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ATC and IFR Procedures An RCO Creation. Whats this all about? 1.Definitions 2.Airspace 3.Navigation Performance and Separation Standards 4.Controller.

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Presentation on theme: "ATC and IFR Procedures An RCO Creation. Whats this all about? 1.Definitions 2.Airspace 3.Navigation Performance and Separation Standards 4.Controller."— Presentation transcript:

1 ATC and IFR Procedures An RCO Creation

2 Whats this all about? 1.Definitions 2.Airspace 3.Navigation Performance and Separation Standards 4.Controller and Pilot Responsibilities 5.ATC Communications 6.Flow Control 7.Severe Weather Avoidance Plan 8.Washington ADIZ 9.Hudson River Corridor 10. Lower than Standard T/O Operations

3 Definitions Approaches PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE A standard instrument approach procedure in which an electronic glideslope/glidepath is provided

4 Definitions Approaches NONPRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE A standard instrument approach procedure in which no electronic glideslope is provided

5 Definitions Approaches LDA – LOCALIZER TYPE DIRECTIONAL AID A NAVAID used for nonprecision instrument approaches with utility and accuracy comparable to a localizer but which is not a part of a complete ILS and is not aligned with the runway

6 Definitions Airways AIRWAY A class E airspace area established in the form of a corridor, the centerline of which is defined by radio navigational aids Dimensions: An airway includes the airspace within parallel boundary lines 4nm to each side of the centerline. The airspace has a floor of 1200 AGL unless otherwise specified. LOW ALTITUDE AIRWAY STRUCTURE Up to but not including 18,000 MSL JET ROUTE FL180 up to and including FL450

7 Definitions Weather Reporting AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMATION SERVICE (ATIS) The continuous broadcast of recorded noncontrol information in selected terminal areas. Its purpose is to improve controller effectiveness and to relieve frequency congestion by automating the repetitive transmission of essential but routine information AUTOMATED WEATHER SYSTEM Any of the automated weather sensor platforms that collect weather data at airports and disseminate the weather information via radio and/or landline. Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) Automated Weather Sensor System (AWSS) Automated Weather Observation System (AWOS)

8 Definitions Weather Reporting Cont. ASOS vs. AWOS ASOS is more sophisticated than AWOS ASOS can determine: Type and intensity of precipitation Thunderstorms Obstructions to visibility Wind shifts and or peak gusts Rapid pressure change AWOS A01 vs. A02 A01 – a station without a precipitation ID sensor A02 – a station with a precipitation ID sensor

9 Airspace AIM There are 2 categories of airspace or airspace areas: 1. REGULATORY Class A,B,C,D and E airspace Restricted and prohibited areas included 2.NON-REGULATORY Military Operations Areas (MOAs) Warning Areas Alert Areas Controlled Firing Areas

10 Airspace General Structure

11 Airspace Class A Airspace from 18,000 MSL up to and including FL600 Including the airspace overlying the waters within 12 nautical miles off the coast of the 48 contiguous states and Alaska Also designated international airspace beyond 12 nautical miles of f the coast of the 48 contiguous states and Alaska within areas of domestic radio navigational signal or ATC radar coverage, and within which domestic procedures are applied IFR flight plan required No aircraft speed limit

12 Airspace Class B Generally, airspace from the surface to 10,000 MSL surrounding some of the nations busiest airports An ATC clearance is required for all aircraft to operate in the area Mode C Veil Airspace within 30 nm of an airport within class B airspace areas From the surface up to 10,000 MSL Aircraft speed restrictions Unless instructed by ATC all aircraft are restricted to 250 knots indicated below 10,000 MSL In Bravo VFR corridor or below Bravo airspace Restricted to 200 knots indicated

13 Airspace Class B Separation VFR aircraft operating in class B airspace are provided sequencing and separation from other aircraft VFR aircraft are separated from all VFR/IFR aircraft weighing 18,999 lbs or less by a minimum of: Target resolution or 500 vertical separation or Visual separation VFR aircraft are separated from all VFR/IFR aircraft weighing 19,000 lbs or more and turbojets by a minimum of: 1 ½ miles vertical separation or 500 vertical separation or Visual separation

