Presentation on theme: "The Basics of Maintenance"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Basics of Maintenance in General AviationDownloaded from
2 U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation AdministrationThis slide will be up on the screen and I will be introducing the next couple of slides.Opening slide that introduces the fact that the FAA is a branch of the Department of Transportation.Downloaded from
3 Basics of Maintenance In General Aviation for Pilots and TechniciansDownloaded from
4 Downloaded from www.avhf.com Aviation Safety Program Manager Airworthiness Representative Richard MilehamFAA-Flight Standards Division2300 E. Devon AveDes Plaines, IL 60018Tel:FAXMake what ever appropriate changes to this slide for our information. leave the slide on screen long enough so those who may be interested in copying it down can do so.They need to know that they can contact you or anyone else in your office if they have even the simplest question!Downloaded from
5 Web Address Richard.Mileham@faa.gov This slide will promote your office and your office manager. The Aviation Safety Program is an office program and and it is appropriate to give credit to your office and your office manager.Please feel free to change this slide with your offices information. It is important to note that at the end of the entire presentation you will be able to once again promote the Safety Program and yourself.
6 OBJECTIVEThis presentation is designed to provide aviators with information concerning aircraft maintenance and preventative maintenance.
7 Ensure the Airworthiness of the Aircraft MAINTENANCEEnsure the Airworthiness of the AircraftIntroduction of subject matter. Preventive Maintenance is an essential component for ensuring the airworthiness of all aircraft.
8 FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS (FAR’s) FAR Part 1: Definitions and AbbreviationsFAR Part 43: Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Rebuilding and AlterationsFAR Part 91: General Operating RulesIntroduction to the FAR’s. Most owners understand FAR Part 61; however, they have not been exposed to the complexity of the maintenance rules.This presentation has been developed to walk the audience through the FAR’s and collate the interrelationship of the FAR’s with respect to performing preventive maintenance.
9 FAR Part 1 Definition of......Preventive Maintenance: “simple or minor preservation operations and the replacement of small standard parts not involving complex assembly operations.”It is important to tie this slide to the next. The definition of preventive maintenance is not embodied within the definition of maintenance.Key words to stress are minor, small replacement parts and not involving complex assembly operation. Example would be the use of simple tools like a screw driver versus a drill and a rivet gun.
11 Definitions continued Maintenance: is;InspectionsOverhaulRepairPreservation andReplacement of PartsInspections are a form of scheduled maintenance.Overhaul is performed by the Mfg.. or designee of the Mfg.. at a specified time to a certification standards.Repair is a form of unscheduled maintenance, may be result of an inspection.Preservation should be done in accordance with mfg..'s instructions.Replacement parts need to be FAA-PMA or TSO’d. Unlike the definition for preventive maintenance, you can replace all parts not just small standard parts.You will now be moving into the specifics of FAR 91. Place your mouse cursor on the icon located in the center of the right main wheel of the cub and click. This will automatically take you into FAR 91.
12 FAR Part 91, Subpart E General Operating and Flight Rules TOOLS You have just moved from FAR 1 into FAR 91. This methodology will allow your audience to transition into the rule that allows for them to perform maintenance on their own aircraft.Introduction to FAR Part 91. The purpose of the handyman is to tie this slide to the next, which explains the maintenance rules found in 91.General OperatingandFlight RulesTOOLS
13 Maintenance Regulations in FAR Part 91 The 400 series of FAR Part 91 states the maintenance regulations for owners and operators.Self explanatory.Provide your audience with a copy of FAR , , , and This is easily done by blocking and printing the info from the FED Library or ATP library that may be installed on your local LAN system.
14 Who is responsible for the Airworthiness of the Aircraft
15 For FAR Part 91 General Aviation Operations, the Owner or Operator is Primarily Responsible You may want to explain that there is a difference when it comes to FAR Part 135, 121, 125 etc., in that the primary responsibility for the airworthiness for air carriers rests with the air carrier and not the owner of the aircraft which in most cases is a leasing company or the pilot.
