Causes of degradation: Outdated technology Flows from Municipal and Industrial areas Mining Roads and highway construction Inorganic fertilisers & pesticides Quarrying
To bring back to original or previous known form.
Reduce degradation of an area, habitat or ecosystem and propel it on road to recovery. Re-establish, Return, Restore... to a close approximation of its original condition.
Restoration is a holistic process - not achieved only through isolated manipulation of individual elements. Only plantation cures?
Plants and animals should display native communities and diversity found in the region Use designs that favour natural processes
Emulate a natural, self regulating system that is integrated ecologically with the landscape. # Reconstruction of physical conditions # Chemical readjustment of soil and water # Biological manipulation # Reintroduction of flora or fauna
You are asked to repair a water-body… Look NOT JUST the waterbody, but the zone beyond- Riparian area Waste from industrial sewage, septic tanks and agriculture flows into Riparian area
Location selection #Part of a watershed # Single / Multiple ecosystems # With or without human component History of site and context of restoration Factors for present state of degradation Stake holders and land use
Technology for Restoration? Build structures? Applying fertilisers, bio- engineering? Only plantations? Restoration vs Landscaped garden vs Golf courses
Aggressive exotics: Ipomea carnea and Typha augustata to be trimmed Check dams can be replaced by rapids Natural fallen trees, branches, roots provide food and habitat Pools are very important when fish are under stress due to high/ low flows
Placement of rocks and boulders in the channel Root zone treatment to absorb toxins and nutrients Depressions create habitats for producers and consumers Interaction between aquatic and terristerial ecosystems enhances self cleaning ability Restoration should emphasis on recovery of ecological process and complementary land use pattern
In the US, wetlands may be legally destroyed, but their losses must be compensated.
Start at the very beginning Make a complete inventory flora-fauna, specialised habitats, soil biota, land use, factors that facilitate and impede restoration Collect soil sample - pH, organic matter, moisture holding capacity. Hydrology- rainfall, surface and sub soil run offs
Certain pioneer plants come up Simple food chains - Algae, zoo planktons, aquatic insects, fish, birds
Self sustainable design Avoid need for continuous maintainance Project not dependent on supply of resources Eco-system should be capable of adapting to future changes Design a naturally regenerate and recovering site Need to assess the sites' recovery and determine that there are no new problems.