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Power Development and Nature Conservation-Two scenarios Gabriel Wetangula 1,2 & Joseph Ajayi 1 Faculty of Science, University of Iceland 1 Olkaria Geothermal.

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Presentation on theme: "Power Development and Nature Conservation-Two scenarios Gabriel Wetangula 1,2 & Joseph Ajayi 1 Faculty of Science, University of Iceland 1 Olkaria Geothermal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Power Development and Nature Conservation-Two scenarios Gabriel Wetangula 1,2 & Joseph Ajayi 1 Faculty of Science, University of Iceland 1 Olkaria Geothermal Power Project, Naivasha, Kenya

2 Contents Part I: Geothermal power development, nature conservation and tourism - Hells Gate National Park, Olkaria, Kenya Part I: Geothermal power development, nature conservation and tourism - Hells Gate National Park, Olkaria, Kenya Part II: Environmental impacts of large hydropower dams Part II: Environmental impacts of large hydropower dams

3 Introduction: Olkaria geothermal area Olkaria geothermal resource is located on the southern side of Lake Naivasha, Kenya Olkaria geothermal resource is located on the southern side of Lake Naivasha, Kenya The resource currently supports an existing 45 MWe power station (Olkaria I), commissioned in The resource currently supports an existing 45 MWe power station (Olkaria I), commissioned in Important factor in EIA studies is existence of Hell's Gate National Park, established in 1984 Important factor in EIA studies is existence of Hell's Gate National Park, established in 1984 The park encloses Olkaia I power station (45 Mwe), new power station (Olkaria II – 64 MWe), Olkaria III (currently 12 Mwe, but 64 Mwe at fully commissioning) developed by OrPower4 Inc. an IPP The park encloses Olkaia I power station (45 Mwe), new power station (Olkaria II – 64 MWe), Olkaria III (currently 12 Mwe, but 64 Mwe at fully commissioning) developed by OrPower4 Inc. an IPP Land uses: livestock grazing, growing of foodstuffs and cutflowers for export, conservation of wildlife within and around the Park, generation of electricity Land uses: livestock grazing, growing of foodstuffs and cutflowers for export, conservation of wildlife within and around the Park, generation of electricity Environmental management:a vital component in geothermal resource development. Environmental management:a vital component in geothermal resource development. KenGen, in its endeavour to comply with national, international environmental laws/regulations, standards and global environmental challenges, established a fully-fledged environmental section in KenGen, in its endeavour to comply with national, international environmental laws/regulations, standards and global environmental challenges, established a fully-fledged environmental section in Tasks: monitoring environmental impacts, erosion control, sites rehabilitation, monitoring of micro-climatic changes and pollution control. Tasks: monitoring environmental impacts, erosion control, sites rehabilitation, monitoring of micro-climatic changes and pollution control.

4 Current & future power developments in the area Olkaria II~64MWeOlkaria I~45MWe Olkaria III-12 ~ 64MWe Proposed Olkaria IV

5 Hells gate National Park establishment Hell's Gate and Longonot National Parks were gazetted in 1984, 3years after Olkaria I Power Station commissioned Hell's Gate and Longonot National Parks were gazetted in 1984, 3years after Olkaria I Power Station commissioned Major constraints: management of the operation of the power stations and the park Major constraints: management of the operation of the power stations and the park A (EIA) study based on the World Bank operational directive 4.0 for the development of Olkaria II, concluded feasibility of the within Hell's Gate Park. A (EIA) study based on the World Bank operational directive 4.0 for the development of Olkaria II, concluded feasibility of the within Hell's Gate Park.

6 The above EIA resulted in KenGen and Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) signing a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in 1994 which outlines the harmonious operations of the two parties for the mutual benefit of the country. The above EIA resulted in KenGen and Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) signing a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in 1994 which outlines the harmonious operations of the two parties for the mutual benefit of the country. Envisaged environmental impacts and mitigation measures to be undertaken that require collaboration between the two entities to ensure no conflicts arise during operations are clearly stated in the agreement. Envisaged environmental impacts and mitigation measures to be undertaken that require collaboration between the two entities to ensure no conflicts arise during operations are clearly stated in the agreement. MoU document is always attached to the tender document for geothermal projects to inform contractors of the environmental obligations within the Park. MoU document is always attached to the tender document for geothermal projects to inform contractors of the environmental obligations within the Park.

