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Occupational Therapy & Speech and language Therapy Lenses on Assessment Jenny Jones Occupational Therapist Julie Mullis Speech and Language Therapist Clinical.

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Presentation on theme: "Occupational Therapy & Speech and language Therapy Lenses on Assessment Jenny Jones Occupational Therapist Julie Mullis Speech and Language Therapist Clinical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Occupational Therapy & Speech and language Therapy Lenses on Assessment Jenny Jones Occupational Therapist Julie Mullis Speech and Language Therapist Clinical leads for ASD Services Cardiff and the Vale University Health Board

2 Aims To have a greater understanding of Sensory Processing and ASD To explain the valuable role OT and SLT have in the assessment and diagnosis of complex children To outline the benefits of joint working

3 Sensory – Perceptual Atypicalities and ASD It is estimated that 90% of individuals with ASD have some abnormality of sensory and perceptual functioning and considered by some as CORE FEATURES (Geschwind 2009)

4 How does that look ? ASD Atypical Sensory & Perceptual 90% Sensory Processing Disorders 70-80% Synaesthesia Sensory distortions Sensory tune outs Sensory overload Overselectivity Perceptual dysfunction Sensory modulation

5 What are Sensory Processing Disorders? SENSORY PROCESSING DISORDERS REGISTRATION Perception of intensity of stimuli & the orientation to it MODULATION Under reactive Over reactive Fluctuating in response DISCRIMINATION Praxis Perceptual function for learning Postural & Motor Control

6 Effects of poor sensory modulation on learning and behaviour Under- Normal Over- Reactivity Sensory Modulation Reactivity Under-Arousal i.e. misses non-verbal cues, slow affective responses Over-Arousal i.e. over-reacts to non- verbal cues, anxious, too alert Impaired Social Behaviour Needs large amount of stimulation for arousal Must attend to all stimuli as much as possible Spacey & SlowDistractible & Fragmented Defective Attending Behaviour i.e. fails to look, listen, process, and remember Learning is impaired

7 A Sensory hypothesis to Autism….. New or just the in thing ? Kanner rejected a sensory hypothesis 1949 – Bergman and Escalona offered the first version of a sensory hypothesis The child's need to protect himself or herself from the sensory onslaught resulted in developmental distortions that eventually led to the symptoms that Kanner had first described

8 Main hypotheses concerning Autism ….60s and 70s Specific sensory dysfunctions and their affects on motoric-social and cognitive functioning in Autism were recognised and empirical studies began…..

9 Still current today ……… Current clinical and treatment literature treats sensory dysfunction as an established core deficit in autism, with a theoretical focus on possible abnormalities in subcortical neural systems. Rogers & Ozonoff 2005

10 The objective of therapy for the autistic child is to improve the sensory processing so that more sensations will be effectively registered and modulated and to encourage the child to form simple adaptive responses as a means of helping him learn and organise his behaviour Ayres 1979

11 Native Experts..90s Difficulty in registering input in a meaningful way can often be felt as painful and confusing (Grandin 95) Any satisfactory comprehensive theory of autism must address sensory symptoms ( Grandin 92, ONeill &Jones 97, Williams 94)

12 The last decade……Research studies on sensory processing and ASD 2002 Baranek 2005 Rogers and Ozonoff 2006 Kern et al 2006 Adamson, OHare and Graham 2007 Kern et al 2007 Tomchek and Dunn 2007 Ben-Sasson et al 2010 Tomchek And the list goes on……………

13 Occupational Therapy Assessment Sensory processing functions Developmental play and interactions with environment Motor planning/praxis and sequencing Postural motor control Bilateral integration Gross and fine motor skills Visual motor integration Prewriting and writing skills Functional abilities in different daily living activities

14 Why have an Occupational Therapist on Diagnostic and Assessment teams? A detailed assessment of atypical sensory behaviours helps to distinguish whether a child's symptoms result from SPD, autism or other co-morbid disorders Sensory integration approach provides an alternative explanation for behaviours Accurate diagnosis = appropriate intervention Sensory processing disorders may represent another core diagnostic criterion ASD-DSM-V

15 Play Observations Observations SLT Observations Not turning to name Not looking to mum for help with clothes discomfort Developmental delay No intentional communication – growls Poor awareness of environment and other toys around him. No exploratory or object play. No enjoyment from parental interaction and sharing of toy OT Observations Poor registration to the turtle, Possible dysregulation by the singing and flashing of the toy Interested in string of turtle not the turtle. Praxis- not sure what to do with the turtle? Clawing at clothes, hands often fisted or looking at them flicking – tactile defensive? visual seeker? Biting clothes, hitting head Distracted/distressed by fathers video game- auditory?

16 PLAY Childs main Occupation Registration ModulationPraxis ideation Object / Exploratory Play Relational Play / Constructional Sensorimotor Play Social Play Symbolic PlayFunctional Play

17 Principles of Assessment for Speech and Occupational Therapy On going process Skilled observations essential Observed in at least 2 different settings, over several visits and with a variety of people Assessment of child's sensory profile essential Detailed understanding of myriad of internal and external mechanisms that will influence child's communication and occupations

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