forced to log on with FA itself, although it can operate autonomously

218 Log on by Home Agent directly
MN uses co-located Care-of Address MN is returned to Home Network and would like to log on/off itself with the HA Authentication: each mobile entity (MN, HA, FA) must be able to support a “mobility security association”, which is indicated via IP-address and SPI (Security Parameter Index). Mobile IP provides three different Authentication Extensions: Mobile - Home Authentication Ext. Mobile - Foreign Authentication Ext. Foreign - Home Authentication Ext. Home Subnet MN 1.) Registration.request HA 2.) Registration.reply {grant, deny}

219 Addressing Problem: For the receivers 2 addresses are necessary (permanent and temporary IP-address respectively home address and COA) Methods of resolution: Encapsulation IP in IP, standard method in MobileIPv4 minimal Encapsulation IP-Option (not supported by all implementations)

220 IP in IP Encapsulation OUTER IP HEADER IP HEADER IP HEADER IP PAYLOAD IP PAYLOAD IP-source/target address of external/outer IP-Header defines the “end- points” of the tunnel IP-source/target address of internal IP-Header represents the actual packet sender respectively receiver Internal IP-Header isn't changed using “Encapsulator” (exception: TTL)

221 Routing (unicast) Mobile Node: Foreign Agent:
in Home Network it operates like each other Node in Foreign Network it must search a Default Router using the following rules: FA COA: ICMP Router Advertisement-Part; IP-source address of Agent Advertisements (lower Prior.) co-located COA: ICMP Router Advertisement for this address Foreign Agent: FA must check by reception of tunneled packets whether internal target address corresponds with one of the IP-addresses of Visitor List FA must route the received packets of registered MN’s!

222 Routing (unicast) II Home Agent:
HA must intercept each packet for absent MN in addition IP-target address of each incoming packets is verified if MN has no mobile coupling presently, the packets sent to it must not be intercepted, MN is situated in Home Subnet and accepts packets itself or is off-line

223 Routing (necessities)
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol): oriented to resolution of IP-addresses in physical (Hardware, Link Layer) addresses (Ethernet: MAC-addresses of controllers) Proxy ARP: Proxy ARP-reply is an ARP-reply, which can be sent instead of a host A by other host B (with its hardware address) Hosts, receiving this reply, associate the hardware-address of node B with the IP-address of node A and send future packets for A to B Gratuitous ARP: is an ARP-reply, which is sent from a host, to force other hosts to update the records in their ARP-Caches this ARP-reply contains the IP-address, which should be changed in the ARP- Caches, as well as the hardware address which should be updated

224 Routing - Scenario MN leaves Home Network
MN decides to register FA Care-of Address Before Registration Request: MN re-sets a reaction on future ARP-requests Registration Request contains and accepts HA Request, implements Gratuitous ARP (IP-address MN ===> own hardware-address) and uses Proxy ARP to respond to ARP-requests corresponding to MN hardware address

225 Special case: Routing (MN & CN are in the same Subnet)
Triangle Routing CN FA CN ===> MN: Foreign Network MN although CN is in the same Subnet like MN, packets are routed respectively tunneled via FA and primarily HA (possibly over half of terrestrial globe)!!! Home Network MN ===> CN: HA Be routed conventionally via Default Router Special case: Routing (MN & CN are in the same Subnet) Relief (IPv4): Route Optimization

226 Optimizations: Routing
Terms: Binding Cache: table with Mobility Bindings of MNs (on CN, can tunnel itself now) Binding Update: message, contains up-to-date Mobility Binding of a MN, particularly the Care-of Address Procedure: Update of Binding Caches Control seamless Handoffs between FA‘s

227 Updating of Binding Caches
Binding Cache of a CN: Care-of Address of one/several MN‘s, with respective Lifetime No Entry: non-optimal Routing, BUT: HA doesn’t only tunnel a datagram from CN, but also sends a Binding Update to it CN should generate/change Binding Cache-Entry only then, when trusted Mobility Binding received (Bind. Upd.) for corresponding MN (ergo: Secure CN <===> HA) If FA receives tunneled Packet for a MN that is no longer in Visitor List, then it must care that corresponding CN receives a Binding Update (Binding Warning to HA)

228 Smooth Handoff between FAs
Problem of Basis-MobileIP: MN is with a new FA, but the packets tunneled to old FA will be lost FA Smooth Handoff: MNs are informed via new FA (packet can be forwarded) also Packets of hosts with non-up-to-date entries in Binding Cache can be forwarded now from old FA to the new FAs Previous Foreign Agent Notification Extension enables to prompt the new FA to inform the old FA (Binding Update Message)

229 MobileIP v4 & v6 in comparison
Routing Optimal Routing, only if MN in the Home Network. (Otherwise non-efficient „Triangle“-Routing) Optimal Routing is generally possible, if CN knows the Care-of Address Bottle neck HA is a possible bottleneck, because all traffic to the MN is processed over it HA is load essentially reduced, because CN‘s can just directly communicate with mit MN‘s Security Authentication is prescribed only by Registration and then also between HA and MN only Authentication and encryption are possible anywhere, because they are supported from IPv6 Robustness Used FA‘s / HA‘s must not be off-line Short-time failure/re-configuration of HA is mastered thanks to Automatic Home Agent Discovery. IPv6 is essentially simpler to upgrade, therewith also Mobile IPv6 Performance No good performance due to IPv4-requirements and non-optimal Routing Essentially better due to requirements from IPv6 (uniform Headers, less Over- heads) and optimal Routing

230 Assessment Mobile IP enables the unlimited accessibility/roaming of mobile computers using perpetuation of their addresses and step-less transfer between subnets Particularly necessary for applications without “pull”-semantics (for instance, distributed applications with mobile users, videoconferences, VoIP) Keeping of permanent addresses are also important corresponding to Firewalls etc. in the case of call semantics Successive availability in the form of products

231 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
Server A Server B Client DHCPDISCOVER Determination of configuration DHCPOFFER Selection of a configuration DHCPREQUEST (reject) (options) Confirmation DHCPACK Properties: permits automatic configuration (IP-address, subnet-mask, router, DNS-Server, ...) and therewith integration of (mobile) computers Client/Server-Model Lease Concept Relevant for management of Care-of-Addresses

232 DHCP Assessment no secure mechanisms standardized
no standardized communication (signalization, for instance information exchange about managed address areas) between DHCP-servers good base for allocation of co-located COAs in MobileIP

233 IPsec: Network security

234 IPsec: Security on the network layer (1)
IPsec - IP Security Protocol – new developed protocol from TCP/IP-Stack, related to the IPng - Group IPsec uses: encryption services -> DES, TripleDES and 40-bit-DES between hosts at a VPN (virtual private network) specification for Internet Key Management Protocol (IKMP), based on ISAKMP/Oakley (1998, Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol - ISAKMP) IPSec-tunnels – encapsulation of TCP/IP-data via the ESP/AH- headers: Developed by S.Kent, R. Atkinson „IP Encapsulating Security Payload" (RFC 2406, 1998) and "IP Authentication Header" (RFC 2402, 1998) relevant for key assignment to IP-subnets

