Presentation on theme: "1 2 Carl Jung (1875 –1961) Carl Gustav Jung is the founder of analytical, or depth psychology, the science of mapping out the inner workings of the psyche."— Presentation transcript:
2 Carl Jung (1875 –1961) Carl Gustav Jung is the founder of analytical, or depth psychology, the science of mapping out the inner workings of the psyche or soul. As a result of his work, Jung developed the idea of Psychological Types He studied two basic kinds of "functions" which humans used in their lives: how we take in information and how we make decisions. Within these two categories, there were two opposite ways of functioning. Information can be perceived via 1) our senses, or 2) our intuition. While decisions can be made based on 1) our thinking, or 2) our feelings Figure 1 shows the breakdown on Jungs Personality Types. It is around these personality types that Katherine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers developed their model and the MBTI. Figure 1. (www.friesian.com/types.htm) Figure 1. Jungs Personality Type Table
3 Katharine Cook Briggs (1875-1968) At first, Katharine Cook Briggs's began to comb data from her own extensive studies of contemporary children's educational and social developmental theories. Then, she developed a testing method to help determine the best vocation for a child, what she saw as a key to their future happiness and well being (www.becomewhoyouare.net/MBTI-history-and-tributes-newest-ver.html). Katherine Cook Briggs was indeed a life-long student of human behavior and growth (http://www.mbtitoday.org/minihistory.html). After reading Psychological Types, The Psychology of Individuation by Carl G. Jung, she decided that Jungs work and his ideas could possibly benefit many persons in achieving their life goals. Thus she began her research into personality in 1917, eventually developing a four-type framework: Social, Thoughtful, Executive and Spontaneous.
4 Isabel Briggs Myers (1897-1980) With a bachelors degree in political science and no academic affiliation nor a psychology background, Isabel Briggs Myers took over her mother, Katharine Cook Briggs, research during the 1940s. Both Cook-Briggs and Briggs-Myers had a keen interest in human behavior, as well as in the work of Jung. As a result they wanted to put the Theory of Personality Types to practical use. This would eventually result in the MBTI. Myers developed a pen and paper test based on Cook-Briggs four- type framework along with Jungs personality types. In 1942, the Briggs-Myers Type Indicator was created, and the Brigg-Myers Type Indicator Handbook was published soon afterwards. In 1956, the name of the instrument was change to the Myers-Brigg Type Indicator. Myers and Briggs added a fourth dimension to Jungs scheme focusing on how people deal with the outer world, the judgement- perception dichotomy.
The characteristics of Form M: Geared towards individuals 14 and older. It takes 15-25 minutes to administer. Group or individual administration. There are 93 force-choice items (2 available choices). Participants may skip items if they cannot choose. Both computer based and hand scored versions are available. Cost is approximately $150.00 5
The MBTI-Form M has four dichotomous scales: Extraversion-Introversion (EI) Sensation-Intuition (SN) Thinking-Feeling (TF) Judgment-Perception (JP) Figure 2 further explains these dichotomies. 6 Figure 2. (Neukrug & Fawcett, 2006, p. 177)
7 Figure 3. (www.psychometric-success.com/images/PC0201.g) Thus there are 16 personality types, each one represents one of the various combinations of the four dichotomous scales. For example: INTJ (Introversion, Intuition with Thinking and Judging) Figure 3 below, gives an illustration of the 16 possible personality types assessed through the MBTI.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator determines what is a persons personality type based on the four dichotomies previously mentioned. MBTI- Form M was designed the identification of basic preference, one each of the four dichotomies specified or implicit to Jungs theory. As well as the identification and description of the 16 personality types that result in interactions among the preferences. (Briggs et al, 1943-1998, p.2) According to the CPP, the MBTI helps you improve work and personal relationships, increase productivity, and identify leadership and interpersonal communication preferences for your clients. 8
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is used: As a career counselling tool To promote team building To better group dynamics As a part of leadership training As a part of life coaching As a part of marriage counselling 9
HAND SCORED The 93 items are scored using a one point scale. Each response is counted as one point. The number of points are summed for each scale (Summative Scoring). Midpoint is defined by the number of items. The scoring is presented as a preference clarity index from 0-30 for each dichotomy (mbtithoughts.wordpress.com). 10
COMPUTER SCORED Item Response Theory (IRT) scoring method used. Midpoint is defined by the slope and intercept of the Item Characteristic Curve. IRT model takes into account the clients pattern for answering. Items that do the best job of discriminating between opposite preferences at the midpoint of the scale- are assigned higher weights. Individuals preference on a scale is the pole of the dichotomy with the most points. 11