16 Part 91 continuedSpecifically, FAR (a) states: owner or operator is primarily responsible for maintaining the aircraft in an airworthy condition.This includes compliance with Part 39.FAR Part 39 concerns Airworthiness Directives.Most owners do not understand FAR Part 39. They all should be receiving AD’s in the mail due to the fact that they are the registered owners.Emphasize the need for owners to get involved with the AD, i.e., read it and if they do not understand it ask questions. These AD’s need to be read first by the owner and then taken to their maintenance personnel to be further digested. In some cases the owner does not know what they have received or does not even read the AD.
17 Part 91 continuedFAR (b) states: No person may perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations on an aircraft other than prescribed in this subpart, and other applicable regulations, including Part 43.This may be somewhat confusing to a non FAR knowledgeable person. Explain that the required maintenance prescribed in FAR Part 91 must be done in association with or in accordance with FAR 43.FAR 43 will be discussed later in the presentation but could be described as the “Mother of all aircraft maintenance rules”.
18 Did you knowAll U.S. registered aircraft are required to be maintained in accordance with the Federal Aviation Regulation Part 43 except for one category of aircraft.Factoid. See if anyone in your audience knows which category aircraft are exempted from this requirement.Aircraft that have been certificated in the Experimental Category.
19 Part 91 continuedFAR Maintenance Required, paragraph (b) states: Each owner of an aircraft shall ensure that maintenance personnel make appropriate entries in the aircraft maintenance records indicating the aircraft has been approved for return to service.The owner is required to ensure that a maintenance record entry is made whenever maintenance is performed.In the case of owner performed maintenance, the owner becomes the maintenance personnel that is addressed in this rule.If the owner performs maintenance on an aircraft they own or operate, then the person performing the work must make a maintenance record entry in the appropriate maintenance record.
20 Part 91 continuedFAR (a)(1) states: No person may operate any aircraft that has undergone maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration unless it has been approved for return to service by a person authorized under Part andHand out a copy of the appropriate parts of FAR 43 that are referred to in this presentation.Explain that the details referred to in this slide will soon be discussed.
21 the maintenance record entry required by FAR 43.9 has been made. Part 91 continuedthe maintenance record entry required by FAR 43.9 has been made.There is a rule that specifically addresses the contents of a maintenance record entry.This can be found in FAR 43.9.You will now be moving into the specifics of FAR 43. Place the cursor onto the left navigation light of the Starship and click your mouse. This will automatically take you into FAR 43.
22 FAR 91 requires maintenance to be performed in accordance with FAR 43 Lets take a look at the requirements of FAR 43Introductory slide that transitions into FAR 43. You might mention that the following information comes directly from the _______ colored handout.This statement would obviously depend on the color of the handout you choose.
23 FAR 43.3 Persons Authorized Paragraph (g) states that a holder of a pilot certificate may perform preventive maintenance on any aircraft owned or operated by that pilot.FAR 43.3 authorizes an owner of an aircraft with at least a private pilot’s certificate to perform maintenance on aircraft they own or operate.
24 FAR 43.3 Persons Authorized continued Provided the aircraft is not being used under FAR Part 121, 127, 129, or 135.These particular FAR’s address passenger carrying revenue operations.
25 Remember what FAR 91.405 & 91.407 stated about maintenance records? Refer them to the hand out of FAR 91 that you have already given them. This may well be the first time that they will actually look up a maintenance rule.The next slide has the answer.
26 If maintenance is performed, it must be entered in a maintenance record and approved for return to service by a person authorized.Self explanatory. FAR & have been merged together for clarity.
27 FAR 43.7 Persons Authorized to Approve for Return to Service Paragraph (f) states a person holding at least a private pilot certificate may approve an aircraft for return to service after performing preventive maintenanceThe audience should be encouraged to know that the rule allows for them to perform their own maintenance.If preventive maintenance is performed routinely, timely, with safety as a prerequisite, it can eventually save on the operating expense of their aircraft.Although this is not a concern of the FAA it may encourage pilots to take airworthiness issues a little more seriously.