235 IPsec: Security on the network layer (2)
Secrecy on the network layer: a sending host encrypts/authenticates data encapsulated in the IP-datagrams TCP/UDP-segments ICMP/SNMP-messages Authentication on the network layer: target host can authenticate source IP-addresses Basic protocols: Authentication Header (AH) Protocol Encapsulation Security Payload (ESP) Protocol AH and ESP both requires target and source Handshake-Routine: establishment of a logical channel via network layer, called Service Agreement (SA) each SA is unidirectional Distinctly determined via: security protocol (AH / ESP) source IP-address Con-ID of 32 Bit

236 Encapsulation Security Payload (ESP) Protocol
offers secrecy, host authentication and data integrity data, ESP trailers encrypted next header field is a trailer in the ESP ESP- authentication field is similar to AH- authentication field; protocol field = 50 ESP-Auth Protocol = 50 ESP-Trailer TCP-/UDP-Segment authenticated encrypted ESP-Header IP-Header

237 Authentication Header (AH) Protocol
offers host authentication and data integrity, but no secrecy AH headers inserted between IP-Header and IP-data field; protocol field = 51 participated routers process datagrams as usually AH-Header consists of: Con-ID authentication data: signed message digest calculated via original IP-Datagram, offers authentication of source hosts and data integrity next header field is specific data type (TCP, UDP, ICMP etc.) TCP-/UDP-Segment AH-Header IP-Header Protocol = 51

238 Layer 4

239 Problems of conventional protocols
Loss of packets on the radio channels with higher bit-error rate (BER) results in frequent retransmissions of packets and therewith in further efficiency loss TCP-Protocol uses so called “Slow-Start”-mechanisms: window size is reduced by significant packet losses; this is reasonable for fixed networks, to react on overload, but not for packet losses due to higher BER limited suitability of conventional transport protocols for mobile communication!

240 Conventional protocols
Congestion Control: packet loss as a rule, in fixed networks occurs only by overload of several components reducing of transmission rate Slow Start: sender calculates a traffic window size start with window size 1 exponential growth till to Congestion Threshold then linear growth Fast Retransmit / Fast Recovery: If ≥ 3 DUPACK (duplicate ACK) are received -> sender informs about packet losses and repeats missing packets

241 Resulting problems in mobile environment
packet losses due to transmission errors are wrongly interpreted as traffic jam (Congestion)! > Slow Start is also wrong > Ideally the packets lost due to transmission errors are simply repeated (no effects on Congestion Control) great variances of Round-Trip-Time

242 Scenario Fixed Host Access Point 1 Mobile Host Access Point 2

243 Solutions Sender- transparent:
to hide the packet losses transparent to the sender transmission repeat via Access Point on layer 2 on TCP-layer Wireless-aware sender: sender understands the reason of packet loss explicit notification of senders sender tries to determine the reason of loss Where will be the modifications carried out?: only by the sender only by the receiver only on the transient node (Access Point) combinations

244 Solution “Split Connection“
Separation between transport functionality in the fixed network respectively in the mobile network: Work- station TCP MSR Mobile TCP Mobile node Fixed network Mobile network Mobile Support Router TCP-Handover by relocation of mobile node MSR MobileTCP is specially optimized (up to 100% of efficiency improvement possible) system-internal TCP-Handovers are necessary, however transparent for fixed computer (Workstation)

245 Example of I-TCP (indirect TCP)
separation of TCP-connection at the Access Point optimized TCP over the wireless Link (not absolutely necessary) no changes of TCP for the fixed network transparent for Fixed Host loss of End-to-End-semantics Fixed Host Access Point 1 Mobile Host „wireless TCP“ „standard TCP“

246 Example of I-TCP Mobility: status and buffer transfer Fixed Host
Access Point 1 Mobile Host Access Point 2

247 I-TCP Assessment no changes in the fixed network
the errors in the wireless part aren’t propagated to the fixed network both parts can be optimized independently relatively simple: „wireless TCP“ concerns one Hop only the properties of wireless networks (bit-error rate, delay time) are known, therefore fast retransmissions are possible loss of End-to-End-semantics additional costs (computation time, storage place) concerning the Access Point high delay times with handover caused by buffering of data by Access Point IT-security mechanisms must be adapted

248 Example of Snoop transparent extension of Access Point from sender’s viewpoint Access Point listens to the traffic (snoops) and filters the ACKs buffering of data, are sent to the mobile computer after losses of packets in the wireless network a direct retransmission takes place between Access Point and Mobile Host Access Points send NACK after packet losses of MH Fixed Host Access Point 1 Mobile Host „local retransmission” Buffer TCP

249 Snoop Assessment maintenance of End-to-End-semantics
modifications only at the TCP-Stack of Access Points errors in the wireless part can be corrected locally Soft State no status transfer at new Access Point is necessary change is possible, also if the new Access Point possesses no Snoop no complete transparency of wireless connection handling of NACK requires the modifications of MH IT-security: encryption can prevent an access to TCP-Header (most of the up-to-date approaches use End-to-End-encryption!)

250 Higher Layers and Services

251 Wireless Application Protocol - WAP
Based partially on the materials of WAP-Forum

252 WAP – Standard Overview
Goal: Fusion of Internet-Technologies and mobile radio, creation of new innovative services standardized by WAP-Forum (http://www.wapforum.org), initiated by Ericsson, Nokia, Motorola specifies application environment and protocols for mobile end-devices such as radio phones, PDAs, pagers

253 Why WAP? Mobile radio networks and mobile phones possess special properties and requirements Display: sizes and presented colors, numerical keyboard, lower processor performance and storage capacity ... Networks: low data rates, high delays and costs WAP offers the use of several carriers TCP/IP, UDP/IP, USSD, SMS, ... USSD - unstructured supplementary service data (GSM) SMS - short message service (GSM)

254 Why WAP ? WAP-architecture has a modular organization
the modules build together a complete Internet-protocol-stack WML-contents can be queried by HTTP-request-messages WAP uses XML (eXtensible Markup Language)-Standard as well as optimized contents and protocols user interface of conventional end-devices is supported by WML-components enhances acceptance by users WAP uses conventional HTTP-Servers existing development strategies are applicable in the future (common gateway interface - CGI, active server pages - ASP, netscape server API - NSAPI...)

