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1The following students have not yet registered clickers (or have attempted to register but no clicker ID is to be found in the SIS class list): (* = old registration on file, new registration missing)Amato, Matthew Sleziak , Michael MartinBarrette, Kristin* Thomas , SulienneChircu, Margiana Thoms , Jennifer LynnDamphouse , Christina Thoms , Melanie LynnGardner , Taylor Laine Gerami , Hoda Gill , Simranjeet Hussain , Aamer*Iatonna , Melissa Marie Iatonna , Michael Jande , Aman (no clicker ID present)Onoyovwi , Akpevwe Patrick , Christopher M. Seremack , Dominique Ashley
2Life TablesHow do ecologists investigate the number of births andthe number of deaths?They use the age structure of the population.Births and deaths are summarized from data in a “life table”The life table, however, can take a number of forms.The simplest is called a diagrammatic life table...
3This is the diagrammatic life table for an annual plant.F is the fecundity (numberof seeds per plantg is the probability of a seedgerminatinge is the chance of a seedlingbecoming establishedp is the chance of an adultsurviving (if an annual = 0)What is the population size attime t=1?Nt+1 = Ntp + NtFge
4As a numerical example…suppose you plant a rare prairie grass at Ojibway to re-establish it here. You put in 100 plants.N(t) = 100F = 100g = 0.02e = 0.05p = 0.3 (We’re now looking at a perennial plant.)N(t+1) = 100(0.3) + 100(100)(0.02)(0.05) = = 40N(t+2) = 40(0.3) + 40(100)(0.02)(0.05) = 16N(t+3) = 6.4; N(t+4) = 2.5; N(t+5) = 1; N(t+6) < 1 (extinct)To successfully re-establish this species, g, e, and/or p must increase (assuming fecundity is a species characteristic).
5Here’s another diagrammatic life table, with observed transition probabilities included. It’s for the great tit inWytham Wood in England over a one year period.
6Diagrammatic life tables are useful to illustrate age structure and dynamics when the age structure is simple, when thereare few age classes (or stages) in the population.When there are many age classes in the population, adifferent form of life table is used.It is called a cohort life table.A cohort is a group of individuals of the same age. Wefollow them from the time they are all newborns until thelast one dies. By convention (and because they bear the babies) cohort life tables follow the schedules offemales only!
7The appropriate age classes into which to divide a population differs for different species…For many insects, the appropriate age classes might be daysor weeks.For rodents, the age classes might be weeks or monthsFor large mammals the age class intervals are likely to beyears.
8The basic variables in the cohort life table are: a) age structure (or age classes)b) survivorship - how many from the cohort(number or fraction) are still alive at each age? This may be expressed as a number or as the proportion of the original cohort surviving.c) age specific natality - how many young are bornto females of each age during that time period
9By convention age class 0 are the newborns. (Newborns could be seeds, eggs, or live births)Using numbers alive (and from it number dying) at each time, here’s what the life table looks like:Age class #alive #dying
10In more usual use, the number surviving is converted to the proportion of the size of the newborn cohort still alive.This number is called the survivorship, and it’s given thesymbol lx. We’ll add survivorship to the table…proportion survivingAge class #alive lx
11Survivorship is frequently viewed as a graph. Pearl (1930) identified 3 general patterns in graphs of survivorship(as categories from a continuum)…
12Type I - organisms live out a very large fraction of their genetically programmed maximumlifespan. Humans and other large mammalshave this survivorship pattern. Organisms in zoos frequently show or approach this type of survivorship.Type II - organisms suffer a constant proportionalmortality over time, e.g. most of the sample life tablethat you saw. Perching birds and bats are goodexamples of this survivorship.Type III - suffer very high mortality in initial periods of life, but have high survivorship thereafter. A maple tree or a salmon are good examples here. For example, a salmon may produce ~ a million eggs, but less than 10 succeed to become fry.
13There also may be differences between the sexes... Why is the survivorship of male grey seals lower than thatfor females?
14Graphs of survivorship can be used to compare populations living in different habitats...(Cactus seedlings in the desert)
15You can also compare different, closely related species… Here are 3 lizard species. Among them all 3 survivorshippatterns are found...
16The next important variable that can be calculated from our basic life table is age-specific mortality or qx. It is thefraction of the number alive at the start of an interval thatdie during that interval.Age class #alive # dying qx
18The typical pattern in mammals (and many other species) is to have a somewhat higher qx in the earliest phases of life,then qx drops to a low value through the reproductive yearsAnd in the post-reproductive period qx increases until the cohort is gone.