28 FAR 43.9 Content, Form and Disposition of Preventive Maintenance Records Paragraphs (a)(1),(2) & (4), states each person who performs preventive maintenance shall make an entry in the maintenance record of that equipment containing the following:This rule can not be stressed enough. The documentation of all maintenance including preventive maintenance must be adhered to.Also stress the fact that pilots should review their maintenance records thoroughly after a certificated person has performed any maintenance.
29 A description of the work performed. The date of completionTotal Aircraft Time = TATYour signature, certificate number, and kind of certificate.
30 Now do the look book entry! ie.Private Pilot =PP#Commercial Pilot = CP#ATP = ATP #Now do the look book entry!
31 Airframe Log Book . 01/21/98 TachTime Ima B. Good AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE RECORDDATEDESCRIPTION OF WORK PERFORMEDSIGNATURE01/21/98TAT. 4, Replaced Rt. Main landing gear Tire with GoodyearTach: X6, 6 ply rating .Followed procedures of Cessna Service Manual for replacement of tire. Sec: Par:.....etc..Ima B. GoodPP #TachTime(Optional)24
32 Lets take a look at what types of. preventive. maintenance. you are Lets take a look at what types of preventive maintenance you are authorized to perform!You will transition into all the allowed preventive maintenance tasks. You will need to expand on each bullet from the written text found in the handout FAR 43, Appendix A, paragraph (c) of the rule.All bullets have been abbreviated in order to help the presentation flow.
33 replacing any hose connection except; hydraulic connections Powerplantreplacing any hose connection except;hydraulic connectionsRemoving, checking, and replacing magnetic chip detectors, and Replacing any cowling,Unless `Expand on each item of preventive maintenance.Any portion of this part of the presentation may be deleted depending on your audience. For example, if you were performing this presentation for a glider club, you could delete the portion of the powerplant items since most glider clubs have non powered aircraft. The same would apply for balloonists.
34 is required to get the nose bowl off “UNLESS”Removal of the propis required to get the nose bowl off
35 Powerplant continued replacing prefabricated fuel lines cleaning or replacing fuel and oil strainer or filtersreplacing or cleaning spark plugs and setting gapExpand on each item of preventive maintenance.
36 Landing Gear landing gear tires, servicing struts wheel bearings safety wire or cotter keyslubrication, not requiring disassemblyreplacing wheels and skis where no W&B is involvedExpand on each item of preventive maintenance.
37 Did you say that as a Pilot, I can change my own tires ??
38 Fuselage & Interior Replenishing hydraulic fluid Replacing side windows ??Repairing upholsteryReplacing safety beltsReplacing seats or seat partsExpand on each item of preventive maintenance.
39 Fuselage & Interior continued Expand on each item of preventive maintenance.This could also be deleted for a glider club or balloonists presentation.Replacing & servicing batteries
40 ElectricalTrouble shooting and repairing broken circuits in landing light wiringReplacing bulbs, reflectors, & lenses or position or landing lightsExpand on each item of preventive maintenance.This could also be deleted for a glider club or balloonist presentation.
41 General Preventive Maintenance Items simple fabric patchesrefinishing decorative coatingsapplying preservative or protective materialsmaking simple repairs to fairings, nonstructural itemsExpand on each item of preventive maintenance.
42 General Preventive Maintenance Items continued installation of anti misfueling devicesreplacement or adjustment of nonstruc- tural fastenersExpand on each item of preventive maintenance.The portion of the anti misfueling devices could also be deleted for a glider club or balloonist presentation.
