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Therapeutic Modalities

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Presentation on theme: "Therapeutic Modalities"— Presentation transcript:

1 Therapeutic Modalities

2 Foundations of Therapeutic Modalities
What is a Modality? What role do modalities play in injury rehabilitation? How do we use Therapeutic Modalities? When should we Modalities? Specific Types Background examples of application

3 What are Therapeutic Modalities?
mo·dal·i·ty /mōˈdalitē/ An intervention used to heal someone Agents such as light, heat, air, water, manual, or electronic All athletic trainers use therapeutic modalities, some simple techniques other complex.

4 Role of Modalities in Injury Rehabilitation
Management or reduction of pain associated with an injury Return of full non-restricted ROM to an injury body part Maintenance or improvement of strength throughout the full ROM Use of Therapeutic Modalities inexact science, no cookbook for treatment

5 Pain Management Control of pain is an essential aspect of caring for the injured patient Athletic trainer has several therapeutic agents with analgesic properties from which to choose Acute Pain- pain of sudden onset Chronic Pain- pain lasting for more than 6 months

6 Categories of Therapeutic Modalities
Infrared Modalities Therapeutic Heat & Cold Ultrasound Shortwave and Microwave Diathermy Electrical Modalities Electrical Stimulating Currents Iontophoresis Mechanical Modalities Therapeutic sports Massage Intermittent compression Devices Spinal Traction Others

7 Infrared Modalities Thermotherapy- Heating techniques used for therapeutic purposes Used when a rise in tissue temperature is the goal of treatment Cryotherapy- The use of cold Used in the acute stages of the healing process immediately following injury when a loss of tissue temperature is the goal of therapy

8 Hot &Cold Modalities Cont’d
Most effective use of infrared modalities should be to provide analgesia or reduce sensation of pain associated with injury Gate control theory of pain modulation

9 Cryotherapy General agreement that cold should be initial treatment for musculoskeletal injuries Primary reason for using cold in acute injury is to lower temperature in injured area thus reducing metabolic rate with a corresponding decrease in production of metabolites and metabolic heat (secondary hypoxic response) More effective when combined with compression

10 Cryotherapy Cryotherapy techniques include Ice massage Contrast baths
Cold packs Ice packs Cold whirlpool Cold spray Contrast baths Ice immersion Cryo-cuff Cryokinetics

11 Cryotherapy Techniques
Application of cryotherapy produces a three- to four-stage sensation Uncomfortable sensation of cold Stinging Burning or aching feeling Numbness Caution should be exercised when applying intense cold directly to the skin

12 Ice Massage Remove top 2/3 of paper or Styrofoam cup leaving 1” on bottom of cup as handle Apply using overlapping circular or longitudinal strokes Once the skin is numb to fine touch treatment ends(7-10 min) Thermopane develops under ice cup the allows for smooth gliding

13 Commercial Cold Packs Cold pack should be placed against wet toweling
Mold cold pack around joint Treatment time required is about 20 minutes on minutes off Should be repeated for hours

14 Cold Whirlpool Fill appropriate size whirlpool with cold water and ice until temp. at 50° to 60° F Use for massaging action Gravity-dependent positions should be avoided with acute and subacute injuries A toe cap made of neoprene can be used

15 Cold Spray & Stretch Flourimethane is used Cooling is superficial
Useful in treating trigger points Spraying Technique Same direction Proximal to distal Gate Control pain modulation Stretching Technique

16 Thermotherapy Local superficial heating (infrared heat) is recommended in subacute conditions for reducing pain and inflammation through analgesic effects Produces a relaxation effect and a reduction in muscle guarding by: Relieving pain Producing sedation Decreasing spasticity, tenderness, and spasm Decreasing tightness in muscles and related structures

17 Thermotherapy Techniques
Warm Whirlpool Hydrocollator Packs Paraffin Bath Infrared Lamps Fluidotherapy

18 Warm Whirpool Temperature Range
Upper Extremity 98° -110° F Lower Extremity ° F Full body 98° - 102° F Time of application should be 15 to 20 minutes Caution is indicated in gravity-dependent position in subacute injuries Whirlpool maintainance

19 Hydrocollator Packs Canvas pouches of petroleum distillate
Water temperature 170o 6 layers (1”) of toweling recommended Don’t lie on top of hot pack Time of application should be 15 to 20 minutes

20 Paraffin Bath Mixture ratio of paraffin to mineral oil 2 pounds:1 gallon Mineral oil reduces temp of the paraffin to 126° F Extremity dipped into paraffin for a couple of seconds then removed to allow paraffin to harden Repeat until 6 layers have accumulated Wrap in a plastic bag with several layers of toweling

21 Therapeutic Ultrasound
Inaudible , acoustic vibrations of high frequency that produce either thermal or non-thermal physiologic effects

