3Before we go any further with Planned Discussion, let’s cover some prerequisite (got to have them!) skills for getting act together.Describing behaviorCategorizing behaviorTeaching replacement behaviorsDoing these well will make Planned Discussion go better—got to do these at Step 1 before you talk with the student. Will also enhance how all the Early-Stage Interventions perform.
4Heard these statements before? What Do They Mean? Michael is just impossible!Jennifer is so scattered!Charlie is so immature!Gary is hyperactive!Eric is disruptive—driving me crazy!
5Does This Help?Impossible= Stuck his foot out and tripped a student 5 times in one day.Scattered= Did not hand in homework for 3 of 5 days this week.Immature= Won’t share things in center and cries when he doesn’t get his way.Hyperactivity= Ran to pencil sharpener 3 times during a 5-minute period.Disruptive= Throws paper wads and sings during story time.
6For example . . . General Category Specific Behaviors Non-Compliance Head down, refuses to work, makes excuses, argues with teachersDisruptionBlurting out, throwing small objects at peers, teasing peersVerbal AggressionProfanity, yelling at peers and staff, making threats
7Teaching Replacement Behaviors (The Behaviors You Want!) Many students haven’t learned the appropriate behaviors and need lessons to learn what appropriate behavior looks like and sounds like.Your goal is to identify positive opposites of the identified misbehaviors. Will want to teach new behaviors, replacement behaviors or strategies.Will need to describe, model, role-play, and coach—not just tell the student what to do.Just like a good coach in athletics, the purpose here is to teach and practice essential behaviors (skills) until they become automatic while providing lots of feedack.
8Replacement Behaviors Blurting out For example, if blurting out is one of the misbehaviors that concerns you, perhaps your replacement behaviors might look like this.Specific MisbehaviorReplacement BehaviorsBlurting outQuietly raise hand without waving itDon’t talk until called uponStay in your seatYour answer needs to connect or relate to the teacher’s question
9Summary of Intervention Steps Identify the Central ConcernEstablish a focusDetermine who should participate in the discussionSchedule the discussionMake and appointmentKeep a written record.Prepare to meet with Student
11Summary of Intervention Steps Work with student to define concernBrainstorm actions that each participant in the discussion can take to help the student resolve the concernSet up an informal action plan by selecting a couple of ideasSchedule a follow-up meeting within one to two weeksLeave with words of encouragementMeet with Student
12Summary of Intervention Steps Encourage effort and follow-up with positive verbal feedbackMeet with student weekly and revise the plan when necessaryDetermine whether more structured interventions are necessaryFollow up with Student
13Activity Choose a partner at your table. Brainstorm a list of potential behaviors that you would consider using planned discussion as an interventionIdentify what barriers you see in implementing this strategiesBe prepared to report out in five minutes
15Types of behavior that may be positively affected by academic interventions: Incomplete or late work Class clown behaviors Attention problemsShy or withdrawn behaviors Cheating Poor motivationDisruptive behavior Tantrums Anger or hostilityLying Lack of energy StealingPoor self concept Complaints about health
16“The simplest way to ensure that students expect success is to make sure they achieve it consistently.Brophy, 1987
17BIG PICTURE for Academic Assistance Written by Marilyn Sprick.50% to 70% of behavioral problems have a contributing, but often hidden, academic problem(s).May be dealing with student’s negative self-perception and lack of motivation (i.e., doesn’t expect to be successful academically and, therefore, misbehaves).Has the most content and forms of all 18 interventions in book!
18Rationale: Behavior and academic success are interwoven Page 6Rationale:Behavior and academic success are interwovenAcademic problems are not always obvious.Expectancy X Value = MotivationExpectancy: The degree to which one expects to be successful at the task.Value: The degree to which one values the rewards that accompany task success.
20Motivating Students What Principal Once Told Me . . . You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make him drink . . .However, you can salt his oats. . .which will encourage the horse to drink!The same principle applies tomotivating students!