255 Why HTTP/HTML doesn’t suffice?
Big pipe - small pipe syndrome <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>NNN Interactive</TITLE> <META HTTP-EQUIV="Refresh" CONTENT="1800, URL=/index.html"> </HEAD> <BODY BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF" BACKGROUND="/images/9607/bgbar5.gif" LINK="#0A3990" ALINK="#FF0000" VLINK="#FF0000" TEXT="000000" ONLOAD="if(parent.frames.length!=0)top.location='http://nnn.com';"> <A NAME="#top"></A> <TABLE WIDTH=599 BORDER="0"> <TR ALIGN=LEFT> <TD WIDTH=117 VALIGN=TOP ALIGN=LEFT> Internet HTTP/HTML Converting to binary format Mobile radio networks <WML> <CARD> <DO TYPE="ACCEPT"> <GO URL="/submit?Name=$N"/> </DO> Enter name: <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" KEY="N"/> </CARD> </WML> WAP

256 WAP-overview WAP-standard defines:
Environment = Wireless Application Environment (WAE) WML (Wireless Markup Language) micro-browser WMLScript virtual machine WMLScript standard library Wireless Telephony Application (WTA) Interface Contents = WAP Content Types Layer architecture Wireless Session Protocol (WSP) Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP) Interface definitions for mobile network

257 Comparison: Internet/WWW and WAP
Wireless Application Protocol HTML JavaScript Wireless Application Environment (WAE) other services and applications Session Layer (WSP) HTTP Transaction Layer (WTP) TLS - SSL Security Layer (WTLS) Transport Layer (WDP) TCP/IP UDP/IP Carrier: SMS USSD CDMA CDPD etc.. GPRS SMS - Short Message Service (GSM), GPRS - General Packet Radio Service (GSM II+), CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access, CDPD - Cellular Digital Packet Data

258 Wireless Application Environment - WAE
environment for distributed applications with specific reference to low-performance end-devices with limited operation comfort and mobile radio networks Goals: network-independent application environment optimized for application in mobile radio systems Internet, i.e. WWW–programming model high interoperability level

259 WAE – abstract network architecture
WSP/HTTP Request {URL} Client Gateway Network Application WSP/HTTP Reply {Content}

260 Constituents Architecture WML WMLScript WTA Content formats
Programming model Browser, Gateway, Content Server WML as page markup language WMLScript as scripting language WTA offers access to phone services Content formats sets free-defined formats: bitmaps, phonebook records, dates ...

261 Options User Agent Profiling Push-model
to user, end-device, ... adapted contents Push-model network initiates delivery of contents Options for performance improvement Caching, ...

262 Sample: WAP-Gateway Client Web Server WAP Gateway WML Encoder
WML-Script WTAI etc. WAE User Agent Web Server Contents CGI Scripts etc. WML Decks, WML-Script WAP Gateway WML Encoder WMLScript Compiler Protocol adapter WSP/WTP HTTP

263 Sample: WAP - Application Server
Client WML WML-Script WTAI etc. WAE User Agent WAP Application Server WML Encoder WMLScript Compiler Protocol adapter Application logic WSP/WTP WML Decks, WML-Script Contents

264 Wireless Markup Language - WML(1)
HTML-like page markup language different font styles are available, tables and graphics too, but limited based on W3C-XML uses HTML and HDML-elements Deck/Card-metaphor interactions-/selection possibilities are separated in Cards navigation (anchor: #) takes place between Cards Deck-stack corresponds to a WML-file HDML - Handheld Device Markup Language, W3C - World Wide Web Consortium, XML - eXtensible Markup Language

265 Wireless Markup Language - WML(2)
explicit navigation model between Decks Hyperlinks Events from user interface History variables and status-management variable status can tell about validity of a stack

266 WML– text styles Card Deck <wml>
<card id=“Card1” title=“Text Styles”> <p align="left"> <i>italic</i>, <b>bold</b>,<br> <big>big</big>, <small>small</small>, <u>underlined</u> </p> </card> </wml> Card

267 WML-example (1) Variables Selected input Script call Navigation
<card id=„Card1" title=„Currency" newcontext="true"> <p> Amount: <input format="*N" name=„amount" title=„Amount:"/> From: <select name=“from“ value=" USD“ title=„From:"> <option value="EUR">Euro</option> ... <option value="USD">US Dollar</option> </select> To: <select name= ... <br/> = <u>$(conv)</u> <do type="accept" label=„Calculate"> <go href=“bsp.wmls#convert('conv', '$(from)','$(to)',$(amount))"/> </do> <do type="help" label="Help"> <go href="#card1_help"/> </p> </card> Selected input Variables Script call Navigation

268 WML-example (1): Processing

269 WML-example (2) Events processing
<card id="card1_help" title="Help"> <onevent type="onenterforward"> <go href="bsp.wmls#getInfoDate('date')"/> </onevent> <p> Currency exchange rates stem from Federal Reserve Bank of New York and are from $(date). <do type="prev" label=„Back"> <prev/> </do> </p> </card> </wml> Events processing

270 WMLScript-overview (1)
scripting language, similar to JavaScript procedures, loops, conditions, ... optimized for devices with low storage capacity and CPU-performance integrated with WML, enables: reducing of network workload validation of inputs access to vendor-specific APIs programming of conditional logic

271 WMLScript-overview (2)
Bytecode-based Virtual Machine stack-oriented design ROM-able designed with regard to simple, less work-expensive implementation Compiler in network better utilization of network capacity and end-device storage Standard library basic functionality for processing of strings, URLs, ...

272 WMLScript-example Procedures Variables Statements
extern function getInfoDate(varName) { WMLBrowser.setVar(varName,„June,3,2002"); WMLBrowser.refresh(); } extern function convert(varName,from,to,amount) var multiplier = 0.0; ... if (from == „EUR") if (to == „EUR") multiplier = 1.0; else if (to == „RUR") multiplier = EUR_RUR; } else if ... WMLBrowser.setVar(varName,returnString); Variables Statements

273 Wireless Telephony Application - WTA (1)
offers mechanisms for applications in field of telephony primary focus: operators/providers and vendors security and trust are the emphasis WTA Browser using improvements of standard WML/WMLScript- browsers own interface WTAI (... Interface)

274 Wireless Telephony Application - WTA (2)
WTAI contains: call control, messaging, interface to phonebook, events processing... own Client/Server-interaction model event signalization... security via separation browser and port separated WTAI in WML and WMLScript available

275 WAE content formats WAE defines uniform formats Goal: Interoperability
visit cards, so called IMC vCard Standard dates, IMC vCalendar Standard graphics, WBMP (Wireless BitMaP) compiled WML, WMLScript Goal: Interoperability IMC - Internet Mail Consortium

276 WAP layer architecture
Wireless Session Protocol (WSP) Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP) Carrier A Adaptation Carrier B Adaptation Carrier C Adaptation Carrier D Service D Carrier Service C Carrier Service B Carrier Service A Physical Layer Air Link Technology

277 Wireless Session Protocol
supports Client/Server context (shared state), optimization of content transmission offers semantics and mechanisms, which are based on HTTP and improvements for use in mobile radio networks with low-performance end-devices

278 WSP overview (1) HTTP elements: Improvements:
extensible request/reply methods extensible request/reply headers uniform contents composed objects asynchronous requests Improvements: binary encoding of headers session headers (Client & Server) confirmed and unconfirmed network-initiated delivery (Push)

279 WSP overview (2) Improvements corresponding to HTTP:
negotiations of supported characteristics session suspend/resume multiple complete asynchronous transactions connectionless service Why doesn’t HTTP suffice? no compact encoding insufficient negotiations Push doesn't exist

280 Characteristics message size protocol options
Confirmed Push Facility/ Push Facility (unconfirmed) Session Resume … maximum outstanding (unanswered) requests Header Code Pages (known field names in the protocol headers are separated into pages) ...