7 Geographical location of the park Park lies between longitudes 36 15´ and 36 25` E and latitude 0 50` S and 0 55` S Park lies between longitudes 36 15´ and 36 25` E and latitude 0 50` S and 0 55` S Mau escarpment and Eburru mountains(west), Mt. Longonot (southeast) and Lake Naivasha (north) Mau escarpment and Eburru mountains(west), Mt. Longonot (southeast) and Lake Naivasha (north) It is surrounded by private ranches; Kedong ( km 2 ) & Kongoni (76.78 km 2 ). It is surrounded by private ranches; Kedong ( km 2 ) & Kongoni (76.78 km 2 ).

8 Map Hell´s gate National Park, Olkaria, Kenya

9 Park characteristics Mean annual rainfall mm Mean annual rainfall mm Mean monthly maximum temp C Mean monthly maximum temp C Minimum temp C Minimum temp C Landscape not uniform –plains, hilly areas & cliffs Landscape not uniform –plains, hilly areas & cliffs Cliffs-breeding & nesting grounds for various bird species (verreauxs eagles, Ruppells vulture and the rare lammergeyer (bearded vultures). Cliffs-breeding & nesting grounds for various bird species (verreauxs eagles, Ruppells vulture and the rare lammergeyer (bearded vultures). No significant surface water in the park thus establishment of watering points for use by wildlife No significant surface water in the park thus establishment of watering points for use by wildlife

10 Fauna in the park and adjacent areas Rock hyrax Leopard Warthog Zebras Antelope Topi

11 Giraffee Waterbuck Baboon Zebras African jackal Buffaloes Hyena Thomsons gazelle

12 Avifauna in the park and around the lake Grey heron Ostrich White pelicans White stork

13 African jacan Fish eagleFly catcher Hemakop Rupell vulture Twany eagle Yellow billed stork Bearded vulture

14 Other attractions Steaming grounds Rocky cliffs-hiking 1 st geo plant in Africa Olk I Olkaria hill + steam jet

15 crater Fischer´s tower

16 Power company involvement in nature conservation and tourism development in the park Kaffee (staff & tourists) Development of road in the park Waste management

17 Park rehabilitation Establish watering points Wildlife pop. studies Soil erosion control

18 Day to day consultation between the stakeholders in the area

19 Wildlife population studies Wildlife conservation; a key environmental management component in geothermal power development Wildlife conservation; a key environmental management component in geothermal power development In an attempt to harmonize different resource use in the area,the two entities and other stakeholders have pursued knowledge on wildlife population in the area In an attempt to harmonize different resource use in the area,the two entities and other stakeholders have pursued knowledge on wildlife population in the area The knowledge-fundamental to successful management and conservation of wildlife The knowledge-fundamental to successful management and conservation of wildlife Achieved by gathering data on wildlife population dynamics area through a joint quarterly wildlife census. Achieved by gathering data on wildlife population dynamics area through a joint quarterly wildlife census.

20 Wildlife populations of selected wildlife spp in 1 st quarter census

21 Wildlife populations of selected wildlife spp in 2nd quarter census

22 Wildlife populations of selected wildlife spp in 4th quarter census

23 Figure Kedong ranch March/April wildlife population census

24 Figure Kongoni sanctuary March wildlife census

25 Figure Wildlife population density Hell's Gate National Park

26 Figure Wildlife population densities in Kedong cattle ranch

27 Figure Wildlife population densities in Kongoni game sanctuary

28 Environmental management aspects Surface disturbance-rehabilitation and afforestation Surface disturbance-rehabilitation and afforestation Noise monitoring Noise monitoring Solid waste management Solid waste management Wildlife population studies Wildlife population studies Chemical discharge monitoring (wastewater, trace elements, gases) Chemical discharge monitoring (wastewater, trace elements, gases) Gravity and Seismicity studies Gravity and Seismicity studies

29 Other geothermal power plants in popular tourist resorts worldwide Rotorua (NZ) Zunil, Guatemala Fang, Thailand

30 Introduction ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF LARGE DAMS Ecosystem impact can be classified into 3 orders 1. Physical, chemical and geomorphological effects of river blockage & alteration of natural distribution and timing of stream flow 2. Changes in primary productivity of ecosystems i.e. effects on riverine plant life, down stream habitat e.g. wetlands. 3. Alterations of fauna (e.g. fish ) caused by 1 st impact( blocking migration) or 2 nd impact ( availability of plankton)