21Why you should never stop working to motivate students. . . “People often say that motivation doesn’t last. Well, neither does bathing.That’s why we recommenddoing both daily.”Zig Ziglar
22Summary of 11 Adaptation Strategies Focus assignments on essential course content and skills.Focus test items on essential course content and skills.Build cumulative review of essential objectives into subsequent units of instruction.Construct and use framed outlines.Design and use interactive graphic organizers.Identify and preteach essential vocabulary words.
23Summary of 11 Adaptation Strategies Highlight textbooks and printed materials.Transcribe or summarize highlighted text.Provide two-column study guides.Provide framed writing assignments.Teach the students to manage their homework.
24Activity Choose a different partner Identify early warning system you can implement to monitor students need for academic assistance.What if any universal screeners are you using to assess students current skillsBe willing to share with the group in 8 minutes
26Purpose:To assist any student who has difficulty with motivation and may not understand how to reach a goal. Goal setting helps students identify what they hope to accomplish and actions they can take to reach their goals.
27Types of behavior that may be positively affected: Goal Setting assists students in achieving short- and long-range goals with just about any behavior or motivation-related problem. These problems may include:Minor misbehavior Annoying habitsConduct problems Negative attitudeLack or organization Neglect/deprivationAlthough goal setting is especially effective with at-risk students, the process can benefit all children.
28Rationale: Some students lack direction. Students who have experienced repeated failure have difficulty setting realistic goals.Goal setting:Increases clarity of expectationsHelps set attainable goalsCan increase motivation.Learning to set and achieve realistic goals is a lifelong skill that allows students to develop purpose and control.
29Insights and Tips for Goal Setting SHORT-TERM Goal SettingHelp student achieve specific goals (such as improving grades, or it can help the student to develop positive traits) within the year.Sets up what the student and teacher do as well as how to deliver reinforcers, evaluate, and support.LONG-TERM Goal SettingDesigned for students lacking life goals and/or don’t see the value in school.Works better with older students (grades >4).Can tie into short-term goals.Book has 6 different versions of forms to help the teacher in setting goals.
30Goal Setting Step 1: Develop a plan (a.k.a. Get Your Act Together) Review the problem and overall student goals by identifying strengths, desired outcomes, collected information, focus on short-range or long-range goals, include corrective consequences and rewards.Decide if the goals will be developed collaboratively with the student or unilaterally by the teacher.Select the goal-setting format: formal vs. informal, short- range vs. long-range, use one of forms in book or develop your own.Determine who will meet with the student.Set-up the goal-setting conference.
31Goal Setting Step 2: Meet with the student Help the student establish long-range goals if needed. Identify specific actions he or she is willing to take to reach his or her goals.What kind of life he or she would like to have in the future. What kind of residence, car, job and/or family can the student envision?Help the student determine qualifications for the types of jobs that may be of interest.Identify immediate actions the student can take to move toward this goal by building a “backward plan” that identifies what the student will have to do to reach that goal. Brainstorm actions to avoid and actions to take.Summarize the information and complete the appropriate long-range form.
32Goal Setting Step 2: Meet with the student Help the student establish short-range goals.Brainstorm actions to avoid and actions to take—what the student can do to find greater success in school.Help the student identify specific actions he is willing to take ot reach his short-term goals.Identify ways that adults might be able to help the student reach goals.If using rewards, a structured reinforcement system, or corrective consequences, make sure the student understands all of the contingencies.Set up regular times for follow-up and to discuss progress.Review responsibilities, summarize the information developed in the conference, and sign the appropriate goal setting form.
34Goal Setting Step 3: Provide ongoing support and encouragement. Provide frequent positive feedback when the goal behaviors are shown, linking them to the broad label or trait.When student is not successful, correct calmly. Avoid sounding disappointed or reproachful.Evaluate the impact of the intervention, making revisions and adjustments when necessary.Encourage the student to keep striving toward his goals.