281 Suspend/Resume Server knows, when a Client accepts data (Push)
multi-carrier devices dynamical addressing enables release of carrier resources

282 Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP)
Goal: efficient request/reply-based transport mechanism for mobile radio networks and low-performance end-devices Properties: robust data transmission no explicit connection set up and connection release data are transmitted already with the first packet packet oriented abortion-function for outstanding (unanswered) requests

283 Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP)
Properties: supports concatenation of messages further WTP features: repeated transmission due to packet loss (selective) fragmentation port numbers (UDP) flow control Transaction = Interaction between Initiator and Responder

284 WTP – transaction classes (1)
non-robust datagram-service for instance for Push during a session shouldn’t substitute WDP the transactions are closed after transmission of Invoke Class 1: robust datagram-service

285 WTP – transaction classes (2)
robust datagram-service with robust Invoke- and robust Result-messages the transactions are closed via the Initiator after answer confirmation of the Responder

286 Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP)
provides connectionless, non-robust datagram-service is substituted by UDP, if IP the a carrier re-adaptation to the carrier takes place in the Adaptation Layer supports port numbers

287 Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS)
enables secure connections, uses protocol elements of known, secure Internet-protocols (TLS) provides mechanisms for encryption, strong authentication, integrity and key management corresponds to guidelines of national authorities offers end-to-end security

288 WAP & Security WTLS (Wireless Transport Layer Security) offers only security via encryption of transmitted data (Grade #1) presently, similar to TLS, only communication trustiness is protected Grade #2 supports Server- and Client-certificates, for instance via additional chip-cards in mobile phones, so called WIM - Wireless Identification Module

289 WAP & Security UBS (Switzerland)
data with WTLS class 2, 128 bit 3DES encrypted UBS authentication against mobile phone via certificates with a key size of 1024 bit participant authentication against UBS via WAP similarly like via Internet with agreement number, password and list-number automatic connection release (Timeout) embedded after ten minutes without interaction participant is demanded to re-authenticate with password und list-number input Deutsche Bank (Germany) WTLS (Wireless Transport Layer Security) end-to-end-encryption data encryption already at the mobile phone decryption at the server Sources: UBC.ch,db24.de

290 WAP-example: access to enterprise data
Server HTTP Web-Server WAP-Gateway Java-Servlet-API Server WML LDAP/X.500-Directory-Service Dir-X-wap Dir-X-Servlet LDAP-Client LDAP WML- pages Profiles

291 WAP-example: access to enterprise data
Example: Siemens Dir-X Meta-Directory Service as a base of a corporate information pool software-package consists of Directory Server (Dir-X-Metahub) and several Clients, is completely LDAP v3 compatible, based on X.500 2 Gateways outwards: Dir-X-Web and Dir-X-wap secure access also via WAP available, because all security properties of Directory-Servers are handed-on to mobile user registration via phone number and password, the authorizations/licenses are deposited within the system in user profiles Java-Servlets built the kernel components of WAP-connection Dir-X-wap-Server: Servlet-components undertake communication with the Web-Server LDAP-Client provides data exchange between the Dir-X-wap-Server and the directory service

292 WAP-example: access to enterprise data
Dir-X-Wap-Application: consists of a set of WML-pages containing DSL Dir-X-Servlet parses DSL-commands 2 configuration files for an application necessary: Global Profile: contains information for the Servlet Application Profile: stores the data that are necessary to execution of WAP-application In principle, each Web-Server is usable with the product, it must only support the Servlets DSL: Directory Script Language; Language for processing of directory requests from Web- or WML-pages and for representation of obtained results in WML or HTML, contains the language elements for LDAP-access

293 WAP-examples Bond/Security-Order processing: Consors, Advance Bank, Deutsche Bank Mobile “Yellow Pages” – Orange Telecom Mobile Timetable: wap.hafas.de Mobile Auctioning: wap.yahoo.de, wap.ebay.de Mobile „Last Minute Bargain “: 12snap at Vodafone, presently also with WAP Mobile marketplaces/stock exchanges (Mobile Brokerage):

294 WAP-example: Bond/Security-Order
Mobile Banking Mobile Brokerage

295 WAP-example: Bond/Security-Order
Private Banking-> Login page Other services ... Lufthansa, Sixt, etc.

296 WAP-example: Bond/Security-Order
Main menu Brokerage ... Bond/security info

297 WAP-example: Bond/Security-Order
Order book Status of bond transactions Executed and deleted orders are indicated in the order book for some days more Partial execution of some order is presented as one open and one executed partial order in the order book Details to an order could be indicated via dial-up of correspondent Links

298 WAP-example: Bond/Security-Order
Portfolio review Bond/security depots

299 WAP-example: Bond/Security-Order
Brief queries exchange rates of Bonds/Securities with a delay of approx. 15Min search criteria Bond/Security-ID and/or Bond/Security-name

300 WAP-example: soccer/football score
source:

301 Further WAP-examples soccer/football auctioning: miscellaneous:
scores: auctioning: miscellaneous:

302 WAP-example: timetable service
Input the address ...wait ... Input -> English -> Query... …wait ...

303 WAP-example: timetable service
Input the start & target railway stations ...Dresden, …Hannover ...scroll … Input ..date, time.... …scroll …

304 WAP-example: timetable service
After input … search... ..wait.. Selection of train connections with departure platform ...earlier/later... then probably -> END

305 For comparison: PC-timetable service
Details Options PC-timetable service is still detailed!

306 WAP-result WML doesn’t bring whole Internet’s diversity to a mobile phone there are no satisfactory rate models at the moment; the data-rates are too low even with GPRS limited input and selection possibilities require a reconsidering of interaction semantics, WAP isn’t oriented for many applications, for instance catalogs with a large selection -> PDAs, appliances, voice input and -recognition with introduction of data services with higher data-rates WAP could lose its relevance possibly -> XHTML however WAP means a first step towards independence from PC by access to Internet contents -> multi-dimensional distribution channels for information WAP means the start for creation of a formidable user population (potentially all mobile radio participants)!

