2 Acid Definitions:Arrhenius Acid- Any substance which releases H+ (hydrogen ions or protons) in water.Rxn: HX H2O H3O X-(acid) (water) (hydronium ion) (conjugate base)Bronsted(Lowry) Acid- A proton(H+) donor.Rxn: HX H X-(acid) (Proton) (conjugate base)
3 Write the dissociation reaction for each acid: Arrhenius Bronsted HCl HCl HNO3 HNO3 HClO4 HClO4 H2CO3 H2CO3 HC2H3O2 HC2H3O2 H3PO4 H3PO4
4 Properties of Acids Acids: 1) Sour Taste 2) Turn litmus RED 3) Electrolytes-Acids release ions in water4) Corrosive-cause chemical burns5) Can react with metals to produce H2 gas6) Acids Bases Salts H2O(Neutralization Rxn) (ionic compounds)
5 Strong Acids- 100% dissociation in H20 Weak Acids- less than 5% dissociation in H2O Dissociation Rxn: HX H X-There are only 6 strong acids, all others are weak:HCl hydrochloric acid (stomach acid AKA muriatic acid)HBr hydrobromic acidHI hydroiodic acid4) HClO4 perchloric acid (strongest of all acids)5) HNO3 nitric acid (Used to make fertilizers & explosives)6) H2SO4 sulfuric acid (Most produced chemical Worldwide, Car Battery Acid)
6 Base DefinitionsArrhenius Base- any substance which releases OH- (hydroxide ions) in water.Reaction: MetalOH Metal OH-Bronsted(Lowry) Base- a proton(H+) acceptor.Reaction: X HOH HX OH-This reaction is called hydrolysis of water rxn.
7 Properties of Bases Bases: 1) Bitter Taste 2) Turn litmus BLUE 3) Electrolytes-bases release ions in water4) Corrosive-cause chemical burns5) Bases dissolve animal protein(slippery, soap)6) Acids + Bases Salts H2O
8 Strong Bases-completely (100%) ionize in water. There are 8 strong bases(All Arrhenius Bases):LiOH lithium hydroxideNaOH sodium hydroxideKOH potassium hydroxideRbOH rubidium hydroxideCsOH cesium hydoxideCa(OH)2 calcium hydroxideSr(OH)2 strontium hydroxideBa(OH)2 barium hydroxide
17 Neutralization Reaction- the rxn between an acid + base salt + water Most neutralization rxns are double replacement rxns between arrhenius acid + arrhenius baseHX + MOH MX HOHHCl + Mg(OH)2 _____ + _____H3PO NaOH _____ + _____HClO Ca(OH)2 _____ + ____________ + ________ Na2CO H2OHC2H3O2 + Ba(OH)2 _______ + _____
18 Amphoteric- a substance which can act as either an acid(donate H+) or a base(accept H+). H2O is amphoteric:It can release a H+: HOH H OH- (hydroxide ion)It can accept a H+: HOH H+ H3O+(hydronium ion)Amphoteric species can also form during the dissociation of a polyprotic acid:Acid proton Conj. BaseH3PO4 ↔ H H2PO4-H2PO4- ↔ H HPO42-HPO ↔ H PO43-
19 Titration- a reaction used to find the conc. of an unknown solution. If a titration is between an acid and a base:NaVa = NbVbN= normailty, N=M x #of equivalents(#H+’s or #OH-’s)V = volumeEx: What volume of 0.556M HCl will neutralize 50.0 mL of 0.335M Sr(OH)2?
20 38. 5 mL of 0. 750M H2SO4 neutralizes 50. 0 mL of NaOH 38.5 mL of 0.750M H2SO4 neutralizes 50.0 mL of NaOH. What is the molarity of NaOH?20.0 mL of 1.25M KOH neutralizes 25.0 ml H2SO3. What is the molarity of acid?
21 Name___________ pH Review, Pre-AP Chemistry Solution pH pOH [H+] [OH-] [H3O+] Acidic/BasicX 10-12M4Draw a detailed pH scaleHow many ml of 0.25M HCl will neutralize 25.0ml of 0.40M NaOH?What is the molarity of 325mL of Sr(OH)2 that neutralized 255 mL of M H3PO4