14 Airspace Class C Generally, airspace from the surface up to 4,000 AGL at airports with an operational control tower Serviced by a radar approach control Usually consists of: 5 NM radius core extending from the surface up to 4,000 AGL Also a 10 NM radius shelf area extending no lower than 1,200 AGL up to 4,000 AGL Two-way radio communication must be established prior to entry Aircraft speed restrictions Unless instructed by ATC all aircraft are restricted to 200 knots indicated below 2,500 AGL within 4 NM of the class C airport

15 Airspace Class C Separation Separation is provided within the class C airspace and the outer area after two-way communications and radar contact are established VFR aircraft are separated from all IFR aircraft by a minimum of: Target resolution or 500 vertical separation; except when beneath a heavy jet or Visual separation

16 Airspace Class D Generally, airspace from the surface up to 2,500 AGL at airports with an operational control tower When tower closed the airspace reverts to either class E or G airspace Depends on weather reporting AWOS or ASOS Refer to AFD for type of airspace after hours Two-way communication must be established prior to entry Radio contact should be initiated far enough from the airspace to avoid entering the airspace before radio communications are established Aircraft speed restrictions Unless instructed by ATC all aircraft are restricted to 200 knots indicated below 2,500 AGL within 4 NM of the class D airport No separation services provided to VFR aircraft

17 Airspace Class E Generally, if the airspace is not class A, B, C, or D and it is controlled then it is class E airspace Vertical Limits Except for 18,000 MSL, the airspace has no defined vertical limit Extends upward from either the surface or a designated altitude to the overlying or adjacent controlled airspace Federal Airways Class E airspace areas and unless otherwise specified, extend upward from 1,200 to 17,999 MSL Colored : Green, Red, Amber and Blue VOR airways are classified: Domestic, Alaskan and Hawaiian

18 Airspace Class E Cont. Unless designated at a lower altitude, Class E airspace begins at 14,500 feet MSL to, but not including, 18,000 feet MSL overlying: the 48contiguous States including the waters within 12 miles from the coast A surface area designated for an airport designed to contain instrument approaches Transition areas beginning at either 700 or 1200 feet AGL used to/from the enroute environment

19 Airspace Class G Generally, if the airspace is not class A, B, C, D or E and it is uncontrolled then it is class G airspace Airspace used for transition There are ClassE airspace areas beginning at either 700 or 1,200 feet AGL used to transition to/from the terminal or en route environment. Areas below this transition airspace is class G airspace Class G 1,200 feet or less above the surface (regardless of MSL altitude). Day, except as provided in section (b) 1 statute mileClear of clouds Night, except as provided in section (b) 3 statute miles500 feet below 1,000 feet above 2,000 feet horizontal More than 1,200 feet above the surface but less than 10,000 feet MSL. Day1 statute mile500 feet below 1,000 feet above 2,000 feet horizontal Night3 statute miles500 feet below 1,000 feet above 2,000 feet horizontal More than 1,200 feet above the surface and at or above 10,000 feet MSL. 5 statute miles1,000 feet below 1,000 feet above 1 statute mile horizontal

20 Airspace Basic VFR Weather Minimums AirspaceFlight VisibilityDistance from Clouds Class ANot Applicable Class B3 statute milesClear of Clouds Class C3 statute miles500 feet below 1,000 feet above 2,000 feet horizontal Class D3 statute miles500 feet below 1,000 feet above 2,000 feet horizontal Class E Less than 10,000 feet MSL3 statute miles500 feet below 1,000 feet above 2,000 feet horizontal At or above 10,000 feet MSL 5 statute miles1,000 feet below 1,000 feet above 1 statute mile horizontal

21 Required Navigation Performance RNP aircraft is assumed to be navigating using a combination of: Ground-based NAVAIDS (radio navigation) GPS Inertial guidance systems, which give far greater precision than previously possible. RNP allows ATC to reduce the spacing between aircraft without compromising safety. Certain blocks of airspace are used with RNP standards Only aircraft meeting the designated RNP level for that airspace will be allowed to operate in that area. A statement of the navigation performance necessary for operation within a defined airspace

22 Required Navigation Performance The performance required to fly an RNP route is generally specified in nautical miles EXAMPLE: RNP 4 which implies that the total system error will be no greater than 4 NM for 95% of the time. The RNP specification requires that if the error exceeds or is likely to exceed twice the specified value then an alert must be generated Therefore an alert at 8NM for RNP 4 Using RNP

