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Acid-Base Chemistry Todays Objective Predict the products of neutralization reactions. Tentative Test Date Monday, April 19 th.

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Presentation on theme: "Acid-Base Chemistry Todays Objective Predict the products of neutralization reactions. Tentative Test Date Monday, April 19 th."— Presentation transcript:

1 Acid-Base Chemistry Todays Objective Predict the products of neutralization reactions. Tentative Test Date Monday, April 19 th

2 Neutralization Reactions Acid + Base Salt + Water Salt = Ionic Compound Example HCl + Ca(OH) 2 CaCl 2 + H 2 O Water BaseSalt Acid

3 Example #1 Carbonic acid is used to neutralize potassium hydroxide. H 2 CO 3 + KOH K 2 CO 3 + H 2 O Most neutralization reactions are double replacement reactions, so the two positive ions switch places! 2 2

4 Example #2 Magnesium hydroxide is a common active ingredient in antacids. It can neutralize the excess hydrochloric acid in your stomach. Mg(OH) 2 + HCl MgCl 2 + H 2 O 2 2

5 Acid-Base Chemistry Todays Objective Determine the relative pH of salts produced in neutralization reactions. Perform calculations related to titrations. Tentative Test Date Monday, April 19 th

6 Strong versus Weak Strong Electrolytes Completely Dissociate HA H + + A - Weak Electrolytes Partially Dissociate HA H + + A - Assume you have a strong acid and a weak acid of the same concentration. 1.Which acid would have a higher concentration of H + ions? 2.Which acid would have a lower pH or be more acidic? The Strong Acid

7 List of Strong Acids & Bases Strong Acids Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Hydrobromic Acid (HBr) Hydroiodic Acid (HI) Nitric Acid (HNO 3 ) Sulfuric Acid (H 2 SO 4 ) Perchloric Acid (HClO 4 ) Strong Bases Group 1A Hydroxides Example: NaOH Barium Hydroxide Ba(OH) 2 Strontium Hydroxide Sr(OH) 2 MEMORIZE ME!!

8 Concentrated vs Dilute Concentrated Larger Quantities of Solute in a Given Amount of Solvent Higher Molar Concentrations Does not depend on whether the solute is strong or weak Dilute Larger Quantities of Solute in a Given Amount of Solvent Lower Molar Concentrations Does not depend on whether the solute is strong or weak

9 Whats What? Looking at the Petri dish models, categorize them as one of the following. Strong and Concentrated Strong and Dilute Weak and Concentrated Weak and Dilute

10 Salts of Neutralization Reactions AcidBaseSalt Strong Neutral WeakStrongBasic StrongWeakAcidic Weak Need More Information

11 Example #1 Write the neutralization reaction that occurs between nitric acid and aluminum hydroxide. Determine if the salt produced will be acidic, basic, neutral, or if more information would be needed. 3 HNO 3 + Al(OH) 3 Al(NO 3 ) 3 + 3 H 2 O Strong Acid Weak Base Acidic Salt

12 Example #2 Write the neutralization reaction that occurs between phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide. Determine if the salt produced will be acidic, basic, neutral, or if more information would be needed. 2 H 3 PO 4 + 3 Ca(OH) 2 Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + 6 H 2 O Weak Acid Weak Base ???? Salt We would need more information!

13 Titrations A titration is a laboratory procedure used for determining the concentration of an unknown solution. A Buret Filled with the Titrant An Erlenmeyer Flask with the Analyte Ring Stand

14 Example #1 In the prep room, there is a mystery solution of NaOH. Mrs. Stiles wants to determine its concentration, so she titrates a 25.0mL sample of NaOH solution using 0.25M sulfuric acid. If it takes 33.0mL of sulfuric acid to neutralize the base, determine the concentration of the NaOH solution. Steps to Solve Write a BALANCED chemical reaction. Determine the moles of KNOWN solution. Use a molar ratio to determine the moles of UNKNOWN solution. Determine the concentration of the UNKNOWN solution.

15 Example # 1 - Continued H 2 SO 4 + 2 NaOH Na 2 SO 4 + 2 H 2 O Moles of KNOWN = Moles of Sulfuric Acid 0.00825 mol H 2 SO 4

16 Example #1 - Continued H 2 SO 4 + 2 NaOH Na 2 SO 4 + 2 H 2 O

17 Example #2 A 10.0mL sample of acetic acid is analyzed using calcium hydroxide as the base. If a student used 30.0mL of a 0.15M solution of calcium hydroxide to completely react with the sample of acetic acid, determine the concentration of the acetic acid. 2 HC 2 H 3 O 2 + Ca(OH) 2 Ca(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 + 2 H 2 O

18 Example #2 - Continued A 10.0mL sample of acetic acid is analyzed using calcium hydroxide as the base. If a student used 30.0mL of a 0.15M solution of calcium hydroxide to completely react with the sample of acetic acid, determine the concentration of the acetic acid. 2 HC 2 H 3 O 2 + Ca(OH) 2 Ca(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 + 2 H 2 O 0.0045 mol Ca(OH) 2

19 Example #2 - Continued A 10.0mL sample of acetic acid is analyzed using calcium hydroxide as the base. If a student used 30.0mL of a 0.15M solution of calcium hydroxide to completely react with the sample of acetic acid, determine the concentration of the acetic acid. 2 HC 2 H 3 O 2 + Ca(OH) 2 Ca(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 + 2 H 2 O


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