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Module 1 Causes of Disabilities & Conditions Special Education 501: Development & Characteristics of Children and Youth with Disabilities.

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Presentation on theme: "Module 1 Causes of Disabilities & Conditions Special Education 501: Development & Characteristics of Children and Youth with Disabilities."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 1 Causes of Disabilities & Conditions Special Education 501: Development & Characteristics of Children and Youth with Disabilities

2 Warm-Up Activity Labels are used extensively despite the potential negative consequences. Discuss the rationale for labeling people with disabilities.

3 Causes of Disabilities Genetic Pre-natal Peri-natal Post-natal Environmental

4 Causes of Disabilities Genetic Biochemical disorders and chromosomal abnormalities Pre-natal anoxia (premature separation of the placenta) o Severe anemia o Heart condition of the mother o R h factor incompatibility o Rubella contracted by the mother during the first trimester of pregnancy

5 Causes of Disabilities Peri-natal Conditions that may affect the child during or immediately preceding birth o Birth injuries o Asphyxia o Prematurity Post-natal o Malnutrition o Accidental physical trauma (to the brain) o Childhood abuse and neglect o Diseases and infections

6 Causes of Disabilities The children experiencing learning difficulties have simply not received the necessary experiential and cultural prerequisites such as social and educational stimulation.

7 Causes of Disabilities The early medical, nutritional, social and educational needs of children must be satisfied in order to maximize their opportunities for healthy development.

8 Causes of Disabilities The sooner the etiological factors are arrested or ameliorated, the less profound the disability.

9 Language Development Language & intellectual competence are closely intertwined Often accompanying immature language are such immature thought processes as delayed discrimination and reasoning skills

10 Language Development Severe language delay or inadequacy is the most significant single behavioral sign indicating a young childs need for special help in order to succeed in school

11 Socialization Socialization depends on experiences with language and communication

12 Socialization The ability to abstract the essence of experiences and the urge and power to express complex thoughts and feelings are uniquely human.

13 Socialization Along with language skills, the child usually begins to deal with abstractions and begins to use symbolization in more complex ways.

14 Secondary Level

15 The Secondary Level The following characteristics are found in many students at the secondary level, namely low academic performance.

16 The Secondary Level 1.Demonstrated in reading performance, written expression, and mathematics skills 2.Plateau of basic skill development 3.Often experience deficiencies in study skills areas 4.Ineffective use of strategic behaviors necessary for academic success 5.Social skills deficits 6.Considered at-risk for high school drop-out

17 Domains of Adulthood Physical/Emotional Health Personal responsibility and relationships Leisure pursuits Employment/education Community involvement

18 Programming for Low Incidence Disabilities Academic content mastery Teaching general education content Remediation Basic skills, social skills training

19 Programming for Low Incidence Disabilities Maintenance Learning strategies, tutorial Post-Secondary outcomes Vocational, life skills

20 Programming for Low Incidence Disabilities Preparation for post-secondary education and to function independently as adults Must be accepted as part of the inclusive environment

21 Programming for Severe & Profound Disabilities Characterized as having substantial functional limitations Individuals in this group may have mental, physical, and/or other emotional and behavioral problems of such a degree that they require extensive supports

22 Programming for Severe & Profound Disabilities The most important curricular issue for this group is the need to teach basic daily living skills such as self-care, communication, functional academics, socialization, and leisure/recreational skills

23 Programming for Severe & Profound Disabilities Use a variety of training procedures Provide instruction in community-based settings Maintain skill acquisition by employing naturally occurring events Program for generalization of skills

24 Wrap-Up Activity The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is the most sweeping civil rights legislation in the United States since the Civil Rights Act of Discuss how the law defines eligible persons with a disability, and describe the overall purpose of the Act.


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