23 Separation Standards Separation will be provided between all aircraft operating on IFR flight plans except during that part of the flight (outside Class B airspace or a TRSA) being conducted on a VFR-on-top/VFR conditions clearance. Under these conditions ATC may issue traffic advisories Always the sole responsibility of the pilot to be vigilant in traffic avoidance When a pilot has been told to follow another aircraft or to provide visual separation from it, the pilot should promptly notify the controller if visual contact with the other aircraft is lost or cannot be maintained or if the pilot cannot accept the responsibility for the separation for any reason. A minimum of 3 miles separation is provided between aircraft operating within 40 miles of the radar antenna site 5 miles between aircraft operating beyond 40 miles from the antenna site

24 Controller and Pilot Responsibilities Air Traffic Controller FIRST PRIORITY Is the separation of aircraft and to the issuance of radar safety alerts SECOND PRIORITY Other services that are required but do not involve separation of aircraft Issues clearances for the operation to be conducted in accordance with established criteria THIRD PRIORITY Other services when possible

25 Controller and Pilot Responsibilities Pilot Directly responsible for, and is the final authority for the safe operation of the aircraft Acknowledge and understand ATC instructions Maintain situational awareness Deviate if clearance puts you in danger In an emergency requiring immediate action, pilot may deviate from any rule See and Avoid in VFR conditions Traffic Terrain Obstructions

26 Controller and Pilot Responsibilities Why Cant We Be Friends? Many responsibilities overlap to create great redundancy in the system Both parties must fulfill their duties to have safe and efficient Air Traffic Control System Pilots and ATC make a very good team, and the safety record is proof of that Pilots are at a greater risk and we should take a very active role in holding up our end of the bargain

27 ATC Communications The most important thought in Pilot / Controller communications is Understanding Radio communications are a critical link in the ATC system The link can be a strong bond between pilot and controller or it can be broken with surprising speed and disastrous results KEEP IT BASIC Use standard phraseology Who you are, Where you are, What you want Brevity is important Stay alert and listen carefully

28 ATC Communications Tradewind Aviation? We work in and around a very busy airspace, if possible, no reason to not to get flight following Play Nice! The Goodspeed name is well known in this area If you have a hard time following directions and/or give ATC a hard time, they can and will do the same If you ask ATC for VFR flight following and ATC is to busy to help, monitor the frequency

29 Air Traffic Flow Control What is it? Regulation of Air Traffic in order to avoid exceeding an airport or ATCs capacity in handling traffic Helps ensure that available capacity is used efficiently

30 Air Traffic Flow Control And the Reason…. Every airport has a finite capacity on the amount of traffic in can handle safely in an hour…. 1.Number of runways 2.Taxiway layout 3.Available ATC 4.Current and forecast weather 5.ATC equipment outages

31 Air Traffic Flow Control Or what happens? When either an Airports airspace or ATC becomes saturated with aircraft…. 1.Aircraft are put into holding patterns 2.Aircraft given delay vectors 3.Ground delay programs are implemented

32 Air Traffic Flow Control How it Works…. When airport/ATC capacity is exceeded, measures are taken to reduce traffic…. 1.IFR flight plans are tracked by a CMFU (Central Flow Management Unity) 2.CMFU takes measures to reduce traffic, with the goal to utilize capacity effectively 3.CMFU issue delays called CTOT (Calculated Take Off Time) or Slot Time 4.Slot Time is a period of time where your T/O needs to take place

33 Air Traffic Flow Control How it Works…. 5. If you miss your Slot Time you get bumped to the bottom 6.When your time has come you are required to be at the runway, ready for departure Time critical flights carrying human organs are exempt, regular traffic will be delayed The goal is to keep the average delay as low as possible

34 Air Traffic Flow Control Tradewind Aviation? A few things to get the job done safely 1.Leaving New York area airports VFR, picking up IFR over BID into ACK (better to pick up with PVD then cape) 2.With A/C performance in mind, intersection departures and/or different runways (RWY RWY 6 etc...) 3.Picking up IFR into NY can be a gamble Flight Delay Information

35 SWAP (Severe Weather Avoidance Plan) General Info…. Formalized program for areas that are susceptible to severe weather 1.Prepared by Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC) and Traffic Management Units (TMUs) 2.The programs provide specific details around a weather event 3.ARTCC and TMU look for better route alternatives 4.Once alternative routes are considered they are sent out as a SWAP advisory