19A real qx curve can be far more complex, with explanations for at least parts of the complexity. Here is data for the reddeer...Why should mortalitysuddenly rise at around 7years old?As you’ll see when I showyou birth data, peakreproduction occurs overages 7 - ~10. Reproductionhas costs, evident here asincreased mortality.
20Before moving on, a quick review: Much of analysis of population dynamics is based on theuse of life tables…There are two types covered here…diagrammatic life tablescohort life tablesThe life table parameters we’ve looked at so far are…survivorship lx - the probability of living from birthto age xage specific mortality qx - the probability of deathwhile in age class x
21The patterns of survivorship and reproduction in human populations generate yet another way of looking at agestructure. This tool is called a demographer’s curve.It isn’t really a curve. Instead, it’s a bar plot or histogramof the proportion of the total population that is of each age.The shape of this “curve” can indicate a lot about whethera population is growing or declining.
23What do the demographer’s curves show us? In the curve for Sweden, note that there are fewer pre-reproductives than there are currently reproducing. Assuming that family size doesn’t change, what does that predict for the next generation?The curve for Mexico looks kind of like a pyramid. There are larger proportions in younger age classes, fewer in reproductive ages, and a much smaller proportion in post reproductive years. What does that suggest for future generations?The curve for the U.S. is pretty much flat-sided except for the bulge in mid-reproductive age classes. What’s that? (It’s the ‘echo’ of the post-war baby boom.)
24The second key component of the life table is a parameter to measure the birth rate…It is usually called fecundity.It is the number of individuals (in whatever form - hatched,eggs laid, seeds, live young, as appropriate for the species,born to females of each age class.N.B. remember that the life table normally only countsfemales; for births in most species, you can assume thatthere are an equal number of male births, even if they aren’tcounted.
25There are some basic patterns in fecundity with age… First, an atypical pattern - the red deer. Compare peaks in thefecundity curve to the earlier mortality curve...
26More frequently seen are 2 basic patterns: A relatively rapid rise to peak reproductive activity,followed by a more-or-less rapid decline to 0reproduction. The age of first reproduction is termed. The age at which reproduction ceases is called .for milkweed bugs:
27Other species show a generally more gradual rise to peak reproductive activity, them maintain this level for manyyears, finally declining late in life to 0. This curve is forwhite-tailed deer...
28Now we can add fecundity rates to the life table… By convention, fecundity is not the total number of offspring.It is the number of daughters born to the average femaleof age x.For example, if there were 10 females of age 2, and theyproduced, among them, 20 daughters, then the fecundity ofthis age class is 2.0.Now, add mx to the life table...
29proportion surviving fecundity Age class #alive lx mxmx= 2.2The mx is called the Gross Reproductive Rate.
30The gross reproductive rate indicates that a mother in this population will produce 2.2 daughters if she lives tothe maximum age.However, the gross reproductive rate ignores the mortalityschedule evident in the life table. We know that 100% ofthe cohort does not survive to the maximum age.So, to determine the real contribution of an average female,we need to incorporate mortality. You do so by multiplyingeach mx times the corresponding lx.The summed result is called the Net Reproductive Rate, andcalled R0 in short form.
31survivorship fecundity Age class lx mx lxmxR0 = lxmx = 1.0R0 = lxmx
32The sum for this life table is 1.0. That means that an average female in this population leaves behind 1 daughterover her lifetime. (It is an assumption that there is 1 maleoffspring to replace the father, as well.)Since the female parent is exactly replaced by her femaleoffspring, this population will remain constant in size fromone generation to the next.Very small changes in survivorship or fecundity couldshift this population to one that would grow or one thatwould decline over time...
33First, increase the fecundity of age class 4 from 0.6 to 1.0… survivorship fecundityAge class lx mx lxmx(was .6) 0.4 (was .24)R0 = lxmx = 1.16
34If the net reproductive rate is 1.16, then how does a starting population of 100 grow over the first few generations?Generation Nfirst 100second 116third 134fourth 155fifth 180sixth 209seventh 242(population sizes are rounded to whole individuals)
35Remember, the potential for explosive growth, if growth remained exponential, was recognized by Thomas Malthus.His work was a strong influence on Darwin in developingthe idea of evolution.Malthus’ example of exponential growth: the humanpopulation in North America after colonization.What does exponential growth say about the growingpopulation?During the period of exponential growth, theenvironment and needed resources were notlimiting to growth.These are the same conditions favoring explosivegrowth of exotic, invading species like the zebramussel.