31 Impacts Modified ecosystems changes the biochemical cycle in the natural riverine system. Modified ecosystems changes the biochemical cycle in the natural riverine system. Interrupted flow of OC Emissions of GHGs gases ( CH 3, CO 2 ) Climate change Interrupted flow of OC Emissions of GHGs gases ( CH 3, CO 2 ) Climate change Environmental Impacts Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biodiversity. Construction & inundation of the reservoir destrys fauna & flora Impoundment eliminate unique wildlife habitats & affect populations of endangered spp Flooding a reservoir clearing of upstream catchment areas, habitat loss, elimination of flora and fauna, land degradation & alterations in hydrologic function. Loss of vegetative cover in sedimentation, storm flow, annual water yield, in water quality

32 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Arise from reservoirs due to rotting vegetation and carbon inflow from the catchment Arise from reservoirs due to rotting vegetation and carbon inflow from the catchment Estimated gross global emissions 1% -28% Estimated gross global emissions 1% -28% All reservoirs not only hydropower reservoirs emit GHGs All reservoirs not only hydropower reservoirs emit GHGs Fig. GHG emission from reservoir (WCD, 2000) Impacts

33 impacts Downstream Aquatic Ecosystems and Biodiversity Alter natural distribution & timing of stream flow Alter natural distribution & timing of stream flow Compromises dynamic aspects of rivers that maintain the character of aquatic ecosystems Compromises dynamic aspects of rivers that maintain the character of aquatic ecosystems Natural rivers, their habitats and species are a function of the flow. Natural rivers, their habitats and species are a function of the flow. Introduction of non-native species, modified water quality (temperature, oxygen, nutrients), loss of system dynamics, and loss of the ability to maintain continuity of an ecosystem Introduction of non-native species, modified water quality (temperature, oxygen, nutrients), loss of system dynamics, and loss of the ability to maintain continuity of an ecosystem Impacts of changes in flow regimes. Flow regime is factor for downstream aquatic ecosystems. Flood timing, duration and frequency are all critical for the survival of communities of plants and animals living downstream. –Small flood are biological triggers for fish and invertebrates migration –major floods maintain habitats transporting sediments.

34 impacts Water temperature and chemistry are altered by storage Water temperature and chemistry are altered by storage Algal growth due to nutrient loading of the reservoir releases Algal growth due to nutrient loading of the reservoir releases Fig. Modification of flow regime due to hydropower dam, Colorado River, USA (WCD, 2000)

35 impacts Impacts of trapping sediments and nutrients Impacts on channel, floodplain, coastal delta morphology, loss of aquatic habitat for fish & other species Impacts on channel, floodplain, coastal delta morphology, loss of aquatic habitat for fish & other species Degradation of the river channel below the facility elimination backwaters that provide native fish habitat; elimination of riparian vegetation that provides nutrients and habitat for aquatic animals Degradation of the river channel below the facility elimination backwaters that provide native fish habitat; elimination of riparian vegetation that provides nutrients and habitat for aquatic animals Changes river water turbidity may affect biota directly Changes river water turbidity may affect biota directly Blocking migration of aquatic organisms Disrupts the movement of species thus changes in up/downstream species composition & species loss. Impeding the passage of migratory fish species –Anadroumous (eel) –Catadromuous (salmon)

36 Floodplain Ecosystems Reduced flooding affects the natural productivity of riparian areas, floodplains and deltas. Reduced flooding affects the natural productivity of riparian areas, floodplains and deltas. Control of floodwaters discontinuity in river system with impact on fish diversity & productivity Control of floodwaters discontinuity in river system with impact on fish diversity & productivity Other impacts are: loss of silt and nutrient replenishment; reductions in bird species; reduction in groundwater recharge in floodplain Other impacts are: loss of silt and nutrient replenishment; reductions in bird species; reduction in groundwater recharge in floodplain impacts

37 Bujagali Hydroelectric Project controversy A Message from H.E. Edith Ssempala, Ugandan Ambassador to the United States "A viable industrial base, modern communications and well-equipped hospitals are the norm in the United States, but in many parts of Uganda such things are considered luxuries. In many of our towns and villages, children are taught by candlelight, workers are paid by the penny, and patients have access to only the most basic of medical care..."

38 Links e_studies.htm e_studies.htm Which way? Nature, Power or both but harmonious!


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