307 WAP-Improvements: WAP2.0 (1)
New version Internet-based data services on mobile phones approved by WAP Forum mid-2001 oriented to GPRS and 3G cellular/UMTS Useful services at WAP2.0 devices color graphics and Pictograms location-specific content, navigational functions and user-friendly menus animation representations and streaming media Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) large-file downloading (music) synchronization of user information with personal information manager software on a desktop PC in a remote location Source:

308 WAP-Improvements: WAP2.0 (2)
WAP 2.0 builds upon the latest Internet standards: XHTML, TCP/IP, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) uses mostly TCP as transport optimized for small low-performance end-devices WAP 2.0 supports additionally: Wireless Telephony Application (WTA), Push, and User Agent Profile (UAPROF) utilize more advanced features in WAP 2.0 than in WAP1.x

309 WAP-Improvements: WAP2.0 (3)
Application development easier development of WAP applications More comfortable user environment Migration aspects WAP2.0 offers a migration to XHTML (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language) and TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) Supporting XHTML, WAP 2.0 reduces development costs, allowing developers to write applications for both PC and WAP Security offers more secure due to “end-to-end encryption” (from the mobile device to the server)

310 WAP2.0 and i-mode Competition & Fusion
NTT DoCoMo's I-Mode is a serious competitor of WAP2.0 NTT DoCoMo's I-Mode moves in the direction of support of XHTML and TCP, too I-mode and WAP2.0 will probably converge

311 i-Mode An overview Based partially on the materials of NTT-DoCoMo

312 Structure

313 Overview i-Mode is a product and a trademark of NTT-DoCoMo
The enterprise NTT-DoCoMo started in February 1999 with a proprietary development: i-Mode, although NTT-DoCoMo is the member of WAP-Forum itself Meantime i-Mode has got a large number of registered users : over 33 millions Source:

314 Properties i-Mode is packet oriented
always online, no time delays to dial-up billing regarding data volumes and not regarding to time simple page markup language – compact HTML (cHTML) End of 2002: change into XHTML (WAP 2.0) a great success in Japan, because private computers and private Internet access over fixed networks are infrequent In Germany E-plus has started i-Mode on 16th march 2002

315 compact HTML cHTML or compact HTML is a language subset of HTML
very simplified HTML Lists, Forms, Selections, Input fields are possible no Frames, no Tables, no CSS 166 additional pictograms, for instance Fine Heartbreak Motor sports WC

316 compact HTML (2) Access key-Attribute for direct link activation respectively for direct selection of input fields pictures can be displayed only in GIF-format, max. 5 KB per page. GIF-pictures mustn’t larger than 120*128 dots (little display) also animated GIFs 256 colours (capable of Display) Compact HTML Sites look like “normal” HTML, so also “normal” Browsers like Netscape can work with them i-Mode – on a mobile phone an i-Mode screenshot

317 Network Configuration

318 i-Mode network architecture
Connection Network [NSP/Corporate LAN] PDC: Personal Digital Cellular Telecommunication System PDC-P: PDC Packet System BS: Base Station IP: Information Provider M-PGW: Mobile Message-Packet Gateway Module MS: Mobile Station M-SCP: Mobile-Service Control Point NSP: Network Service Provider PGW: Packet Gateway Module PPM: Packet Processing Module IP M-SCP PGW M-PGW i-mode Server Internet IP PPM PPM BS BS BS BS PDC-P Network MS MS MS MS

319 i-Mode network architecture (2)
i-Mode Server: - consists of multiple server systems (B-,C-,M-Max ..), each server system is responsible for special tasks - represents the contents of „Information Providers“, operates Internet-Mail and i-Mod , enables the connection to Internet M-PGW (Mobile Message-Packet Gateway Module): transforms the protocols: TCP with i-Mode-Server and TLP (Transport Layer Protocol) with PPM PPM (Packet Processing Module): executes the packet connection with the mobile end-devices/peripherals

320 i-Mode network architecture (3)
M-SCP (Mobile-Service Control Point): authentication of user data (similar to voice communication) PGW (Packet Gateway Module): transition to other networks, for instance to offer the enterprises a Virtual Private Network (VPN)

321 i-Mode protocol stack RT CC MM LAPDM L1 TLP AL (HTTP) MS TCP/IP L2 L1
UITP/NWMP AL HTTP/ SMTP i-Mode Server PMAP L2 L1 TCP/IP TLP UITP/NWMP M-PGW CC RT MM LAPDM L1 PMAP L2 PPM TLP: Transfer Layer Protocol CC: Call Control MM: Mobility Management RT: Radio Frequency Transmission Management LAPDM: Link Access Protocol on the D-Channel, modified PMAP: Packet Mobile Application Part HTTP: HyperText Transport Protocol SMTP: Simple Mail Transport Protocol UITP: User Information Transfer Protocol NWMP: Network Management Protocol TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol L1: Layer1 (Physical Layer Protocol) L2: Layer2 (Data Link Layer Protocol)

322 i-Mode protocol stack II
UITP (User Information Transfer Protocol): transmits user information such as, for instance, MSN (Mobile Subscriber Number) to i-Mode-Server NWMP (Network Management Protocol): performs i-Mode Service-functions TLP (Transfer Layer Protocol): has a simplified transmission procedure and can transmit the signalization and user data together

323 Java for mobile phones base: Java 2 micro edition and Java MIDP (Mobile Information Device Profile) downloading of Java-programs (ca kByte); color representation; applications, also games etc. billing via micro-payment of operator (ca. 1-5 € per application) products e.g. of Nokia, Ericsson, Siemens; support through big operators

324 M-Commerce - applications
Mobile Shopping Mobile Banking Mobile Brokerage Mobile Traveling

325 Pervasive Computing Operation as parallel as possible of all users independent of the terminal, it means terminals with different equipment (PC‘s, mobile phones, PDAs, Applicances, etc.) should be supported by most different entrance nets It means finding a suitable system architecture for “multidimensional“ Internet communication (e.g. regarding end terminals) over *ML (Markup Languages)

326 System architecture, one-dimensional
Thin Clients databases, etc. WWW-Browser Web Server Application Server Firewall Firewall

327 System architecture, one-dimensional
Browser- Client Thin Client Transaction- monitors business Software Mainframe- applications data bases Outer Firewall Inner Firewall Web-Server HTML- Dokumente HTML- documents CGI- scripts Application- Server proprietary protocols HTTP Stateless-connection stateful-connection Internet Inter-ORB Protocol SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)

328 Properties of application servers
main characteristics: object-oriented communication systems component- framework transaction concepts security concepts connection of legacy applications integration of WWW-services general support of design, deployment and runtime

329 System architecture, two- dimensional
Thin Clients Data bases, etc. WWW-Browser Web Server Application Server Firewall Firewall WAP Server …e.g.: BEA WebLogic M-Commerce Solution WAP-Browser

330 System architecture, two- dimensional
WAP-Server Application Server + WWW Server XSL- Prozessors Servlets EJBs Backend convert XML into HTML, WML call data from the EJBs and generate e.g. XML standardize access to Backend, create business logic

331 XML (Extensible Markup Language)
design principles use in the Internet more powerful than HTML separation of content and style possibility of definition of user-specific document-types ability of XML-document processing

332 XML- document „bibliography“
reference to Style Sheet File special tags

333 Valid and well-formed documents
XML-Documents can have a DTD (Document Type Definition). The DTD can be contained in the document or can be referenced by a link. A DTD specifies, which tags are permitted and how these can be combined. It has a special meaning for the processing of documents. The processing programs can check XML- documents for structural errors with the help of DTD. If there is no error then a document is valid! Well-formed documents contain no DTD- reference, but fulfill the XML-syntax-rules.