35Activity Choose a different partner Discuss with your partner your own professional goals for the upcoming yearBrainstorm your listIdentify one or two goals that you are most committed to working on during the yearCreate your planShare your goal with the groupYou have 20 minutes to complete this activity
37Rationale: Gathering data often solves the problem all by itself. Why? Placebo or Hawthorne EffectAddresses “awareness” problemsTells the student you areConveys you care and you are serious!Data will form the basis for any subsequent intervention planning (e.g., later highly structured interventions by school team).Use of data is the only way to determine objectively whether your interventions are working.There are many different forms for collecting data in the book that cover different ages and types of problems. Completed samples are included in book.
38The measure of success is not whether you have a tough problem to deal with, but whether it’s the same problem you had last year (or in this case, last week!).John Foster Dulles
39BIG PICTURE for Data Collection and Debriefing Teachers not be experienced at collecting behavior data.The more comfortable teachers become at collecting and looking at data, the more objective and confident they will be.This is the “O” in STOIC!It is an effective consequence because it is brief, easy to do, and not emotional. Plus, other kids see you doing it!You will also be less inclined to go with subjective perceptions and impressions.Probably wouldn’t want to start with this. Go with Planned Discussion, Academic Assistance and maybe Goal Setting first.
40BIG PICTURE for Data Collection and Debriefing Need to make sure the teacher nails down the behavior for which data is being collected (a.k.a., target behavior) and that it is measurable. That is, something that you can:SeeHearSmell?Feel?Keep the data collection simple!What you are seeking when establishing the baseline of the target behavior:WhenWhereHow often (frequency)Duration
41Summary of Intervention Steps Step 1: Choose an objective data collection method. Data can be collected using any of the following methods:Weekly Misbehavior Recording SheetBasic frequency countAdvanced frequency countDuration recording (i.e., how long did it last?)Latency recording (how long before the student complied?)Rating scale (e.g., teacher rates the intensity, disruption or disturbance on a rating of 1 to 5).As I show you different SIMPLE observation methods, think which method might work best for your selected student for the Planned Discussion and his/her behavior concerns.
44Frequency Count Blurting Out in Class Teacher Directed InstructionIIII IIII IIII IIII IIICooperative GroupsIIII IIIIIndependent WorkIWhat does this simple frequency count data say about when this student blurts out in class. Care to speculate why he blurts out?Must interpret the data within the context of your knowledge about the student’s needs, class situations, etc. Could be due to awareness, ability, attention, control, etc. More later.
45Other Data Collection OPTIONS: Could video tape. Students get used to the camera. Need a wide angle and sound.Could have another teacher observe. Select time where misbehavior is an issue.If it’s difficult to nail down or even count the behavior, keep a daily anecdotal log in which you note what occurred on that day. Usually, anecdotal notes will help you define the nature of the problem in a more objective manner. See next slide for sample.
49BIG PICTURE for E: Increasing Positive Interactions Can be a tough skill for teachers to master due to the research about many teachers having a 3:1 to 15:1 ratio in favor of negative interactions over positive.School in Lexington (KY) started tracking positive notes home and comparing them to office referrals. Found as the number of notes sent home increased, office referrals dropped.It isn’t your tone (how nice you are)—it is to what behavior you attend to. What was the student doing when you interacted with him/her?Provides a 3-step process for teacher to increase ratio of POSITIVE interactions (RPI).
50Purpose: Simple but very powerful intervention. To increase the number of positive interactions so that the student is receiving at least a ratio of 3:1 positive interactions over negative interactions.Outcomes should be:Improved student behavior and motivationImproved student self-esteemMore time to teach and less time correcting
51Types of behavior that may be positively affected: Increasing positive interactions may be effective with any chronic misbehavior, such as:Disruptive behavior Arguing Tattling Creating excuses Teasing Negotiating Off-task behavior Distractibility The clingy child Helplessness
52Some tough students learn this about their teacher . . . Work hard and she/he will ignore you.Screw up and she/he will be there for you every 2-3 minutes.