After doing the assessment and scoring, the clients personality type is determined. There are sixteen types, each represented by a four letter acronym. The following slide shows a representation of these types and the qualities they exemplify. 12
Norm Group A representative national sample of U.S. adults over age 18 was used for the item analyses and item weighting (N = 3,009) 14
RELIABILITY After 4-weeks, an average of about 65% of participants had the same four preferences (test-retest reliability). Reliabilities (when scores are treated as continuous scores, as in most other psychological instruments) are as good or better than other personality instruments (www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/mbti-basics/reliability-and-validity.asp). When a person changes type on retest, it is usually on one of the dichotomous pairs, and in a dichotomy where the preference clarity was low (www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/mbti-basics/reliability-and-validity.asp). 15
VALIDITY Research Studies have proven the validity in three main categories: The validity of the four separate preference scales. The validity of the four preference pairs as dichotomies. The validity of whole types or particular combinations of preferences. 16
For individuals with disabilities the test administrator should explain the purpose of the test in terms that can be understood by the client. Each client should be given the test in their native language (30 options) No modifications or changes can be made to the assessment without the permission of the publisher. Making modifications prematurely can result in skewed test results. 17
Some of the cautions of use include: Remembering the instrument does not measure competenciesit identifies preferences The preferences identified by the MBTI are not personality traits, but represent a typology in which individuals with opposite preference are qualitatively different; The interaction among these preferences are critical to understand the instrument (i.e. the whole is greater than the sum of its parts) (p.4). Mastrangelo states, the MBTI is not designed to measure personality traits and therefore should not be used as a personnel screening device (p. 7). 18
Stephanie OLSON, Plaintiff v. Michael J. ASTRUE, Commissioner of Social Security, Defendant Stephanie had been denied Social Security Income as well as Disability Benefits three times. However psychological evaluations yielded that Stephanie appeared to be functioning at a low average intellectual functioning. Numerous assessments were done, including the MBTI. The collaborative report of all the assessment was used in the case. As a result of testing as well as other evidence Stephanie was granted a reversal of the decision of denial and awarded both these benefits. 19
Gigi TRUMPS, Appellant v. Jo Anne B. BARNHART, Commissioner of Social Security, Appellee Gigi received childhood Disability Insurance benefits due to her severe anxiety due to a haemangioma on her tongue, however upon applying as an adult was denied. She filed suit, appealed the initial decision and then applied for a review after loosing her appeal. The court sided against Gigi initially stating that the psychiatrists evidence was based on subjective answers. However due to the use of a multitude of tests including the MBTI her diagnosis was determined valid. It was concluded that there was significant evidence to support Gigis disability and she was awarded her benefits. 20
1) Where the test can be found www.myersbriggs.org 2) See the handout provided 21
Adapted from Building People, Building Programs (chapter 7) by Gordon Lawrence and Charles Martin (CAPT 2001) Retrieved on March 29, 2010, from http://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality- type/mbti-basics/reliability-and-validity.asp Adventure Associates (2009). MBTI: Myers Briggs Type Indicator History. Retrieved on March 14, 2010, from http://www.adventureassoc.com/workshop/myer-briggs/mbti-history.html Briggs, K. C., Briggs, M. I., McCaulley, M. H., Quenk, N. L. & Hammer A. L. (1943-1998). Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Form M. In Mental Measurement Yearbook. Retrieved on January 26, 2010, from http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com.gate.lib.buffalo.edu/sp2.3/ovidweb.cgi?&S=ABNIFPENKODD Hardley, C. (2005 Apr). Alphabet Soup: A Cautionary Note About Using Myers Briggs. Retrieved on March 14, 2010, from http://www.ere.net/2005/04/21/alphabet-soup-a-cautionary-note-about-using- myers-briggs/ Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (2006-2009). In Ovidio Limited. Retrieved on March 13, 2010, from http://myersbriggstypeindicator.edu/ Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (March 2010). In Wikipedia. Retrieved on March 14, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myers-Briggs_Type_Indicator Neukrug, E. S. & Fawcett, R. C. (2006). Essentials of Testing and Assessment. Belmont, CA: The Thomas Corporation Olson v. Astrue, Slip Copy, 2009 WL 2365511 (N.D.Ill.) (2009) Retrieved on March 23, 2010 From http://campus.westlaw.com.gate.lib.buffalo.edu Reynolds-Hutchinson and Associates (2010). The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Retrieved on March 14, 2010, from http://www.rhassociates.comau/mbti.htm Trumps v. Barnhart, Not Reported in F.Supp.2d, 2007WL 4696842 (W.D.La.) Retrieved on March 23, 2010 from http://campus.westlaw.com.gate.lib.buffalo.edu 22