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BY JUSTIN WOODWARD Massage Techniques seen in the Athletic Training Facility and their Effects.

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Presentation on theme: "BY JUSTIN WOODWARD Massage Techniques seen in the Athletic Training Facility and their Effects."— Presentation transcript:

1 BY JUSTIN WOODWARD Massage Techniques seen in the Athletic Training Facility and their Effects

2 History of Massage Massage has been used as a treatment for Illnesses and Injuries since 3000 B.C.  Was first used in parts of Egypt and Asia In 1893 Albert Hoffa wrote the Technik der Massage  This outlined the Hoffa Massage in detail.  Hoffa Massage consists of: Effleurage, Petrissage, Tapotment and Vibrations or Effleurage to end it.

3 Physiological Effects Massage is defined as “the systematic manipulation of the body’s tissues.” – Chad Starkey Effects of Massage can be split into Reflexive and Mechanical Effects

4 Physiological Effects Reflexive Effects- Can effect nerves (sensory and motor) locally and cause some effect on the central nervous system Mechanical Effects- Changes in tissues using direct mechanical force  As Mechanical Effects increase, Reflexive effects decrease

5 Reflexive Effects Effects on Pain-  Can modulate pain through Gate Theory and Beta Endorphin Pain control Effects on Circulation  Some studies suggest that massage can increase blood flow and lymphatic flow- studies are not empirical

6 Reflexive Effects Effects on Metabolism  Massage has no effect on metabolism  According to Martin et al. active recovery is much more effective in the removal of Lactate from blood when compared to sports massage The reflex stimulus causes sedation and relieves tension  Slower, Lighter strokes will cause greater reflexive stimulus

7 Mechanical Effects Effects on Muscle  Increase Range of Motion  Removal of Adhesions  Mechanical stretching of muscular tissue and fascia  Possible increase in Blood Flow  No increase in muscle strength  No decrease in muscle fatigue  Can decrease the severity of DOMS  Increase in Venous Return

8 Mechanical Effects Effects on Skin  Increase in Temperature  Possibly increase blood flow  Fast, deep strokes has been shown to have greater effect on blood flow  Assist in the removal of Adhesions between skin and subcutaneous layer

9 Psychological Effects Massage can improve mood after intense exercise or injury  Can lead to more compliance during rehabilitation Improved Patient-Clinician Relationship  Due to the One-on-one nature of massage, the clinician must spend individual time with the patient Many athletes believe that massage will assist them in the healing process, and will see improvements through suggestion. Massage can reduce anxiety

10 Massage Guidelines and Considerations Essentials to Proper Massage  Good Knowledge of Anatomy  Thorough understanding of the Principles of Massage  Knowing the athletes injury

11 Clinician and Patient Positioning Clinician-  Should be in a comfortable fairly upright position with weight distributed evenly  Clinician should shift weight to cause most of the mechanical stimulus to prevent fatigue Patient-  Should be in a comfortable, relaxed, well supported position  Should have injured area exposed and draped any other area which it is necessary

12 Precautions Nails should be trimmed  To avoid scratching or causing lacerations Remove all rings, watches, or wrist jewelry Hands should be warm Lubricant should be used, especially for effleurage

13 Contraindications Any condition in which massage may aggravate it:  Infection  Malignancies  Skin diseases  Blood Clots  Irritations/rashes  Lesions  Fractures

14 Massage Techniques Effleurage Petrissage Tapotment Vibration Friction Massage Myofascial Release Acupressure

15 Effleurage Stroking/Shingling Technique  Every massage should start and end with effleurage  We want to always have one hand on the patient  Want to keep a consistent, rhythmic pattern  Want to start with light pressure and gradually increase pressure  The firmer the pressure the less reflexive effects

16 Effleurage Effleurage should be done distal to proximal  Especially if edema reduction is the goal  Patient should also be in a gravity assisted position for edema reduction

17 Practice Break up into Pairs and Practice it yourselves. Do Effleurage for 2 minutes then switch with your partner

18 Petrissage Kneading Technique- pinching and rolling the tissue between fingers  Can also can use 1 or 2 hands, grab, roll, lift or apply pressure Move distal to proximal Less lubricant is needed for this technique to make it easier to grab skin Great for removing/preventing adhesions

19 Practice Break up into Pairs and Practice it yourselves. Do Petrissage for 2 minutes then switch with your partner

20 Tapotment Percussion Technique- hands should be loose and tap the skin Stimulates Peripheral Nerves Types-  Cupping  Hacking  Beating  Pinching

21 Practice Break up into Pairs and Practice it yourselves. Do Tapotment for 2 minutes then switch with your partner

22 Vibration A fine, small movement, made by hand or fingers placed firmly against a part causing a part to vibrate Hands should remain in contact and a rhythmical trembling movement will come from arms Less skilled or inexperienced clinicians may want to use a vibration tool to administer this part of the massage

23 Practice Break up into Pairs and Practice it yourselves. Do Vibration for 1 minutes then switch with your partner May be difficult, don’t worry if you don’t get this at first, it takes a very skilled hand to do this technique

24 Friction Massage Used to treat chronic inflammation of tendons Rub perpendicular to the fibers Generally done for 5-10 minutes Will be painful  Objective it to re-start the healing process

25 Myofascial Release Technique Relieves soft tissue from abnormal hold of fascia Cross Hand Technique- cross hands and apply pressure in opposite directions Can also apply pressure to the muscle and have the patient contract muscle  forcing the fascia to stretch and release from the muscle

26 Practice Break up into Pairs and Practice it yourselves. Do Myofascial Release for 2 minutes then switch with your partner  Do Cross Hand Method  Do Pin and Contract Method

27 Acupressure An old Chinese based method to treat aggravated trigger points Find trigger point nodule Apply firm pressure in a circular motion  Can use finger, knuckle, or elbow  Will cause pain and numbing effect Treatment usually lasts 1-5 minutes per trigger point

28 Questions

29 References Hemmings B. Physiological, psychological and performance effects of massage therapy in sport: a review of the literature. Physical Therapy in Sports. November 2001; Vol. 2(4): Martin et al. The Comparative Effects of Sports Massage, Active Recovery, and Rest in Promoting Blood Lactate Clearance After Supramaximal Leg Exercise. Journal of Athletic Training. January-March 1998; Vol. 33(1): Moraska A. Sports Massage: A Comprehensive Review. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. September 2005; Vol. 45(3): Zainuddin Z et al. Effects of Massage on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness, Swelling, and Recovery of Muscle Function. Journal of Athletic Training. July-Sept 2005; Vol. 40(3): Starkey C. Therapeutic Modalities. 3 rd Edition. Therapeutic Massage. 2004; 16: Houglum P. Therapeutic Exercise for Athletic Injuries. Manual Therapy Techniques. 2001; 6:


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