53Positive Interactions Ratio (RPI) We know that responding to appropriate student behavior is a very POWERFUL tool in motivating students to choose appropriate behavior.Research over the years has shown clear evidence that:Most teachers pay attention more often to negative behavior than positive behavior—anywhere from a ratio of 3:1 to 15:1 negative over positive.Yet, highly effective teachers do the opposite as they interact with students more often when they are behaving appropriately (positively) than when they misbehave. Their ratio is at least 3:1 positive over negative.In fact, recent research shows that a ratio of 5:1 or 10:1 is considered optimal for establishing a positive relationship with a student.
54Positive and Negative Interactions Just want do we mean by interaction?Positive Interactionpositive feedback in response to appropriate academic or social behavior andnon-contingent attentionNegative Interactionswhen teachers respond to a student’s academic or social misbehavior (even if it is done in a nice way!).
55RPI Is the Interest on Your Behavior Account! Think of ratio of positive interactions as being your interest rate for putting money into the bank:If more is going out (negative interactions), you aren’t earning any “interest” and may actually run out of money (e.g., student less likely to comply). Being bankrupt with your RPI is not good!If you are putting more in via positive interactions, you will earn some interest (more positive behavior from the student).If you put lots more in (5x’s to 10x’s more than you take out), there will be a big payoff!Research shows that most teachers and school staff members attend primarily to inappropriate behavior displayed by students. In turn, they ignore appropriate behavior. Some research shows the ratio of 12:1 to 15:1 for adults attending to inappropriate behavior.What staff members often don’t realize is that non-contingent attention is the easies way to build up your ratio in favor of attending to appropriate behavior. Just establishing eye contact and smiling is one positive connection!
56Summary of Intervention Steps Step 1: Plan more positive interactionsReview the problem and identify your overall goal for the student.Examine your ratio of positive to negative interactions (RPI) with the student. Yikes!Tape (audio or video) or have another staff member observe during times when the student is most likely to misbehave in order to assess the ratio of interactions, not to evaluate the teacher. More on this in a minute.There is a form in the book or you can simply record frequency under “+” and “-”.
57Non-Contingent Attention Non-contingent attention is giving the student attention that is not contingent or dependent on any special accomplishment.When a student feels noticed and valued, he/she is more likely to engage in appropriate behavior.Caution: don’t try to be the student’s best friend/buddy. You’re still the teacher. Goal is to establish and maintain a positive relationship with the student.
58Positive Feedback Must Be Accurate Positive feedback and praise must be accurate/credible (behavior must have actually happened!).It is more effective when initiated by the teacher.Providing positive feedback in private is more effective than feedback given in front of others. Can be distracting and/or embarrassing if done during class discussions, especially for older students.
59Positive Feedback Must Be Specific and Descriptive Got to be specific and descriptive:Be sure to tell them what they are doing right!Just telling the student the response is correct (or providing the correct answer if incorrect) can have a positive impact on achievement, but the more you can describe, the greater the positive impact.
60Positive Feedback Must Be Specific and Descriptive Got to be specific and descriptive:When giving feedback, what you say should be loaded with information about:What was done correctlyWhat was useful or importantInstead of saying “good paper,” say “excellent organization of thought, use of vocabulary, and use of figurative language.”Instead of saying “good behavior,” say “you stayed in your seat, raised your hand to ask for help, and read a book when you finished the assignment.”
61Positive Feedback Must Be Given For Something Important Making a big deal out of something routine or not important is ineffective. There are 3 situations where positive feedback needs to be given:a skill or behavior that is new for student— needs to hear what was done correctly because he/she is less likely to evaluate him/herself.a skill or behavior that remains difficult for student and requires lots of effort—without positive feedback, the student is more likely to give up.anything the student is proud of and shares with you—student values your attention and feedback
62Positive Feedback Needs to be Age-Appropriate & Fit Your Style 4. It must be age-appropriate and given in a manner that fits your personal style.Plus you want to deliver positive to older students in such a way as to avoid embarrassing them.