334 Accompanying Style Sheet File
RULE for root-element Insert of lower elements Cycle

335 Presentation in MS IE 5.0 correspondently IE6.0

336 Other Style Sheet File

337 Other presentation via XSL

338 Change of XML- documents
presentation for processing XSL- Processor EDI/WML XSL EDI: Electronic Document Interchange Conversion of XML- documents into workable formats (with the help of XSL-Style-Sheets) e.g. into EDI- formats for commercial data processing in the mobile field very interesting for conversion into WML!

339 System architecture, multidimensional
Access-Server Application Server + WWW Server XSL- Processors Servlets EJBs Backend convert XML into *ML call data from EJBs and generate e.g. XML Standardize access to Backend, create business logic

340 IBM Websphere Transcoding Publisher
syntax customization of content easy installation little administration effort changeable, expandable architecture of components

341 IBM Websphere Transcoding Publisher
Evaluation of used profiles & WAP – capable mobile phone 1.Request over port xx Text Clipper: transforms HTML into WML 7.Output of contents Fragmentation Transcoder: Change into WML-decks

342 Oracle Application Server Wireless Edition
syntactic customization of content renewable, expandable architecture of components good customization of specific content Request Manager Master Service Adapter Trans- former Request Manager authentifies user and calls Master Service Client Request the adapter fetches the Information (via e.g. HTTP, SQL, etc.) Master Service configures und starts an adapter A transformer converts information in suitable Client-format

343 Oracle Application Server Wireless Edition
Expiry of a user request

344 Oracle Application Server Wireless Edition
Adapter and Transformer

345 Contents customization with XML / XSLT
Separation of content and presentation content client- independent in XML XSLT: XSL transformations: a XML- data format is changed into a new data format (not necessarily XML), this new data format can include platform dependent information about the presentation of data besides the main information presentation client- dependent in some XSLTs XML-Support in many data bases the server itself needs additional logic

346 Contents customization with XML / XSLT
server-sided requests: reconnaissance and classification of the client choice of the suitable style sheets parameter handover to XSLT Processing of other documents (e.g. bitmaps)

347 Example application: Pizza ordering service
content and logic in same XML-document no presentation-semantic in XML, so all client- abilities can be used in XSLT but stylesheets are not reusable

348 Example application: pizza ordering service
<?xml version='1.0' encoding="ISO " standalone="no" ?> <?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="Pizzaservices.xsl"?> <?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="Pizzaservices.lynx.xsl" media="lynx"?> <?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="Pizzaservices.lynx.xsl" media="palm"?> <?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="Pizzaservices.wap.xsl" media="wap"?> <?cocoon-process type="xsp"?> <?cocoon-process type="xslt"?> <xsp:page language="java" xmlns:xsp="http://www.apache.org/1999/XSP/Core"> <xsp:logic> class Item extends Vector { private int[] numbers; public Item () { super (); numbers= new int[10]; } public void setNumber (int nr, int a) { numbers[nr]=a; public int getNumber (int nr) { return numbers[nr]; ...

349 Example application: pizza ordering service
<services> <service> <name>Hi Pizza</name> <banner>hellopizza.jpg</banner> <description>Hot Ware on Order</description> <location zipcode ="01277"> <address>Bodenbacher Strasse 16b, Dresden</address> <phone> </phone> <fax> </fax> </location > <location zipcode="01127"> <address>Mohnstraße 50, Dresden</address> <phone> </phone> <fax> </fax> <proposal> <category name="Pizza"> <food> <name>Pizza Kentucky</name> <description>Salami</description> <price size="Normal">8.00</price> <price size="Jumbo">15.00</price> <price size="Pan">10.00</price> </food> ...

350 Pizza ordering service: PC-presentation

351 Pizza ordering service: presentation on Palmscape and in WAP

352 XHTML

353 XHTML XHTML™ 1.0 is Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition) reformulation of HTML 4 in XML 1.0 use instead of WML2.0 correspondently cHTML (i-Mode) basis for integration between WAP2.0 and i-Mode WWW:

354 XHTML supporting via as well as WAP-Browsers also Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer constituents: DTD (Document Definition) XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language) large quantity of supported tags in comparison with WML2.0 and cHTML CSS frames tables forms/input fields applet calls

355 XHTML vs HTML XHTML describes data <-> HTML displays data!
XHTML – combining HTML and XML, and their strengths XHTML is oriented to internet/PC and mobile internet/ mobile phones and hand helds XHTML - compatibility everything has to be marked up correctly -> "well-formed" documents pages can be read by all XML enabled devices upgrading of XML supported browsers compatibility to all browsers backward browser compatible

356 Mobile agents

357 The agent- model an agent-system consists of the agents themselves and an execution engine for working with agents. The execution engine offers basic services to the agents Agent is an independent program generally, it consists of data, code and execution state, it works in interest and order of a third party (e.g. user, application).

358 Agent system OS Network place 5 place 4 Place 1 Place 3 Hardware
Operating System Operating system Hardware Hardware

359 Agent model migration: transfer of code, data, state
Client create Agent code, data, state simple Server- interface result migration: transfer of code, data, state local interactions with server transfer of the result

360 Properties of mobile agents
Advantages: reduction of network load autonomy and asynchronity dynamic adapting in environment heterogeneity robustness and error tolerance scalability personalization and individualization dynamic code-installation encapsulation of protocols Disadvantages: need of special execution engine (Middleware) high security requirements transfer of code, data, state Decision: migration vs. remote communication

361 Applications E-commerce database requests intelligent e-mails
Office applications/workflow traffic telematic Web surfing load balancing virtual enterprise Mobile computing

362 Existing agent systems
Voyager (ObjectSpace) Aglets (IBM) Concordia (Mitsubishi Electric) Grasshopper (IKV++) Odyssey (General Magic) Mole (Stuttgart), Ara (Kaiserslautern) Agent TCL (Dartmouth University) MASIF (OMG) Telescript

