Presentation on theme: "Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) Jenn Maddock and Lana GarrettHealth 3500
2 What is Menopause?Cessation of menstruation as a result of the aging process of or surgical removal of the ovaries; change from fertility to infertility.Physiological changes that take place within women between the ages of 30 to 60.Hormone levels change in female body; practically the production of estrogen.Perimenopause and menopause can last 10 plus years.Menopause itself begins 12 months after a woman’s final period.
3 Symptoms of Perimenopause/Menopause Cycles become irregularErratic or heavy bleedingDecrease in sexual responseIrritability/Mood SwingsFatigueForgetfulness
5 Hormone Replacement Therapy Supplemental hormones: Estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone.Estrogen and progesterone can be made from plants of from synthetic chemicals.Delivery options: pills, patches, creams, inserted into vagina by means of creams, tablets or ring, placed under skin by implants or by injection; future: nasal spray.
6 Benefits of HRTMaintains thickness and vascularity of vaginal and urethral tissue for comfort and lubrication during sexual interaction.Reduces hot flashes and sleep disturbances from night sweats.Protects against osteoporosis and resultant fractures, particularly of the hip.Reduces risk of colon cancer
7 Media Reports of HRTMedia reports: Hazard Ratio- compares the difference between numbers of people in each treatment condition who experienced the health problem or benefit.Example: “The Scientists found a 29% increasein strokes, and a 26% increase in breast cancer.”Absolute Risk- Compares the actual number of people who experience the problem or benefit.Example: Women’s Health Initiative actual report was 8% increase in strokes, and 8% increase for breast cancer.
8 Estrogen Overload? Estrogen in the Environment Diet Metabolism Cow and Chicken Farms-Range FeedPlasticPesticidesDietMetabolism
9 Reducing the amount of Estrogen Research looking at lower doses of HTRBalance of estrogen and progesteroneProgesterone CreamStress ReliefLiver Cleansing
10 Women’s Health Initiative 2002 The study16,608 womenWomen ages 50-79Purpose was to identify risks and benefits of long-term HRT useStopped prematurely because of findings
11 Women’s Health Initiative 2002 Results26 percent increase of invasive breast cancer29 percent increased risk of death from coronary heart disease41 percent increased risk of stroke200 percent increased risk of blood clotsLimitations to the study
12 Risks of HRT Breast cancer Endometrial cancer Cardiovascular disease In 2003 there was 14,000 less cases of breast cancer possibly due to the decrease in women taking HRTIf a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer while taking HRT, she is advised to stop immediately.Endometrial cancerCardiovascular diseaseStrokeBlood clots
13 Side Effects of HRT Weight gain Bloating Breast tenderness Irregular bleedingSome do not take HRT for fear of cancerSome physicians recommend a discontinuation of HRT
14 Alternative Therapies One study indicated 68 percent of women have tried alternative therapies and 62 percent were satisfied with the results.Diet and Exercise are the most common.
15 Alternative Therapies (Diet) Soy isoflavones in soy productsRelieves a number of symptoms, including hot flashes, night sweats, fatigue and vaginal drynessSoy has also been shown to assist the body in absorbing and retaining calcium, suppress bone loss, lower LDL cholesterol and decrease blood clottingRecommended daily amount is 25 grams of soy protein and mg of isoflavones as a starting amount and could gradually increase to two to three times that amountSeen to reduce symptoms in 4 out of 10 women
16 Alternative Therapies (Diet) Black CohoshHas been seen to reduce hot flashesPotential for liver damage and shouldn’t take more than 6 monthsCalcium, magnesium and vitamins D & EMagnesium promotes bone densityRDA is 600 mg, although most Americans only consume 300 mg
17 Alternative Therapies ExerciseA study in Sweden showed that out of 1,323 women, 15 percent sedentary women demonstrated hot flash symptoms compared to only five percent of the physically active subjectsWeight bearing exercises and strength training strengthens bones and muscles, enhances self-esteem and creates a positive outlook, promotes sleep and increases levels of neurotransmitters in the brainSerotonin (calming effect), endorphins (pain killers), and dopamine (alertness and concentration).
18 Alternative Therapies Smoking cessationReduces risk for pretty much everything!Avoiding spicy foods for those who get heartburnCan reduce severity and frequency of hot flashesLimiting or eliminating caffeinePromotes sleepRelaxation methodsHelps with mood swings/irritability
19 Alternative Therapies AcupunctureReflexologyControlling weight and avoiding weight gainPreparing for hot weather by wearing layers of clothing and bringing a small fan
20 Conclusion Controversial subject Limited extensive scientific research Limitations on the studies conductedHRT or not?History of breast cancerPresence of other risk factors