63Positive Feedback Needs to be Age-Appropriate How to give positive feedback:Use a quiet voice (being loud could embarrass)Be briefBe business-like and avoid being overly excitedAvoid pausing afterwards—a pause implies you expect a reply like “Thank You.” For older students, saying thank you is social suicide.
64They may forget what you said but they will never forget how you made them feel. Anonymous
65Activity Find a partner you have not worked with before. Take 2 minutes to brainstorm list of ways to provide non contingent attentionShare the list with your partnerWrite down any ideas that your partner may have generated that you did not.Pick your best 2 ideas to share with the group
67Types of behavior positively affected: Purpose:To assist with any student with chronic misbehaviors that has not responded to simple interventions.Types of behavior positively affected:This intervention may be of benefit with any behavior problem that has been resistant to other early-stage interventions.Uses the STOIC acronym to develop a behavior improvement plan to improve the behavior of one student.
68Rationale:Although effective classroom management is a lifelong learning task, understanding the 5 variables (STOIC) over which you have control takes comparatively little time.This intervention requires more planning and forethought than previous interventions because the problem is chronic and resistant to easy interventions.
69T I C Remember STOIC? S Structure for Success Set physical arrangements, scheduling, and expectations for activities and transitions.TTeach expectations to the student for all classroom situations.Observe and monitor the student and his/her behavior.IInteract positively with the student.CCorrect misbehavior fluently—calmly, consistently, immediately and respectfully.
70Possible functions of behavior and intervention considerations Identify what function the behavior serves—why might the behavior be occurring on such a chronic basis?What is the student achieving or avoiding by exhibiting this misbehavior?Interventions that address the function of a behavior have a much higher chance of success than interventions that do not. The function of every problem behavior fits within one of these three broad categories:
71Reasons/Functions for Misbehavior Why is misbehavior occuring? There are 8 reasons within 3 broad categories.Lack of . . .Ability—physical, neurological, or simply not taughtAwareness—no ideaTrying to get somethingAdult attention—often the casePeer attention—frequently chosen by teachersPower and control—harder to addressCompeting reinforcer—harder to addressTrying to escape or avoid somethingWork too hard/too easy—sometimes hard to seeFeel uncomfortable or embarrassed—can’t stand success
72“I’m recommending that you have your son tested for AD/HD.”
73The student lacks the ability or awareness to meet target expectations. Ability-type problemsSome students act out because they are incapable of exhibiting the expected behavior. Lack of ability should always be considered and ruled out before proceeding with an intervention.Intervention will involve accommodating the situation, not expecting immediate or complete behavior change. Could include teaching replacement behaviors over 2 weeks plus implementing a concrete incentive plan.
74He has NO idea that he is a pain in the . . . ! “Mom, I think I’m the teacher’s pet. She keeps telling me I’m in her doghouse.”He has NO idea that he is a pain in the !
75The student lacks the ability or awareness to meet target expectations. Awareness-typeStudents, like anyone, may exhibit patterns of behavior about which they are almost completely unaware. Bringing the student to a conscious awareness of the problem behavior will make subsequent steps much more successful.Intervention may involve accommodation but should also involve strategies to help the behavior improve over time (for example, self-monitoring or self-evaluation over 2 weeks).
76He does it because he just loves all the attention he gets He does it because he just loves all the attention he gets. For him, the consequences are actually rewards!
78The student is trying to "get" something. Adult attentionStudents may seek to get attention from an adult in inappropriate ways. A student may do the "right" thing in the wrong way, at the wrong time, or way too much, or the student may try to get negative attention.Intervention will involve giving far less attention to the misbehavior while increasing the attention the student receives for positive and appropriate behavior.
79The class was quietly doing its lesson when Russell, suffering from problems at home, prepared to deploy an attention-getting device.
