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LECTURE 3 Introduction of biogenic elements chemistry Chelatometry. Introduction of biogenic elements chemistry ass. prof. Ye. B. Dmukhalska.

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Presentation on theme: "LECTURE 3 Introduction of biogenic elements chemistry Chelatometry. Introduction of biogenic elements chemistry ass. prof. Ye. B. Dmukhalska."— Presentation transcript:

1 LECTURE 3 Introduction of biogenic elements chemistry Chelatometry. Introduction of biogenic elements chemistry ass. prof. Ye. B. Dmukhalska

2 MINERALS Basic functions performed by the minerals are: 1. As structural components of body tissues. 2. In the maintenance of acid-base balance. 3. In the regulation of body fluids. 4. In transport of gases. 5. In muscle contractions.

3 In the human body and animals are near 70 chemical elements, but 47 are called biogenic elements Six elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur; are on amino acid, basic components of albumen, and they are named organogenic. 94 % of all living tissues contain only 4 elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen.

4 Depending on quantitative maintenance all elements classified into macro-, micro- and ultramicroelements. The macroelements are elements which more then 0,01 % of body mass are on organism. It is sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine, sulfur, magnesium. The microelements – 10-3–10-5 %. It is an iodine, bromine, fluorine, iron, copper, aluminium, magnesium, cobalt, zinc, strontium, lithium, selenium, molybdenum. The ultramicroelements are elements which lest then 10-5 %. It is a mercury, gold, chrome, silicon, nickel.

5 Complex compounds А) Structure CuSO NH 3 = [Cu (NH 3 ) 4 ] SO 4 [Cu (NH 3 ) 4 ] SO 4 Complex compound Cu 2+ - central atom NH 3 – ligand [Cu (NH 3 ) 4 ] 2+ - complex ion SO anion

6 Coordination compounds are the compounds in which the central metal atom is linked to а number of ions or neutral molecules by coordinate bonds i.е. by donation of lone pairs of electrons by these ions or neutral molecules to the central metal atom. nickel tetracarbonyl, [Ni(CO) 4 ]

7 the species formed by linking of а number of ions or molecules by co-ordinate bonds to the central metal atom (or ion) carries positive or negative charge, it is called a complex ion. [Fe(СN) 6 ] 4-, [Cu(NH 3 ) 4 ] 2+, [Ag(CN) 2 ] -

8 The donor atoms, molecules or anions, which donate а pair of electrons to the metal atom and form co-ordinate bond with it are called ligands.

9 If only one donor atom is present in its molecule, which can coordinate, then it is called as unidentate (monodentate). : NH 3, Н 2 О and CN -. The ligand may contain two donor atoms (coordinating groups) positioned in such а way then it is called bidentate chelating ligand The ring is called chelate ring and the resulting complex is called а metal chelate.

10 The complexes formed by Cu (II) and Pt (II) ions with ethylenediamine are metal chelates represented as follows: The complexes formed by Cu (II) and Pt (II) ions with ethylenediamine are metal chelates represented as follows:

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12 Some important characteristics of chelates. Some important characteristics of chelates. (i) Chelating ligands form more stable complexes than the monodentate analogs. This is called chelating effect. (i) Chelating ligands form more stable complexes than the monodentate analogs. This is called chelating effect. (ii) Chelating ligands, which do not contain double bonds e.g. ethylenediamine form five membered stable rings. The chelating ligands such as acetylacetone form six membered stable ring complexes. (ii) Chelating ligands, which do not contain double bonds e.g. ethylenediamine form five membered stable rings. The chelating ligands such as acetylacetone form six membered stable ring complexes. (iii) Ligands with large groups form unstable rings than the ligands with smaller groups due to steric hindrance. (iii) Ligands with large groups form unstable rings than the ligands with smaller groups due to steric hindrance.

13 Coordination number. The total number of monodentate ligands (plus double the number of bi dentate ligands if any) attached to the central metal ion through coordinate bonds is called the coordination number of the metal ion. Coordination number. The total number of monodentate ligands (plus double the number of bi dentate ligands if any) attached to the central metal ion through coordinate bonds is called the coordination number of the metal ion. [Ag(СN) 2 ] -, [Cu(NН 3 ) 4 ] 2+ and [Cr(Н 2 О) 6 ] 3 [Ag(СN) 2 ] -, [Cu(NН 3 ) 4 ] 2+ and [Cr(Н 2 О) 6 ] 3

14 Coordination sphere. The central atom and the ligands which are directly attached to it are enclosed in square brackets and are collectively termed as the coordination sphere. The central atom and the ligands which are directly attached to it are enclosed in square brackets and are collectively termed as the coordination sphere.

15 Oxidation number or oxidation state. It is а number that represents an electric charge which an atom or ion actually has or appears to have when combined with other atoms, oxidation number of copper in [Cu(NH 3 ) 4 ] 2+ is +2 but coordination number is 4. oxidation number of Fe in [Fe(СN) 6 ] 3- is + 3 but the coordination number is 6. (i) [Cu (NН З ) 4 ]SO 4. (ii) Fe in [Fe (СN) 6 ] 3- (iii)К 3 [Fe(С 2 О 4 ) 3 ]. (iv) [Ni(CO) 4 ].