36 SWAP (Severe Weather Avoidance Plan) General Info…. Formalized program for areas that are susceptible to severe weather 5. When a SWAP is issued for a certain area, ATC must explore all possibilities for traffic flow and routing 6.Possibilities include Reroutes, Ground Delays, and Ground Stops

37 SWAP (Severe Weather Avoidance Plan) Conclusion FAA develops a SWAP that describes their expected impacts to normal traffic flow 1.Weather 2.Traffic Volume 3.Equipment Outages Avoiding Severe Weather

38 SWAP (Severe Weather Avoidance Plan) Tradewind Aviation? Be Patient If there are ground delays / gate holds contact clearance to be placed in the Queue to meet your departure time as close as possible

39 Washington ADIZ Standard Requirements 1.Two-way Radio 2.Mode C Transponder (Working) 3.Flight Plan (IFR/VFR DC ADIZ flight plan)* 4.Discrete transponder code for all operations * 5.VFR speed restrictions (<180 KTS in ADIZ & <230 KTS 30 – 60nm DME from DCA VOR) 6.Communication with ATC for all operations* *see ADIZ sheet with exceptions Worried about ADIZ procedures? File IFR

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42 Hudson River Corridor Need to Know Information 1.Must have current New York TAC on board 2. Transient operations 1,000 to 1,300 (Below the Bravo) 3.Taxi/RECOG lights must be on (Beacon and Strobes should already be on) 4.Hudson River CTAF There are mandatory reporting points for traffic flying the corridor* *see Hudson Cheat sheet Treat it like a street. Look both ways before crossing

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44 Lower Than Standard T/O Operations Runway Visual Range (RVR) The distance over which a pilot of an aircraft on the centerline of the runway can see the runway surface markings delineating the runway or identifying its centre line 1800 RVR = ¼ SM 2400 RVR = ½ SM 4000 RVR = ¾ SM 6000 RVR = 1 SM When available for a particular runway, RVR shall be used for all takeoff operations on that runway Runway Visual Range

45 Lower Than Standard T/O Operations Standard T/O minimums per Part 135: 2 Engines or less, 1 SM or RVR engines or more, ½ SM or RVR 2400 If a T/O minimum is published as GREATER than standard, that minimum is controlling. Look for Black T on NOS charts or look at Airport chart on Jepp Plates. RVR is controlling. Through Ops Spec C057 we are authorized to use the lowest CAT I approach minimum for that airport to establish our T/O Minimums. Jet Crews are authorized even lower T/O minima in Ops Spec C079. Standard Take-Off Minimums

46 EXAMPLE METAR KACK Z 05012KT 1/2SM VV100 02/02 A2989 RMK AO2 SLP201 RVR RWY T So can you go? Yes!! But… We need…

47 Lower Than Standard T/O Operations Do not depart under IFR from an airport where weather conditions are at or above takeoff minimums but are below authorized IFR landing minimums for the runway you are departing from unless there is an alternate airport within 1 hours flying time (at normal cruising speed, in still air) of the airport of departure You may use standard alternate minimums in selecting your departure alternate Take-Off Alternate

48 Landing Minimums a. The certificate holder shall not use any instrument flight rule (IFR) Category I (CAT) landing minimum lower than that prescribed by the applicable published instrument approach procedure. The IFR landing minima prescribed in this paragraph are the lowest CAT I minima authorized for use at any airport. b. CAT I Precision Approach Procedures. The certificate holder shall not use an IFR landing minimum for CAT I precision approach procedures lower than specified in Table 1. c. Reduced Landing Minima. The certificate holder is authorized precision CAT I landing minima as installed but inoperative TDZ lights and/or CL accordance with the following requirements: low as 1800 RVR to approved runways without TDZ lights and/or CL lights, including runway

49 Lower Than Standard T/O Operations First we will need… 1. The ceiling will be at least 1,500 above the lowest circling approach MDA or 2.If a circling approach is not authorized for the airport, the ceiling will be at least 1,500 above the lowest publish minimum or 2,000 AGL, whichever is higher and 3.Visibility for that airport is forecast to be at least 3 miles or 2 miles more than the lower applicable visibility minimums, whichever is greater, for the approach procedure to be used at the destination airport Alternates Remember, you must consider the forecast winds and other conditions at the airport. If the above conditions are not met, an alternate airport will need to be identified

50 Lower Than Standard T/O Operations Second… We do we need to designate an airport as an alternate? Alternates Cont.

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