22 Frequency of Wave Transmission
Audible sound = kHz Ultrasound > 20 kHz Therapeutic Ultrasound = MHz (1,000,000 cycles/sec) Lower frequencies have greater depth of penetration Higher frequencies more superficial absorption

23 Ultrasound Cont’d Electrical Output Mechanical Vibration
Acoustic Sound wave Absorbed In The Tissues

24 Thermal Effects of Ultrasound
Increased collagen extensibility Increased blood flow Decreased pain Reduction of muscle spasm Decreased Joint stiffness Reduction of chronic inflammation

25 Non-Thermal Effects of Ultrasound
Increased fibroblastic activity Increased protein synthesis Tissue regeneration Reduction of edema Bone healing Pain modulation

26 Methods of Application
Direct Contact Transducer should be small enough to treat the injured area Gel should be applied liberally Heating of gel does not increase the effectiveness of the treatment

27 Methods Cont’d Immersion Good for treating irregular surfaces
A plastic, ceramic, or rubber basin should be used Tap water is useful as a coupling medium Transducer should move parallel to the surface at .3-5 cm Air bubbles should be wiped away

28 Considerations for Determining Treatment
Size of the area to be treated What exactly are you trying to accomplish Thermal vs. non-thermal effects Intensity of treatment

29 Electrical Stimulating Currents
Creating muscle contraction through nerve or muscle stimulation Stimulating sensory nerves to help in treating pain Creating an electrical field in biologic tissues to stimulate or alter the healing process

30 Uses of Therapeutic E-Stim
Muscle reeducation Muscle pump contractions Retardation of atrophy Muscle strengthening Increasing range of motion Reducing Edema

31 Muscle Re-Education Muscular inhibition after surgery or injury is primary indication A muscle contraction usually can be forced by electrically stimulating the muscle Patient feels the muscle contract, sees the muscle contract, and can attempt to duplicate this muscular response

32 Muscle Pump Contractions
Used to duplicate the regular muscle contractions that help stimulate circulation by pumping fluid and blood through venous and lymphatic channels back to the heart Can help in reestablishing proper circulatory pattern while keeping injured part protected

33 Muscle Strengthening Current intensity should make muscle develop 60% of torque developed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) Pulse duration should be set as close as possible to the duration needed for the motor nerve to be stimulated

34 Electrode Placement Electrodes may be placed:
On or around the painful area Close to spinal cord segment that innervates an area that is painful Over sites where peripheral nerves that innervate the painful area becomes superficial and can be easily stimulated Over superficial vascular structures Over trigger point locations Over acupuncture points In a criss-cross pattern around the point to be stimulated so the area to be treated is central to the location of the electrodes If treatment is not working- change placement

35 Therapeutic Sports Massage
Mechanical stimulation of tissues by rhythmically applied pressure and stretching Effects of massage may be either reflexive or mechanical

36 Guidelines for Massage
Positioning will allow relaxation, prevent fatigue, and permit free movement of arms, hands, and body Weight evenly distributed and should shift from one foot to the other Fit your hands to contour of area being treated Hands should be warm Appropriate Medium

37 Hoffa Massage Classical massage technique which uses a variety of superficial strokes Effleurage Petrissage Tapotment Vibration

38 Effleurage (Stroking)
Every massage begins and ends with effleurage Increases venous and lymphatic flow Increases circulation to skin surface Start with a light pressure, move centripetally or centrifugally cosistently throughout treatment

39 Petrissage (Kneading)
Consists of kneading manipulations that press and roll muscles under fingers or hands Muscles are gently squeezed, lifted, and relaxed Hands may remain stationary or move along length of muscle or limb Purpose is to increase venous and lymphatic return and to press metabolic waste products out of affected areas through intensive vigorous action Can also break up adhesions between skin and underlying tissue

40 Tapotment (Percussion)
Uses a variety of percussive or beating techniques Used to increase circulation and blood flow Used to stimulate peripheral nerve endings

41 Tapotment Hacking Slapping Beating Tapping Clapping or cupping

42 Transverse Friction Massage
Technique for treating chronic tendon inflammation Purpose is to increase inflammatory response to progress healing process Use strong pressure in perpendicular direction to fibers for 7 to 10 minutes every other day

43 Indications For Massage
increase coordination decrease pain decrease neuromuscular excitibility stimulate circulation facilitate healing restore joint mobility remove lactic acid alleviate muscle cramps increase blood flow increase venous return retard muscle atrophy increase range of motion edema myofascial trigger points stretching scar tissue

44 Contraindications for Massage
arteriosclerosis thrombosis embolism severe varicose veins acute phlebitis cellulitis synovitis abscesses skin infections cancers acute inflammatory conditions

45 Prentice, William E. Therapeutic Modalities: for Sports Medicine and Athletic Training. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill 2003.

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