363 Middleware for spontaneous Networking

364 Vision spontaneous networking of electrical devices (but not only computers) very simple connection platform independence JINI UPnP

365 JAVA Intelligent Infrastructure, JINI
„Middleware“ for spontaneous networking; originally developed from Sun JINI Connection Technology enables dynamic control of networked services and devices Partitioning into so called Lookup Groups: different sets of lookup-services basic operations: Discovery: offers locating of a directory services (lookup service) Join: enables acquaintance/ registration of the services implemented from some device

366 JAVA Intelligent Infrastructure, JINI
Lookup-Service enables locating of services via other users/devices per lookup-operations Leasing offers time-limited allocation of resources (using of services) Jini integrates distributed events processing and distributed transactions further on for co-ordination between services

367 General procedure: step 1
Lookup service Discovery & join protocol Discovery lookup JINI device / service Client

368 General procedure: step 2
Lookup Service Proxy download Proxy upload JINI device / service Client

369 General procedure: step 3
Direct Connection JINI device / service Client synchronization data exchange between Device and Client over own communication protocol

370 JINI - Details Proxy hides all details of communication and is executed in the form of Client (dynamic installation of Stubs) security over RMI - Security Extension Framework new versions of JINI Starter Kits include advanced possibilities, for instance: Caching of request results by Clients unicast-discovery comfortable control of using period (lease) asynchronous receiving of events among other features further development via JINI Community: for instance JINI Surrogate Architecture: supports devices that do not have all required resources for JAVA and JINI printer working group

371 JINI - Assessment suitable to support scenarios from the field of Ubiquitous/Pervasive Computing JINI is a part of JAVA 2 Micro Edition

372 Universal Plug and Play, UPnP
reply of Microsoft to JINI Embedded in UPnP- forum with this improvement corresponding to Plug- and- Play Standards, the PC peripheral devices should be connected to a home-network problem-less via Universal Plug and Play diverse devices can communicate with each other like with Jini

373 Universal Plug and Play, UPnP
essentially based on open standards like TCP/IP and therefore is compatible to each network in Windows ME integrated a special toolkit for creation of drivers on the basis of UPnP developed by INTEL

374 Discovery Description Usage
UPnP architecture Common Abstrac-tions Home application Universal PnP Common Interfaces Discovery Description Usage Bus attached (ISA,PCI,USB, IEEE,1394,IR,..) Internet Protocol attached IrDA X10 .. Media Indepen- dence IR PLC .. Network media (Ethernet,HomeRF, HomePNA,..

375 Further approaches HAVi – Home Audio and Video Interop.
essentially supported by the vendors of consumer-electronics field UPnP Forum is interlocked however represented more broadly on the market (specially also in computer-industry) HomePlug consortium for standardizing of data communication over (low voltage) power cable performance like by IEEE b the members are among others Cisco and Panasonic

376 Services and system support for Mobile Computing

377 Mobile Computing: system support
Essential properties und requirements: dynamics, localization heterogeneity of networks and end-devices security problems

378 Mobile distributed applications: example
Local Resources, Error Protocols Client Product Data Maintenance technician LAN-Access Main office Caching Mobile Access - very different performance and charges: GSM, ISDN, LAN Software-technical, automatic adaptation to concrete system environment Example: Access to picture data/compressed picture data/graphics/text

379 Problems and requirements
Problem fields: dynamic system and net configuration dynamic change of Quality-of-Service-properties uncoupling/re-connection transparency of resource access security aspects Requirements: connection monitoring and selection treatment of uncoupling/off-sets and migration; emulation of services configuration update localization of mobile servers and clients advanced security and transaction services

380 Mobile RPC Goals: Mobile Binding Datagram RPC Queued RPC Realization:
Transparent call to an alternative server by non-accessibility Datagram RPC Queuing of calls in disconnected status Queued RPC intermediate storage and delivery of results after re-coupling Realization: Attachment on existent RPC- systems (without new implementation or internal code changes)

381 Time Behavior Datagram RPC
T T Time T3 T4 Client Server DCE RPC Datagram RPC Decoupling Net connection RPC reaches Server Return to Client

382 Message Queuing: MQ Series example
Base: Messages, Queues with Queue Manager dynamic coupling between applications and local Queues via logon/logoff using of Queues for transmission or receiving; also mixed using is possible coupling of distributed Queue Managers via Message Channels Internet Gateway, C++- and Java-Support support of essential operating system platforms

383 Example scenario decoupling of application through Queue Manager:
Computer A Computer B Queue Manager Queue Manager MQGET MQPUT App- lication 1 Queue Manager Queue Manager Message Channel App- lication 2 MQPUT MQGET decoupling of application through Queue Manager: Message forwarding is possible even if application isn’t running

384 Queue, with optional support of
N:M - communication Load balancing (selective delivery) or Parallel processing (replicated delivery) Access to Server via multiple Clients C A D B Queue, with optional support of message priorities E

385 Message Queuing: Assessment
Advantages simple manageability robust message delivery flexible application fields (for instance load balancing, parallelization, batch-transmission of branch data etc.) relevant for easy coupling of programs, for instance via Internet, or for Mobile Computing Disadvantages limited communication semantics interaction model is different than with procedures/method invocations limited accessibility of higher services only several proprietary decisions up to now, only step-by-step standardization

386 Application Structure
Ethernet Ethernet Distributed Database DB E-Fax-Order Branch office Firm xDSL Application Resource Mobile Station Communication path GSM Ethernet Cache Management DB-Access Distributed Database Client X

387 Domain-concept

388 Main functionality: Domain and Station Manager
Domain Manager: management of all global objects (users, global available resources, stations, net topology) Station Manager: management of all local objects of a station (net access, running applications etc.)

389 Architecture of Station Manager
Application Subsystem (Application Programming Interface) Subsystem (System Calls) Location Service Resource Broker Application Data Mobilizer and Manager Registry Service Bandwidth and Cost Management Service Authentication and Encryption Service Active Database Disconnected Operation Handling Service (CS, QS, CHS, BMC)

390 Mobile Multimedia Email: message transfer
User Agent protocol Subsystem Queuing Service protocol Queuing Service protocol Proxy Message Store message transfer Mobile Enhanced Message Handling System

391 Mobile Multimedia Email: selection of quality parameters
Cent Cent

392 Mobile File Manager: example CODA
distributed file system, which offers the unbreakable access to data also in the case of server shut-down or net failure developed at the Carnegie Mellon University based on AFS (Andrew File System, distributed file system in UNIX-environment) relatively transparent to the applications

393 CODA overview based on the model of „Disconnected Operations”
client keeps Read- and Write-access on the data via inset of a local buffer (Cache) also during temporary disconnection from net with re-connection system forwards changes and recognizes potential conflicts for different operating systems available (for instance LINUX, Solaris, Windows)

394 (“Whole-File-Caching”)
CODA system model Replicated Server: High availability Net communication at file open and close Disconnected Client: local data access on Cache Client (“Whole-File-Caching”)

395 properties of consistence (Coda)
Callback logic reference from server to the active client, used for immediate information about file changes via other client after connection failures the file in client cache remains valid till to timeout termination (as a rule several minutes) thereby reduced consistency conflict processing explicitly in interactive form, however low conflict probability

396 Conflict processing (CODA)
extensive automation as objective purpose, however isn’t possibly for: Update/Update-conflict: independent double update of the same file Delete/Update-conflict: independent erasure respectively update of the same file Name/Name-conflict: generating of two files with the same name Manual access after user notification

397 Cache management (Coda)
“Cache-Misses”: searched file isn’t in the Client-Cache processing failure in the disconnected status priority list of important files per user the highest priority is always kept in the cache (for instance by system programs, user profiles, address files etc.) other priorities: exchange strategies correspondent to importance dynamic generated files via list of essential operations referenced (for instance actual test protocol etc.)