43 Primary Category Aircraft Inspection and maintenance tasks for your aircraft provided you have at least a private pilot’s license, you are the registered owner, and work is performed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.Self explanatory.Additional preventive maintenance items may be allowed over the items aforementioned in FAR 43, Appendix A, paragraph (c), and would be depicted in an approved program. The approval for the program would be part of the original certification (TCDS) or supplemental type certification (STC).The owner must have a certificate of competency for their aircraft.
44 This information can be found in FAR Part 43 Appendix A Paragraph (c), Preventive Maintenance states in part :Preventive Maintenance is limited to the aforementioned work, provided it does not involve complex assembly operations.Let the owners know that their handout material contains all the aforementioned items of preventive maintenance and that they should refer to it when performing preventive maintenance.
46 Airworthiness Certificate Block 6. TERMS AND CONDITIONS Unless sooner surrendered, suspended, revoked, or a termination date is otherwise established by the Administrator, this airworthiness certificate is effective as long as the maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations are performed in accordance with Parts 21, 43, and 91 of the Federal Aviation Regulations, as appropriate, and the aircraft is registered in the United States.7
48 Sample Log Entries&FAR Part 43 Appendix A (c)(English Version)
49 Maintenance Scenario FAR 43.9, FAR 91.417 Aircraft Make: Cessna Date: 01/21/98Model: 172M TAT: 4,625 HrsSerial No Eng: SMOH: 962 HrsEng TT: 2,762 Hrs Prop: TT HrsCessna 172 Service Manual is Available.___Make a Typical log book entry indicating the replacement of theRight main landing gear Tireand typical return to service.You are a Certificated Private Pilot,A&P Mechanic or RepairmanCertificate #
50 . AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE RECORD DATE DESCRIPTION OF WORK PERFORMED SIGNATURE24
51 Airframe Log Book . 01/21/98 Tach Time Ima B. Good AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE RECORDDATEDESCRIPTION OF WORK PERFORMEDSIGNATURE01/21/98TAT. 4, Replaced Rt. Main landing gear Tire with GoodyearTach: X6, 6 ply rating.Followed procedures of Cessna Service Manual for replacement of tire. Sec: Par:.....etc.Ima B. GoodPP #Tach Time(Optional)24
52 Maintenance Scenario FAR 43.9, & FAR 91.417 Aircraft Make: Cessna Date: 01/21/98Model: 172M TAT: 4,625 HrsSerial No Eng: SMOH: 962 HrsEng TT: 2,762 Hrs Prop: TT HrsCessna 172, and Lycoming Service Manual is Available, and AC A, .______________________________________________________Make a Typical log book entry indicating the replacement of theSpark Plugs, and typical return to service.You are a Certificated Pilot, Mechanic,or RepairmanCert #
53 POWERPLANT MAINTENANCE LOG BOOK ENGINE MAINTENANCE RECORDDATEDESCRIPTION OF WORK PERFORMEDSIGNATURE01/21/98Eng: TT:2,762HrsSMOH:962 HrsRemoved and Replaced all spark plugs, installed 8 new Champion REM1234 spark plugsin accordance with Lycoming service instructionsUsed anti seize compound on threads and torqued to specifications as stated in service manual, Eng run and Mag check OK.Ima B. GoodPP#Tach: 962 Hrs(optional)24
54 POWERPLANT MAINTENANCE LOG BOOK ENGINE MAINTENANCE RECORDDATEDESCRIPTION OF WORK PERFORMEDSIGNATURE04/21/98 Changed oil Added 8 Quarts of AeroshellEngine TT2,762 Hrs.50 compounded OilRemoved & Inspected oil screen and re-installedin accordance with service manualSMOH962 Hrs.Ima B. GoodIma B. GoodPP #24
56 RememberOne of the safest items an owner can do before before they they start any preventive maintenance task is to start a checklist. All steps taken to remove, perform, and replace during a preventive maintenance task will be done safety if a checklist is used.This is required for all other forms of maintenance.
57 Airworthiness Safety Program Manager Produced forAirworthiness Safety Program Manager
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