16 Charge on the complex ion. The charge carried by а complex ion is the algebraic sum of the charges carried by central metal ion and the ligands coordinated to the central metal ion. The charge carried by а complex ion is the algebraic sum of the charges carried by central metal ion and the ligands coordinated to the central metal ion. [Ag (CN) 2 ]- [Ag (CN) 2 ]- [Cu (NH 3 ) 4 ] 2+ [Cu (NH 3 ) 4 ] 2+

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18 Charge coordination number example of the metal ion +1 2 Ag +, Cu , 6 Cu 2+, Zn 2+, Pd 2+, Pt , 4 Pt 4+, Cr 3+, Co 3+, Fe Sn 4+ Co-ordination Werners theory

19 [Co(NН 3 ) 6 ] Cl 3, hexaamminecobalt (III) chloride. [Co(NН 3 ) 6 ] Cl 3, hexaamminecobalt (III) chloride. K 2 [PtCl 6 ], potassium hexachloroplatinate (IV). K 2 [PtCl 6 ], potassium hexachloroplatinate (IV). [Co(NO 2 )(NH 3 ) 3 ], triamminetrinitrocobalt (III) [Co(NO 2 )(NH 3 ) 3 ], triamminetrinitrocobalt (III) [PtCl 4 (NH 3 ) 2 ], diamminetetrachloroplatinum (IV). [PtCl 4 (NH 3 ) 2 ], diamminetetrachloroplatinum (IV).

20 (i) Negative ligands end in – o: CN - (cyano), Cl - (chloro), Br - (bromo), F - (fluorо), NO 2 - (nitro), ОН - (hydroxo), О 2- (охо), SO 4 2- (sulphato), С 2 О 2 2- (oxalato), NН 2 - (amido ), NH 2- (imido), ONO - (nitrito), NO 3 - (nitrato), SCN - (thiocyanato), NCS - (isothiocyanato), СН 2 (NН 2 )COО - (glycinato)etc.

21 (ii) Neutral ligands have no special ending: NН 3 (ammine), Н 2 О (aqua), CO (carbonyl), CS (thiocarbonyl) and NO (nitrosyl)

22 (iii) Positive ligands (which are very few) end in -ium, е.g., NН 3 + (hydrazinium), NO + (nitrosonium), NО 2 + (nitronium).

23 (iv) Organic ligunds. Organic free radicals are given their own names. For example, СН 3 (methyl), С 2 Н 5 (ethyl), С 6 Н 5 (phenyl), С 5 Н 5 (cyclopentadienyl). For organic neutral molecules, their names are used. For example, Р(С 6 Н 5 ) 3, triphenylphosphine;

24 (v) Unidentate ligands with more than one co-ordinating atoms. It is essential to designate the point of attachment of а ligand by placing the symbol of the donor atom attached after that; name of the groups separated by hyphen. These ligands are called ambidentate ligands е.g., in thiocyanate and nitrite ions, we have two options each. SCN, thiocyanate - NО 2 - nitro NCS, isothiocyanate - ONO, nitrite

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26 Types of complexes. (i) А complex in which the complex ion carries а net positive charge is called cationic complex: [Co(NН 3 )] 3+, [Ni(NH 3 ) 6 ] 2+ (i) А complex in which the complex ion carries а net positive charge is called cationic complex: [Co(NН 3 )] 3+, [Ni(NH 3 ) 6 ] 2+ (ii) А complex in which the complex ion carries а net negative charge is called anionic complex: [Ag(CN) 2 ] -, [Fe (CN) 6 ] 4- (ii) А complex in which the complex ion carries а net negative charge is called anionic complex: [Ag(CN) 2 ] -, [Fe (CN) 6 ] 4- (iii) А complex carrying no net charge is called а neutral complex or simply а complex: (iii) А complex carrying no net charge is called а neutral complex or simply а complex: [Ni(CO) 4 ], [CoCl 3 (NН 3 ) 3 ] [Ni(CO) 4 ], [CoCl 3 (NН 3 ) 3 ]

27 1. With one central atom Ammonia complex [Cu(NH 3 ) 4 ]SO 4 Aqua complex[Al(H 2 O) 6 ]Cl 3 acidic complex K 2 [PtCl 4 ] complex with difference ligands K[Pt(NH 3 )Cl 3 ] cyclic (chelates) Polycentral compoynds Chain [Cr(NH 3 ) 5 – OH – (NH 3 )Cr]Cl 3 chelaes (CO) 5 Mn – Mn(Co) 5 Main types of complex compounds Me O O O O C C NH 2 CH 2 C O N N H2CH2C HOOC COOH CH 2 Me H2CH2C CH 2 C O O O

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29 Thank you for attention


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