398 File synchronization under Windows
Windows: over System Control -> Management -> Services so called „file replication (server)“ for synchronization of data between different servers under Explorer -> Extras -> Synchronization: Synchronization of own Homepage with PC Synchronization of Sites in WWW

399 E-Hand connects existing Enterprise Systems with mobile end-devices
platform independent - very simple synchronization and data transfer - supports XML, ODBC and SyncML Advantages: - contains Web-similar user interface for application installation and for mobile participants

400 E- Hand

401 Mobile databases support
Motivation: SFA-Sales-force-automation: -> actual information about clients, competitors and market trends to the field (outside-) workers emergent business transactions on the site -> efficiency increasing Example: Pharmaceutical Industry visit of 6 up to 8 distribution medics per day to bring dialogue to the point more quickly previous information about the medic (contacts, receipt prescription habits) are recallable from the firm-net presently still manually due to dialogue recording and product documentation in the future via mobile databases permanently faster access to data without inconvenient storage, connection establishment etc.

402 Mobile databases support
mobile databases offer principally data synchronization and replication of enterprise servers and for mobile end-devices like PALM etc. due to increasingly mobile business processes there is a necessity of databases, which must perform these functionalities among other things: quickly compatible to as many as possible mobile systems 2 mobile database types: “asynchronous synchronization”: for instance SQL Remote of Sybase data replication between central database and multiple remote databases also offline-working is possible due to -queuing principle (sent, if connected) “synchronous synchronization”: for instance Sybase Mobilink Synchronization Server co-operation with databases of other vendors (via Server Middleware) permanent connection necessary, for instance via GSM

403 IBM DB2 Everyplace compatible for instance to Windows CE, PalmOS, EPOC ... footprint: ~150 k (storage requirements) for data balancing DB Everyplace Sync Server is necessary synchronization with other Handhelds without PC! includes so called Mobile Devices Administration Center enables central management of all mobile end-devices of a enterprise supports integration of enterprise data from different databases and other sources (DB2 replication technology, JDBC, Adapter API for customized decisions) data are encrypted during synchronization (56 or 128 Bit) supports automatic conflict processing

404 IBM DB2 Everyplace Synchronization Server Backend Mobile Devices
Microsoft Oracle Informix Sybase Other DBMS (JDBC) Source: http.//www.ibm.com

405 Oracle Lite 3 constituents: Oracle Lite DBMS iConnect Web-to-go
database with low footprint (storage requirements) Java-enabled iConnect components for synchronization and creation of messaging-applications (principle of message queues) Web-to-go components supporting development, deployment and management of mobile Web-applications

406 Oracle Lite replication via Internet File-based replication

407 Sybase SQL Anywhere Studio
mini-database, can be operated on the PDAs supports PalmOS, EPOC and WindowsCE small „footprint“: ~50kByte developer can adapt the database according to the required SQL-properties, modular design principle synchronization enables data balancing with the enterprises database, all well-known database vendors are supported only the changed data are transmitted both local (for instance B. Hotsync (Palm)) and remote synchronization supported architecture similar to IBM DB2 Mobile Connect (Source:

408 Further approaches Microsoft Mobile Information Server
Lotus Everyplace numerous further products, mostly similar architecture concepts

409 Further sample applications
Traffic management Mobile Information Services M-Commerce Service technician Customer consultant Field workers in general Environmental engineering (measurement data logging) Medic (visits on site)

410 Traffic management Berlin Paris Dresden Services: Traffic engineering
“Global” Provider “Local” Provider Paris Dresden Service Center Services: Traffic engineering Travel information Maintenance service Mobile Office

411 Traffic management Internet GPS GSM Virtual PSTN/ Private ISDN Network
Information Provider Info Internet GPS GSM Center A Center B Virtual Private Network PSTN/ ISDN Distributed Information services End-user Distributed Service-Center

412 Application scenario: car maintenance
Host Printer Notepad HUB PC Terminal

413 Online-information services
Client Server for instance WWW low band width Client (mobile) low battery resource Client/Server-access by individual requests additionally: separate broadcast-channel from Server to the mobile Clients: transmission and caching of frequently requested information; thereby lower battery consumption (receiving less expensive as sending for the Client)

414 Optimization: basic concept
information in Publication-Group: regular Broadcast information in On-Demand-Group: Client/Server-queries exchange between both groups on the basis of: access frequency (for instance on WWW-pages) page modification frequency channel bandwidths clients storage volumes (Cache)

415 Mobile e-Mail Eudora Internet Suite, consists of: Properties:
Eudora for the Palm computing platform EudoraWeb browser for the Palm Computing platform Eudora Mail Conduit Properties: Eudora and EudoraWeb browser support SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) and TLS (Transport Layer Security), i.e. end-to-end security synchronization of bookmarks between PC Web-Browser and EudoraWeb browser via Eudora Web Conduit synchronization with PC- applications several -accounts Quelle:

416 Alternative M-Commerce applications
12snap.de (pronounciation: “one two snap”) Auctioning channel Cashless payments

417 Sample: 12snap system architecture
external provider mobile radio net D2 center Offers via Cellular Broadcast Internet Automatic processing of the orders which are incoming via phone-service; also coupling of WAP and telephony Call Center Users are registered by 12snap and enable direct debit, respectively booking via the credit card; Orders are sent to a Call-Center via keyboard tone, client identification takes place via his phone number (CLIP = Calling Line Identification Presentation)

418 Sample: paybox.net Client is registered in the Internet by paybox.net and enables direct debit Client obtains as a result so called Paybox-PINs; using Paybox-PIN client can unblock the transactions purchase payments in the Internet are carried out as follows: Client selects „Paybox“ as a payment type Merchant sends transaction to Paybox-provider via secure data connection Provider dials up the clients via phone numbers stored in his master data then Client can unblock the transaction with his PIN Paybox transfers money via direct debit and forwards it to the Merchant


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