80The student is trying to "get" something. Peer attentionSome students will seek attention from peers by playing the "class clown," the show-off, or by annoying, arguing, bullying, or positioning themselves as the victims of bullying.Intervention will involve trying to increase the amount of attention the student receives in prosocial ways.
81“Mrs. Jennings, I have asked you here today so we could discuss Arnold’s aggressive behavior.”
82The student is trying to "get" something. Power and controlThis is an extreme form of attention-getting behavior in which the student truly seems to want to get adults angry. Teacher’s emotional reactions are very highly reinforcing.Intervention will often involve giving the student control over certain aspects when he or she exhibits positive behaviors, while reducing the control the student elicits from adults for misbehavior.
84The student is trying to "get" something. Competing reinforcersMisbehavior may occur because a student would rather do something other than the assigned task or activity.Intervention will involve reducing access to ouside reinforces, so that the reinforcers inherent to the desired activity are the best and most accessible.
86The student is trying to avoid or escape something. Overly difficult or overly simple workSome students act out to avoid assigned work because it is beyond their current ability or because they find the assignment dull.Intervention will involve adapting instruction to fit the student's academic abilities and needs. See Intervention B and/or talk to specialists in your building or district.
87“Can I come backhere, Miss. Lewis?I don’t like secondgrade.”
88The student is trying to avoid or escape something. DiscomfortMany students go to some length to avoid negative, harsh, or embarrassing situations. Some students avoid interactions with adults who are overly harsh, caustic, or critical.Intervention will include restructuring the student's environment so that exposure to the anxiety-producing stimuli is minimized, while reducing the ways the student can easily escape unpleasant but necessary situations.
89Structure for SuccessChange assigned seating. (Awareness or Attention- Adult or Peer)Change the work requirements. (Ability or Overly Difficult or Too Easy Work)Change the schedule. (Ability or Competing Reinforcer)Change expectations or procedures. (Awareness, Ability or Overly Difficult/Easy Work)Assign a duty or responsibility. (Adult attention)Give the student viable choices. (Power & Control)
90Teach ExpectationsReteach classroom expectations. (Awareness or Ability)Teach the "positive opposite” of a problem behavior (replacement behavior). (Awareness, ability or attention, uncomfortable/avoidance)Teach a particular skill. (Ability, awareness, attention, overly difficult/easy, uncomfortable)Teach social skills (hook up with counselor). (Ability, awareness, control/power, and attention, uncomfortable)
91ObserveCirculate frequently. (Attention, competing reinforcer, overly difficult/easy work, avoidance or uncomfortable)Increase frequency of scanning and monitoring his/her behaviors—catch him/her being good. (Attention, overly difficult/easy work, avoidance or uncomfortable)Collect data and debrief with student. (Awareness, ability, attention)
92Interact PositivelyIncrease frequency of noncontingent attention. (Attention, overly difficult/easy work, avoidance, uncomfortable)Increase frequency of specific praise. (Attention, overly difficult/easy work, avoidance)Maintain >3:1 ratio of attention to positive:negative behavior (RPI). (Attention, overly difficult/easy work, avoidance, uncomfortable)
93Correct FluentlyPreplan responses so your reaction does not interrupt the flow of instruction. (Attention, overly difficult work, avoidance, uncomfortable)Be sure your correction eliminates or reduces any potential reinforcement of the misbehavior (e.g., giving attention to the misbehavior of a student who thrives on adult attention). (Attention, overly difficult work, avoidance, power/control)
94ActivityAs a campus team please discuss the most problematic behavior that occurred on your campus last year.Prioritize them listing the top three.What is the perceived motivation for these behaviors?What one variable do you need to consider as the new year begins?Please take 15 minutes to discuss this activity
95Teaching Interventions As a team what is your plan for sharing these interventions with the rest of your staff?Please develop a plan for sharing these interventions with colleagues
96Ticket Out the Door Please share your plan with the rest of the room. If someone suggest an idea you have not come up with copy, steal or otherwise plagiarize.