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NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS Section 21.1

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Neutralization Reactions Acid + Base Water + salt Hydronium ions + hydroxide ions water + water H 3 O + + OH - H 2 O + H 2 O Examples: HCl + NaOH H 2 O + NaCl H 2 SO 4 + 2KOH 2H 2 O + K 2 SO 4 All neutralization reactions are double displacement reactions

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Titrations Standard Solution The solution of known concentration Titration The process of a specific amount of a known solution to an unknown solution to determine the molarity of the unknown solution End Point When the indicator shows that neutralization has occurred

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Example graph of end point

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Sample Problem A 25mL solution of H 2 SO 4 is completely neutralized by 18mL of 1.0 M NaOH using phenolphthalein as an indicator. What is the concentration of the H 2 SO 4 solution? H 2 SO 4 + 2NaOH 2H 2 O + Na 2 SO4 25mL H 2 SO 4 1L H 2 SO 4 1.0 mol H 2 SO 4 2 mol NaOH 1000mL = 0.36M NaOH 1000mL 1 L H 2 SO 4 1 mol H 2 SO 4 18mL NaOH 1L Use stoichiometry to go from mL of your known solution to find Molarity (mol/L) of your unknown solution

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